بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

حم {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:1]

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 1.


وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:2]

The Quran is its own evidence. The laws mentioned in the book to create harmony, order and discipline in the human society and to inculcate piety, righteousness and readiness to do good in those who believe in Allah, are clear and understandable .


إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ مُبَارَكَةٍ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنْذِرِينَ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:3]

Baqarah: 185 says that the Quran was sent down in the month of Ramadan, Qadr: 1 says that it was sent down on the night of Qadr and this verse says that it was sent down on a blessed night. Therefore, the Quran was sent down in the month of Ramadan on the blessed night of Qadr (power), one of the odd nights in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The abovenoted verses clearly prove that the whole Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet on the night of Qadr, and the gradual revelation refers to the occasions on which he was commanded by Allah to recite them to the people. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 and Ta Ha: 114. Therefore if any theory, based upon conjecture, is put forward to state that the Holy Prophet was not aware of the full text of the Quran and knew it only as and when any portion was revealed to him, should be rejected.


فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:4]

On the night of Qadr the divine wisdom determines the solution of all spiritual pursuits man decides to undertake, therefore the Holy Prophet has advised the believers to pray and seek Allah’s mercy throughout this night.

Refer to the commentary of rabbul alamin in verse 2 of al Fatihah to understand taqdir and hidayat. The word qadr therefore has been translated as power and not as determination.

Abd al Husayn Sharaf al Din al Musawi in al Muraji-at says:

The majority of the Muslims agree with the Ash-aris, the followers of Abu al Husayn al Ashari, in their fundamentals of faith. The beliefs of the Ash-aris are briefly as follow:

(i) The Quran is uncreated.

(ii) Man is not free to choose and act because all his actions are predestined.

(iii) Allah’s attributes are distinct from His essence.

The Shi-ahs reject all the abovenoted beliefs. By means of the second belief, the Ash-aris seek to justify all the evil deeds of such tyrants as Yazid and others whom they regard as khalifatul rasul; hence they insist on predestination which creates the possibility of Allah being unjust.

Imam Ali said:

“People wrongly imagine that destiny is abiding and fate is certain. If it were so the idea of reward and penalty becomes meaningless, promise and threat a hoax. Allah, the most praised, has given man freedom of thought and action.”

The freedom of action is conditioned by the laws made by Allah to govern the universe. No one can break them.

Imam Ali clears this as under:

He said: “While standing, if you want to lift one of your legs you can, and you are free to lift the second leg also, but as soon as your second leg leaves the ground you will fall down, because you have broken the law Allah has so precisely put in operation.”

Allah has power over all things but He is also just. We believe in His justice. So we must understand the consequences of believing in predestination and the theories of determinism propagated by the anti-Ahl ul Bayt scholars and theoreticians while interpreting these kind of verses.


أَمْرًا مِنْ عِنْدِنَا ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:5] (see commentary for verse 4)

رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:6]

Allah grants to us whatever is best for us, not as we see it, because in His perfect knowledge He knows what is good for us. Some commentators say that the mercy in this verse refers to the Holy Prophet:

“We have not sent you but as a mercy unto the worlds.” (Anbiya: 107)


رَبِّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُوقِنِينَ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:7]

لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ رَبُّكُمْ وَرَبُّ آبَائِكُمُ الْأَوَّلِينَ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:8]

بَلْ هُمْ فِي شَكٍّ يَلْعَبُونَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:9]

فَارْتَقِبْ يَوْمَ تَأْتِي السَّمَاءُ بِدُخَانٍ مُبِينٍ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:10]

There was a severe famine in Makka, in which men were so weakened by hunger that they saw mist before their eyes when they looked at the sky. It is reported that it was as severe a drought as the seven years dry spell of the times of Yusuf. At last they came to the Holy Prophet and beseeched him to pray to Allah for immediate relief. He prayed and the relief came.

The Holy Prophet said:

“Dukhan refers to the smoke which will be seen on the day of judgement.”

This is a warning to those who reject the true faith. They will see smoke every where on the day of reckoning. It will envelop them as a grievous penalty.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The penalty referred here will be inflicted upon the disbelievers before the actual reckoning. As this affliction will afflict the whole humanity, only that prophet who was sent to all mankind as a warner and a bearer of glad tidings and a mercy unto the worlds will alone be able to pray to Allah to remove it.

