ṢĀD

Ṣād

ص

Meccan (surah 38 • 88 ayahs)

»The surah that opens with the single discrete Arabic letter ṢĀD. It takes its name from the letter Ṣād, as mentioned in verse 1. This surah mentions previous prophets in support and encouragement for Muḥammad, and makes a clear link between the arrogance displayed by the disbelievers of Mecca, previous generations, and Iblis, the original rebel. The first and last verses assert the truth and nobility of the Quran.«

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,

THE ALL-BENEFICENT, THE ALL-MERCIFUL.

1

القرآن:

ص ۚ والقرآن ذي الذكر

TRANSLATION:

Ṣād. By the Qurʾān bearing the Reminder!1

Ellipsis: the omitted phrase is ‘you are indeed one of the apostles, on a straight path.’ Cf. 36:3.

2

القرآن:

بل الذين كفروا في عزة وشقاق

TRANSLATION:

Yet the faithless dwell in conceit and defiance.

3

القرآن:

كم أهلكنا من قبلهم من قرن فنادوا ولات حين مناص

TRANSLATION:

How many a generation We have destroyed before them! They cried out [for help], but it was no more the time for escape.

4

القرآن:

وعجبوا أن جاءهم منذر منهم ۖ وقال الكافرون هذا ساحر كذاب

TRANSLATION:

They consider it odd that there should come to them a warner from among themselves, and the faithless say, ‘This is a magician, a mendacious liar.’

5

القرآن:

أجعل الآلهة إلها واحدا ۖ إن هذا لشيء عجاب

TRANSLATION:

‘Has he reduced the gods to one god? This is indeed an odd thing!’

6

القرآن:

وانطلق الملأ منهم أن امشوا واصبروا على آلهتكم ۖ إن هذا لشيء يراد

TRANSLATION:

Their elite go about [urging others]: ‘Go and stand by your gods! This is indeed the desirable thing [to do].

7

القرآن:

ما سمعنا بهذا في الملة الآخرة إن هذا إلا اختلاق

TRANSLATION:

We did not hear of this in the latter-day creed.1 This is nothing but a fabrication.

That is, in the polytheistic creed prevalent in pre-Islamic Arabia.

8

القرآن:

أأنزل عليه الذكر من بيننا ۚ بل هم في شك من ذكري ۖ بل لما يذوقوا عذاب

TRANSLATION:

Has the reminder been sent down to him out of [all of] us?’ Rather they are in doubt concerning My reminder. Rather they have not yet tasted My punishment.

9

القرآن:

أم عندهم خزائن رحمة ربك العزيز الوهاب

TRANSLATION:

Do they possess the treasuries of the mercy of your Lord, the All-mighty, the All-munificent?

10

القرآن:

أم لهم ملك السماوات والأرض وما بينهما ۖ فليرتقوا في الأسباب

TRANSLATION:

Do they own the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them? [If so,] let them ascend [to the higher spheres] by the means1 [of ascension].

Or ‘let them ascend by the contrivances.’ Or ‘let them ascend by the ladder,’ or ‘let them ascend into the heavens.’

11

القرآن:

جند ما هنالك مهزوم من الأحزاب

TRANSLATION:

[They are but] a routed host out there, from among the factions.1

A prophesy of the defeat of the Makkan army at Badr (see Ṭabarī and Ṭabrisī). Or ‘from among the confederates,’ that is, of Satan (cf. 35:6, 58:19).

12

القرآن:

كذبت قبلهم قوم نوح وعاد وفرعون ذو الأوتاد

TRANSLATION:

Before them Noah’s people impugned [their apostle] and [so did the people of] ʿĀd, and Pharaoh, the Impaler1 [of his victims],

Lit.: ‘the one of stakes.’ According to several traditions, Pharaoh used to torture and execute his victims by piercing their bodies with stakes, or awtād (see Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 13, p. 136, from ʿIlal al-Sharāyiʿ, p. 161; vol. 71, p. 13; vol. 75, p. 403). Hence the epithet ‘dhiʾl-awtād,’ which occurs twice in the Qurʾān with reference to Pharaoh, refers to him as one who used to impale his victims. Other alternate explanations have been suggested for this epithet by the commentators, but they are not convincing.

