The Banishment


Medinan (surah 59 • 24 ayahs)

»The surah that mentions THE BANISHMENT, God’s expulsion, of the clan of Banū al-Naḍīr from their prodigious fortress-settlement near Medina, in the mustering it calls the first of its kind: for they had betrayed their covenant of mutual defence by aiding idolaters against monotheistic believers. It takes its name from the “banishment” or “gathering of forces” (ḥashr) of the Jewish tribe from Medina, which is mentioned in verse 2. The Banū al-Naḍīr, who originally agreed with the Prophet that they would fight neither for nor against him, yet, after the Meccan defeat of the Muslims in the Battle of Uḥud (year 3/625), made an alliance with the Meccans. They also tried to kill the Prophet while he was in their area. He asked them to leave and they agreed, but Ibn Ubayy, the head of the “hypocrites” of Medina, promised them that, if they fought the Muslims, he and his camp would fight with them (verse 11 ff.), and, if they had to leave Medina, he and his camp would leave with them. Because the Banū al-Naḍīr had repeatedly broken their agreements, the Muslims besieged them in Medina (in year 4/626), Ibn Ubayy did not keep his promise, and the Banū al-Naḍīr agreed to leave, some going to Syria and some to Khaybar. In this surah, God stresses that any gains were His doing and so should be distributed in accordance with His instructions (verse 6 ff.). The end of the surah, consequently, emphasizes obedience and awe towards God (verse 21 ff.).«

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم





سبح لله ما في السماوات وما في الأرض ۖ وهو العزيز الحكيم


Whatever there is in the heavens glorifies Allah

and whatever there is in the earth,

and He is the All-mighty, the All-wise.



هو الذي أخرج الذين كفروا من أهل الكتاب من ديارهم لأول الحشر ۚ ما ظننتم أن يخرجوا ۖ وظنوا أنهم مانعتهم حصونهم من الله فأتاهم الله من حيث لم يحتسبوا ۖ وقذف في قلوبهم الرعب ۚ يخربون بيوتهم بأيديهم وأيدي المؤمنين فاعتبروا يا أولي الأبصار


It is He who expelled the faithless

belonging to the People of the Book

from their homes

at the outset of [their] en masse banishment.

You did not think that they would go out,

and they thought their fortresses would protect them

from Allah.

But Allah came at them

from whence they did not reckon

and He cast terror into their hearts.

They demolish their houses with their own hands

and the hands of the faithful.

So take lesson, O you who have insight!



ولولا أن كتب الله عليهم الجلاء لعذبهم في الدنيا ۖ ولهم في الآخرة عذاب النار


If Allah had not ordained banishment for them,

He would have surely punished them in this world,

and in the Hereafter there is for them

the punishment of the Fire.



ذلك بأنهم شاقوا الله ورسوله ۖ ومن يشاق الله فإن الله شديد العقاب


That is because they defied Allah and His Apostle;

and whoever defies Allah,

indeed Allah is severe in retribution.



ما قطعتم من لينة أو تركتموها قائمة على أصولها فبإذن الله وليخزي الفاسقين


Whatever palm trees you cut down

or left standing on their roots,

it was by Allah’s will,

and in order that He may disgrace the transgressors.



وما أفاء الله على رسوله منهم فما أوجفتم عليه من خيل ولا ركاب ولكن الله يسلط رسله على من يشاء ۚ والله على كل شيء قدير


The spoils that Allah gave to His Apostle from them,

you did not spur any horse for its sake,

nor any riding camel,

but Allah makes His apostles prevail

over whomever He wishes,

and Allah has power over all things.



ما أفاء الله على رسوله من أهل القرى فلله وللرسول ولذي القربى واليتامى والمساكين وابن السبيل كي لا يكون دولة بين الأغنياء منكم ۚ وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه وما نهاكم عنه فانتهوا ۚ واتقوا الله ۖ إن الله شديد العقاب


The spoils that Allah gave to His Apostle

from the people of the townships,

are for Allah and the Apostle,

the relatives1 and the orphans,

the needy and the traveller,

so that

they do not circulate among the rich among you.

Take whatever the Apostle gives you,

and relinquish whatever he forbids you,

and be wary of Allah.

Indeed Allah is severe in retribution.

That is, of the Prophet (ṣ), the Banū Hāshim.



للفقراء المهاجرين الذين أخرجوا من ديارهم وأموالهم يبتغون فضلا من الله ورضوانا وينصرون الله ورسوله ۚ أولئك هم الصادقون


[They are also] for the poor Emigrants

who have been expelled from their homes

and [wrested of] their possessions,

who seek grace from Allah and [His] pleasure

and help Allah and His Apostle.

It is they who are the truthful.1

That is, true and loyal to their covenant with Allah and His Apostle.



والذين تبوءوا الدار والإيمان من قبلهم يحبون من هاجر إليهم ولا يجدون في صدورهم حاجة مما أوتوا ويؤثرون على أنفسهم ولو كان بهم خصاصة ۚ ومن يوق شح نفسه فأولئك هم المفلحون


[They are as well] for those who were settled in the land1

and [abided] in faith before them,

who love those who migrate toward them,

and do not find in their breasts any need

for that which is given to them,2

but prefer [the Immigrants] to themselves,

though poverty be their own lot.