The Quraysh had before them a messenger whose purity of life was known to them. They themselves called him al-amin (the trustworthy) and al sadiq (the truthful), yet they turned away from him and called him mad when he invited them to the worship of one God (Allah). Refer to Hijr: 6; Nahl: 103; Araf: 184.

Though Allah gives respite to the disbelievers to see if that will bring them to the right path, but at last the final judgement will seize the irreclaimable from which there will be no escape.


يَغْشَى النَّاسَ ۖ هَٰذَا عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:11] (see commentary for verse 10)

رَبَّنَا اكْشِفْ عَنَّا الْعَذَابَ إِنَّا مُؤْمِنُونَ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:12] (see commentary for verse 10)

أَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ الذِّكْرَىٰ وَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مُبِينٌ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:13] (see commentary for verse 10)

ثُمَّ تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا مُعَلَّمٌ مَجْنُونٌ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:14] (see commentary for verse 10)

إِنَّا كَاشِفُو الْعَذَابِ قَلِيلًا ۚ إِنَّكُمْ عَائِدُونَ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:15] (see commentary for verse 10)

يَوْمَ نَبْطِشُ الْبَطْشَةَ الْكُبْرَىٰ إِنَّا مُنْتَقِمُونَ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:16] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَجَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ كَرِيمٌ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:17]

Refer to the commentary of Araf: 104 to 137 and Ta Ha: 9 to 98 and other references mentioned therein for Musa, Firawn and the people of Firawn.


It is recorded in Sahih Muslim that when Imam Husayn and his comrades were martyred in Karbala, the heavens and the earth wept over them.

Ibn Hajar writes in Sawa-iq al Muhriqah that once Imam Ali, while passing through Karbala, stopped at the place where Imam Husayn was going to be buried and said: “Here Husayn and his comrades will be slain and the heavens and the earth will weep over them.”


Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

It is true that unto the Bani Israil the largest number of prophets were sent, but this verse is governed and restricted by verse 107 of Anbiya.


أَنْ أَدُّوا إِلَيَّ عِبَادَ اللَّهِ ۖ إِنِّي لَكُمْ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:18] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَأَنْ لَا تَعْلُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ ۖ إِنِّي آتِيكُمْ بِسُلْطَانٍ مُبِينٍ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:19] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَإِنِّي عُذْتُ بِرَبِّي وَرَبِّكُمْ أَنْ تَرْجُمُونِ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:20] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَإِنْ لَمْ تُؤْمِنُوا لِي فَاعْتَزِلُونِ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:21] (see commentary for verse 17)

فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ قَوْمٌ مُجْرِمُونَ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:22] (see commentary for verse 17)

فَأَسْرِ بِعِبَادِي لَيْلًا إِنَّكُمْ مُتَّبَعُونَ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:23] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَاتْرُكِ الْبَحْرَ رَهْوًا ۖ إِنَّهُمْ جُنْدٌ مُغْرَقُونَ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:24] (see commentary for verse 17)

كَمْ تَرَكُوا مِنْ جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:25] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَزُرُوعٍ وَمَقَامٍ كَرِيمٍ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:26] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَنَعْمَةٍ كَانُوا فِيهَا فَاكِهِينَ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:27] (see commentary for verse 17)

كَذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَأَوْرَثْنَاهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:28] (see commentary for verse 17)

فَمَا بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّمَاءُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَا كَانُوا مُنْظَرِينَ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:29] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَلَقَدْ نَجَّيْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ الْمُهِينِ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:30] (see commentary for verse 17)

مِنْ فِرْعَوْنَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَالِيًا مِنَ الْمُسْرِفِينَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:31] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَلَقَدِ اخْتَرْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:32] (see commentary for verse 17)

وَآتَيْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الْآيَاتِ مَا فِيهِ بَلَاءٌ مُبِينٌ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:33] (see commentary for verse 17)

إِنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ لَيَقُولُونَ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:34]

إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا مَوْتَتُنَا الْأُولَىٰ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُنْشَرِينَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:35]

فَأْتُوا بِآبَائِنَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:36]

أَهُمْ خَيْرٌ أَمْ قَوْمُ تُبَّعٍ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ أَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُجْرِمِينَ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:37]

Tubba was an appellation of each of the kings of Yemen, known as Himayarite kings. A one time the Himayarite kingdom extended over: all Arabia and beyond. First they were Sabians then professed the Jewish and the Christian religion. Among the embassies sent by the Holy Prophet in 9-10 Hijra was one to the Himyar of Yemen, which led to their coming into Islam.