13

القرآن:

وثمود وقوم لوط وأصحاب الأيكة ۚ أولئك الأحزاب

TRANSLATION:

and Thamūd, and the people of Lot, and the inhabitants of Aykah:1 those were the factions.

Cf. 15:78.

14

القرآن:

إن كل إلا كذب الرسل فحق عقاب

TRANSLATION:

Each of them did not but impugn the apostles; so My retribution became due [against them].

15

القرآن:

وما ينظر هؤلاء إلا صيحة واحدة ما لها من فواق

TRANSLATION:

These1 do not await but a single Cry which will not grant any respite.

That is, the pagans of Makkah.

16

القرآن:

وقالوا ربنا عجل لنا قطنا قبل يوم الحساب

TRANSLATION:

They say, ‘Our Lord! Hasten on for us our share1 before the Day of Reckoning.’

That is, ‘our share of punishment,’ said mockingly.

17

القرآن:

اصبر على ما يقولون واذكر عبدنا داوود ذا الأيد ۖ إنه أواب

TRANSLATION:

Be patient over what they say, and remember Our servant, David, [the man] of strength. Indeed he was a penitent [soul].

18

القرآن:

إنا سخرنا الجبال معه يسبحن بالعشي والإشراق

TRANSLATION:

Indeed We disposed the mountains to glorify [Allah] with him at evening and dawn,

19

القرآن:

والطير محشورة ۖ كل له أواب

TRANSLATION:

and the birds [as well], mustered [in flocks], all echoing him [in a chorus].

20

القرآن:

وشددنا ملكه وآتيناه الحكمة وفصل الخطاب

TRANSLATION:

We made his kingdom firm and gave him wisdom and conclusive speech.

21

القرآن:

۞ وهل أتاك نبأ الخصم إذ تسوروا المحراب

TRANSLATION:

Has there not come to you the account of the contenders, when they scaled the wall into the sanctuary?1

Or ‘sanctum.’

22

القرآن:

إذ دخلوا على داوود ففزع منهم ۖ قالوا لا تخف ۖ خصمان بغى بعضنا على بعض فاحكم بيننا بالحق ولا تشطط واهدنا إلى سواء الصراط

TRANSLATION:

When they entered into the presence of David, he was alarmed by them. They said, ‘Do not be afraid. [We are only] two contenders: one of us has bullied the other. So judge justly between us, and do not exceed [the bounds of justice], and show us the right path.’

23

القرآن:

إن هذا أخي له تسع وتسعون نعجة ولي نعجة واحدة فقال أكفلنيها وعزني في الخطاب

TRANSLATION:

‘Indeed this brother of mine has ninety-nine ewes, while I have only a single ewe, and [yet] he says, ‘Commit it to my care,’ and he browbeats me in speech.’

24

القرآن:

قال لقد ظلمك بسؤال نعجتك إلى نعاجه ۖ وإن كثيرا من الخلطاء ليبغي بعضهم على بعض إلا الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات وقليل ما هم ۗ وظن داوود أنما فتناه فاستغفر ربه وخر راكعا وأناب ۩

TRANSLATION:

He said, ‘He has certainly wronged you by asking your ewe in addition to his ewes, and indeed many partners bully one another, except such as have faith and do righteous deeds, and few are they.’ Then David knew that We had indeed tested him, whereat he pleaded with his Lord for forgiveness, and fell down prostrate and repented.

25

القرآن:

فغفرنا له ذلك ۖ وإن له عندنا لزلفى وحسن مآب

TRANSLATION:

So We forgave him that and indeed he has [a station of] nearness with Us and a good destination.

26

القرآن:

يا داوود إنا جعلناك خليفة في الأرض فاحكم بين الناس بالحق ولا تتبع الهوى فيضلك عن سبيل الله ۚ إن الذين يضلون عن سبيل الله لهم عذاب شديد بما نسوا يوم الحساب

TRANSLATION:

‘O David! Indeed We have made you a vicegerent on the earth. So judge between people with justice, and do not follow desire, or it will lead you astray from the way of Allah. Indeed those who stray from the way of Allah —there is a severe punishment for them because of their forgetting the Day of Reckoning.’