And those who are saved from their own greed

—it is they who are the felicitous.

That is, Madīnah, to which the early Muslims migrated with the Prophet (ṣ).

That is, to the Immigrants.



والذين جاءوا من بعدهم يقولون ربنا اغفر لنا ولإخواننا الذين سبقونا بالإيمان ولا تجعل في قلوبنا غلا للذين آمنوا ربنا إنك رءوف رحيم


And [also for] those who came in after them,

who say, ‘Our Lord,

forgive us and our brethren

who were our forerunners in the faith,

and do not put any rancour in our hearts

toward the faithful.

Our Lord, You are indeed most kind and merciful.’




۞ ألم تر إلى الذين نافقوا يقولون لإخوانهم الذين كفروا من أهل الكتاب لئن أخرجتم لنخرجن معكم ولا نطيع فيكم أحدا أبدا وإن قوتلتم لننصرنكم والله يشهد إنهم لكاذبون


Have you not regarded the hypocrites

who say to their brethren,

the faithless from among the People of the Book:

‘If you are expelled,

we will surely go out with you,

and we will never obey anyone against you,

and if you are fought against

we will surely help you,’

and Allah bears witness that they are indeed liars.



لئن أخرجوا لا يخرجون معهم ولئن قوتلوا لا ينصرونهم ولئن نصروهم ليولن الأدبار ثم لا ينصرون


Surely, if they were expelled

they would not go out with them,

and if they were fought against

they would not help them,

and were they to help them

they would surely turn their backs [to flee]

and then1 they would not be helped.

That is, the faithless from among the People of the Book.



لأنتم أشد رهبة في صدورهم من الله ۚ ذلك بأنهم قوم لا يفقهون


Indeed they have a greater awe of you in their hearts

than of Allah.

That is because they are a lot who do not understand.



لا يقاتلونكم جميعا إلا في قرى محصنة أو من وراء جدر ۚ بأسهم بينهم شديد ۚ تحسبهم جميعا وقلوبهم شتى ۚ ذلك بأنهم قوم لا يعقلون


They will not fight against you in a body

except in fortified townships

or from behind walls.

Their might is great among themselves.

You suppose them to be a body,

but their hearts are disunited.

That is because

they are a lot who do not apply reason,



كمثل الذين من قبلهم قريبا ۖ ذاقوا وبال أمرهم ولهم عذاب أليم


like those who, recently before them,

tasted the evil consequences of their conduct,

and there is a painful punishment for them.



كمثل الشيطان إذ قال للإنسان اكفر فلما كفر قال إني بريء منك إني أخاف الله رب العالمين


[Or] like Satan,

when he prompts man to renounce faith,

then, when he renounces faith,

he says, ‘Indeed I am absolved of you.

Indeed I fear Allah,

the Lord of all the worlds.’



فكان عاقبتهما أنهما في النار خالدين فيها ۚ وذلك جزاء الظالمين


So the fate of both is that they will be in the Fire,

to remain in it [forever].

Such is the requital of the wrongdoers.



يا أيها الذين آمنوا اتقوا الله ولتنظر نفس ما قدمت لغد ۖ واتقوا الله ۚ إن الله خبير بما تعملون


O you who have faith!

Be wary of Allah,

and let every soul consider what it sends ahead1

for tomorrow,

and be wary of Allah.

Allah is indeed well aware of what you do.

Or ‘prepares,’ or ‘makes ready.’



ولا تكونوا كالذين نسوا الله فأنساهم أنفسهم ۚ أولئك هم الفاسقون


And do not be like those who forget Allah,

so He makes them forget their own souls.

It is they who are the transgressors.



لا يستوي أصحاب النار وأصحاب الجنة ۚ أصحاب الجنة هم الفائزون


Not equal are the inmates of the Fire

and the inhabitants of paradise.

It is the inhabitants of paradise

who are the successful ones.



لو أنزلنا هذا القرآن على جبل لرأيته خاشعا متصدعا من خشية الله ۚ وتلك الأمثال نضربها للناس لعلهم يتفكرون


Had We sent down this Qurʾān

upon a mountain,

you would have surely seen it humbled

[and] go to pieces with the fear of Allah.

We draw such comparisons for mankind,

so that they may reflect.



هو الله الذي لا إله إلا هو ۖ عالم الغيب والشهادة ۖ هو الرحمن الرحيم


He is Allah—there is no god except Him—

Knower of the sensible and the Unseen,

He is the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.



هو الله الذي لا إله إلا هو الملك القدوس السلام المؤمن المهيمن العزيز الجبار المتكبر ۚ سبحان الله عما يشركون


He is Allah—there is no god except Him—

the Sovereign, the All-holy,

the All-benign,1 the Securer, the All-conserver,

the All-mighty, the All-compeller,

the All-magnanimous.

Clear is Allah

of any partners that they may ascribe [to Him]!

Or ‘the Impeccable.’



هو الله الخالق البارئ المصور ۖ له الأسماء الحسنى ۚ يسبح له ما في السماوات والأرض ۖ وهو العزيز الحكيم


He is Allah, the Creator,

the Maker, the Former.

To Him belong the Best Names.

Whatever there is in the heavens glorifies Him

and [whatever there is in] the earth,

and He is the All-mighty, the All-wise.

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