It is mentioned in Minhaj ul Sadiqin that about 1000 years before the advent of the Holy Prophet, Asad bin Malka abu Ayub, the then Himyarite king, after conquering many lands invaded Madina to take revenge of his slain son. He was a noble and God-fearing man. He used to begin all his letters with “in the name of Allah, the Lord of the land, the seas, the sun and the wind.” To prevent him from destroying the city of Madina two men from the tribe of Bani Qurayza went to him and said: “Do not destroy this city because the last prophet of Allah, one day, will come here to preach the divine religion.” He not only spared the town but also wrote a letter of felicitation and welcome to the Holy Prophet and handed it over to a Jew named Shamul with instructions to deliver it to him if he comes in his times, or let it be given to him by whosoever be his heir in the times of the Holy Prophet. Abu Ayub Ansari, the 21st offspring in the progeny of Shamul, gave this letter to the Holy Prophet who said: “Thank you O righteous Tubba.”


وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا لَاعِبِينَ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:38]

Refer to the commentary of Anbiya: 16 and 17 and Saffat: 21.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In verse 42 “except such as receive Allah’s mercy” implies intercession. Refer to Baqarah: 48 and other verses mentioned therein.


مَا خَلَقْنَاهُمَا إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:39] (see commentary for verse 38)

إِنَّ يَوْمَ الْفَصْلِ مِيقَاتُهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:40] (see commentary for verse 38)

يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي مَوْلًى عَنْ مَوْلًى شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:41] (see commentary for verse 38)

إِلَّا مَنْ رَحِمَ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:42] (see commentary for verse 38)

إِنَّ شَجَرَتَ الزَّقُّومِ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:43]

Refer to the commentary of Bani Israil: 60; Kahf: 29 and Saffat: 62 to 68.


طَعَامُ الْأَثِيمِ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:44] (see commentary for verse 43)

كَالْمُهْلِ يَغْلِي فِي الْبُطُونِ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:45] (see commentary for verse 43)

كَغَلْيِ الْحَمِيمِ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:46] (see commentary for verse 43)

خُذُوهُ فَاعْتِلُوهُ إِلَىٰ سَوَاءِ الْجَحِيمِ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:47] (see commentary for verse 43)

ثُمَّ صُبُّوا فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْحَمِيمِ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:48] (see commentary for verse 43)

ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:49] (see commentary for verse 43)

إِنَّ هَٰذَا مَا كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تَمْتَرُونَ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:50] (see commentary for verse 43)

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي مَقَامٍ أَمِينٍ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:51]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Refer to the commentary of Kahf : 30 and 31; and Zukhraf: 69 to 73.

Verse 55 refers to the eternal satisfaction in the blissful life of the hereafter.


فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:52] (see commentary for verse 51)

يَلْبَسُونَ مِنْ سُنْدُسٍ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍ مُتَقَابِلِينَ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:53] (see commentary for verse 51)

كَذَٰلِكَ وَزَوَّجْنَاهُمْ بِحُورٍ عِينٍ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:54] (see commentary for verse 51)

يَدْعُونَ فِيهَا بِكُلِّ فَاكِهَةٍ آمِنِينَ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:55] (see commentary for verse 51)

لَا يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا الْمَوْتَ إِلَّا الْمَوْتَةَ الْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَوَقَاهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:56] (see commentary for verse 51)

فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:57] (see commentary for verse 51)

فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَاهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:58]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Quran is easy to recite even if the reciter does not know the meaning of what he is reciting because its rhythm not only makes misreading improbable but carries off the soul to a higher spiritual plane. To get to its deepest meaning reference to the wisdom of the Ahl ul Bayt is essential.

فَارْتَقِبْ إِنَّهُمْ مُرْتَقِبُونَ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 44:59]

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