27

القرآن:

وما خلقنا السماء والأرض وما بينهما باطلا ۚ ذلك ظن الذين كفروا ۚ فويل للذين كفروا من النار

TRANSLATION:

We did not create the sky and the earth and whatever is between them in vain. That is a conjecture of the faithless. So woe to the faithless for the Fire!

28

القرآن:

أم نجعل الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات كالمفسدين في الأرض أم نجعل المتقين كالفجار

TRANSLATION:

Shall We treat those who have faith and do righteous deeds like those who cause corruption on the earth? Shall We treat the Godwary like the vicious?

29

القرآن:

كتاب أنزلناه إليك مبارك ليدبروا آياته وليتذكر أولو الألباب

TRANSLATION:

[It is] a blessed Book that We have sent down to you, so that they may contemplate its signs, and that those who possess intellect may take admonition.

30

القرآن:

ووهبنا لداوود سليمان ۚ نعم العبد ۖ إنه أواب

TRANSLATION:

And to David We gave Solomon —what an excellent servant! Indeed he was a penitent [soul].

31

القرآن:

إذ عرض عليه بالعشي الصافنات الجياد

TRANSLATION:

When one evening there were displayed before him prancing steeds,

32

القرآن:

فقال إني أحببت حب الخير عن ذكر ربي حتى توارت بالحجاب

TRANSLATION:

he said, ‘Indeed I have preferred the love of [worldly] niceties to the remembrance of my Lord until [the sun] disappeared behind the [night’s] veil.’

33

القرآن:

ردوها علي ۖ فطفق مسحا بالسوق والأعناق

TRANSLATION:

‘Bring it1 back for me!’ Then he [and others] began to wipe [their] legs and necks.

Or ‘them.’ The pronoun may be taken as referring to the sun or to the horses. However, most exegetes have taken it as referring to the sun and its setting. While Solomon was engaged in viewing the horses, the sun set, and the time of the afternoon prayer (supererogatory or obligatory) elapsed. According to a tradition narrated from al-Imām al-Ṣādiq (ʿa), when Solomon noticed that the sun had set, he called out to the angels to bring it back so that he could offer the afternoon prayer. Also, according to this tradition, the wiping of legs and necks mentioned in the verse refers to the performance of ablution (wuḍūʾ) before the prayer by Solomon and his men as prescribed in their Law. (Biḥār, vol. 14, p. 101; vol. 82, p. 341).

34

القرآن:

ولقد فتنا سليمان وألقينا على كرسيه جسدا ثم أناب

TRANSLATION:

Certainly We tried Solomon, and cast a [lifeless] body on his throne. Thereupon he was penitent.

35

القرآن:

قال رب اغفر لي وهب لي ملكا لا ينبغي لأحد من بعدي ۖ إنك أنت الوهاب

TRANSLATION:

He said, ‘My Lord! Forgive me, and grant me a kingdom that does not befit anyone except me.1 Indeed You are the All-munificent.’

Cf. 35:41. Or ‘a kingdom that will not befit anyone after me.’

36

القرآن:

فسخرنا له الريح تجري بأمره رخاء حيث أصاب

TRANSLATION:

So We disposed the wind for him, blowing softly by his command wherever he intended,

37

القرآن:

والشياطين كل بناء وغواص

TRANSLATION:

and the devils [as well as], every builder and diver,

38

القرآن:

وآخرين مقرنين في الأصفاد

TRANSLATION:

and others [too] bound together in chains.

39

القرآن:

هذا عطاؤنا فامنن أو أمسك بغير حساب

TRANSLATION:

‘This is Our bounty: so give away or withhold, without any reckoning.’

40

القرآن:

وإن له عندنا لزلفى وحسن مآب

TRANSLATION:

Indeed he has [a station of] nearness with Us and a good destination.

41

القرآن:

واذكر عبدنا أيوب إذ نادى ربه أني مسني الشيطان بنصب وعذاب

TRANSLATION:

And remember Our servant Job [in the Qurʾān]. When he called out to his Lord, ‘The devil has visited on me hardship and torment,’

42

القرآن:

اركض برجلك ۖ هذا مغتسل بارد وشراب

TRANSLATION:

[We told him:] ‘Stamp your foot on the ground; this [ensuing spring] is a cooling bath and drink.’

43

القرآن:

ووهبنا له أهله ومثلهم معهم رحمة منا وذكرى لأولي الألباب

TRANSLATION:

And We gave [back] his family to him along with others like them, as a mercy from Us and an admonition for those who possess intellect.

44

القرآن:

وخذ بيدك ضغثا فاضرب به ولا تحنث ۗ إنا وجدناه صابرا ۚ نعم العبد ۖ إنه أواب

TRANSLATION:

[We told him:] ‘Take a faggot in your hand and then strike [your wife] with it, but do not break [your] oath.’ Indeed We found him to be patient. What an excellent servant! Indeed he was a penitent [soul].

45

القرآن:

واذكر عبادنا إبراهيم وإسحاق ويعقوب أولي الأيدي والأبصار

TRANSLATION:

And remember Our servants Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, men of strength and insight.

46

القرآن:

إنا أخلصناهم بخالصة ذكرى الدار

TRANSLATION:

Indeed We purified them with the exclusiveness of the remembrance of the abode [of the Hereafter].

47

القرآن:

وإنهم عندنا لمن المصطفين الأخيار

TRANSLATION:

Indeed with Us they are surely among the elect of the best.

48

القرآن:

واذكر إسماعيل واليسع وذا الكفل ۖ وكل من الأخيار

TRANSLATION:

And remember Ishmael, Elisha and Dhu’l-Kifl —each [of whom was] among the elect.

49

القرآن:

هذا ذكر ۚ وإن للمتقين لحسن مآب

TRANSLATION:

This is a reminder, and indeed the Godwary have a good destination

50

القرآن:

جنات عدن مفتحة لهم الأبواب

TRANSLATION:

—the Gardens of Eden, whose gates are flung open for them.

51

القرآن:

متكئين فيها يدعون فيها بفاكهة كثيرة وشراب

TRANSLATION:

Reclining therein [on couches], therein they ask for abundant fruits and drinks,

52

القرآن:

۞ وعندهم قاصرات الطرف أتراب

TRANSLATION:

and with them will be maidens of restrained glances of a like age.

53

القرآن:

هذا ما توعدون ليوم الحساب

TRANSLATION:

This is what you are promised on the Day of Reckoning.

54

القرآن:

إن هذا لرزقنا ما له من نفاد

TRANSLATION:

This is indeed Our provision, which will never be exhausted.

55

القرآن:

هذا ۚ وإن للطاغين لشر مآب

TRANSLATION:

This [is for the righteous], and as for the rebellious there will surely be a bad destination

56

القرآن:

جهنم يصلونها فبئس المهاد

TRANSLATION:

—hell, which they shall enter, an evil resting place.

57

القرآن:

هذا فليذوقوه حميم وغساق

TRANSLATION:

This; let them taste it: scalding water and pus,

58

القرآن:

وآخر من شكله أزواج

TRANSLATION:

and other kinds [of torments] resembling it.

59

القرآن:

هذا فوج مقتحم معكم ۖ لا مرحبا بهم ۚ إنهم صالو النار

TRANSLATION:

‘This is a group plunging [into hell] along with you.’1 ‘May wretchedness be their lot! They will indeed enter the Fire.’2

Said by the angels to leaders of the faithless concerning their followers.

Said by the leaders of the faithless concerning their followers.

60

القرآن:

قالوا بل أنتم لا مرحبا بكم ۖ أنتم قدمتموه لنا ۖ فبئس القرار

TRANSLATION:

They1 say, ‘Rather, may wretchedness be your lot! You prepared this [hell] for us. What an evil abode!’

That is, the followers, who respond to the unfriendly welcome of their leaders.

61

القرآن:

قالوا ربنا من قدم لنا هذا فزده عذابا ضعفا في النار

TRANSLATION:

They say, ‘Our Lord! Whoever has prepared this for us, double his punishment in the Fire!’

62

القرآن:

وقالوا ما لنا لا نرى رجالا كنا نعدهم من الأشرار

TRANSLATION:

And they say, ‘What is the matter with us that we do not see [here] men whom we used to count among the bad ones?

63

القرآن:

أتخذناهم سخريا أم زاغت عنهم الأبصار

TRANSLATION:

Did we ridicule them [unduly in the world], or do [our] eyes miss them [here]?’

64

القرآن:

إن ذلك لحق تخاصم أهل النار

TRANSLATION:

That is indeed a truth: the contentions of the inmates of the Fire.

65

القرآن:

قل إنما أنا منذر ۖ وما من إله إلا الله الواحد القهار

TRANSLATION:

Say, ‘I am just a warner, and there is no god except Allah, the One, the All-paramount,

66

القرآن:

رب السماوات والأرض وما بينهما العزيز الغفار

TRANSLATION:

the Lord of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them, the All-mighty, the All-forgiver.’

67

القرآن:

قل هو نبأ عظيم

TRANSLATION:

Say, ‘It is a great prophesy,

68

القرآن:

أنتم عنه معرضون

TRANSLATION:

of which you are disregardful.

69

القرآن:

ما كان لي من علم بالملإ الأعلى إذ يختصمون

TRANSLATION:

I have no knowledge of the Supernal Elite when they contend.

70

القرآن:

إن يوحى إلي إلا أنما أنا نذير مبين

TRANSLATION:

All that is revealed to me is that I am just a manifest warner.’

71

القرآن:

إذ قال ربك للملائكة إني خالق بشرا من طين

TRANSLATION:

When your Lord said to the angels, ‘Indeed I am about to create a human being out of clay.

72

القرآن:

فإذا سويته ونفخت فيه من روحي فقعوا له ساجدين

TRANSLATION:

So when I have proportioned him and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall down in prostration before him.’

73

القرآن:

فسجد الملائكة كلهم أجمعون

TRANSLATION:

Thereat the angels prostrated, all of them together,

74

القرآن:

إلا إبليس استكبر وكان من الكافرين

TRANSLATION:

but not Iblis; he acted arrogantly and he was one of the faithless.

75

القرآن:

قال يا إبليس ما منعك أن تسجد لما خلقت بيدي ۖ أستكبرت أم كنت من العالين

TRANSLATION:

He said, ‘O Iblis! What keeps you from prostrating before that which I have created with My [own] two hands? Are you arrogant, or are you [one] of the exalted ones?’

76

القرآن:

قال أنا خير منه ۖ خلقتني من نار وخلقته من طين

TRANSLATION:

‘I am better than him,’ he said. ‘You created me from fire and You created him from clay.’

77

القرآن:

قال فاخرج منها فإنك رجيم

TRANSLATION:

He said, ‘Begone hence, for you are indeed an outcast,

78

القرآن:

وإن عليك لعنتي إلى يوم الدين

TRANSLATION:

and indeed My curse will be on you till the Day of Retribution.’

79

القرآن:

قال رب فأنظرني إلى يوم يبعثون

TRANSLATION:

He said, ‘My Lord! Respite me till the day they will be resurrected.’

80

القرآن:

قال فإنك من المنظرين

TRANSLATION:

Said He, ‘You are indeed among the reprieved

81

القرآن:

إلى يوم الوقت المعلوم

TRANSLATION:

until the day of the known time.’

82

القرآن:

قال فبعزتك لأغوينهم أجمعين

TRANSLATION:

He said, ‘By Your might, I will surely pervert them,

83

القرآن:

إلا عبادك منهم المخلصين

TRANSLATION:

except Your exclusive servants among them.’

84

القرآن:

قال فالحق والحق أقول

TRANSLATION:

He said, ‘The truth is that —and I speak the truth—

85

القرآن:

لأملأن جهنم منك وممن تبعك منهم أجمعين

TRANSLATION:

I will surely fill hell with you and all of those who follow you.’1

Cf. 7:18; 11:119; 32:13.

86

القرآن:

قل ما أسألكم عليه من أجر وما أنا من المتكلفين

TRANSLATION:

Say, ‘I do not ask you any reward for it, and I am no impostor.1

Or ‘nor am I one of those who impose themselves [upon others].’

87

القرآن:

إن هو إلا ذكر للعالمين

TRANSLATION:

It is just a reminder for all the nations,

88

القرآن:

ولتعلمن نبأه بعد حين

TRANSLATION:

and you will surely learn its tidings in due time.’

Source:al-quran.info


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