بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

المص {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:1]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 1.

 

كِتَابٌ أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ فَلَا يَكُنْ فِي صَدْرِكَ حَرَجٌ مِنْهُ لِتُنْذِرَ بِهِ وَذِكْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:2]

See Aqa Mahdi Puya’s essay “The Genuineness of the Holy Quran” on page (i) and the commentary of al Baqarah: 2.

The theory of changing or amending the divine commandments or making new laws contrary to what has been revealed in the Quran through ijtihad has been rendered null and void by verse 3, therefore whosoever, be he a relative or a companion of the Holy Prophet, had resorted to this type of ijtihad, in fact, had done injustice to himself and his followers.

 

اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۗ قَلِيلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:3] (see commentary for verse 2)

وَكَمْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا فَجَاءَهَا بَأْسُنَا بَيَاتًا أَوْ هُمْ قَائِلُونَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:4]

Ruined civilisations, found buried under lands and seas, prove the divine declaration made in verse 4. Expert archaeologists, by the help of science and technology, not only determine the exact time of existence of each civilisation but also almost write its history as if they witnessed what actually took place in the destroyed cities.

Verse 5 says that they were destroyed because they were unjust, evil and wicked.

 

فَمَا كَانَ دَعْوَاهُمْ إِذْ جَاءَهُمْ بَأْسُنَا إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:5] (see commentary for verse 4)

فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْسَلِينَ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:6]

As has been said in al Hadid: 25 and Ibrahim: 4 messengers of Allah were sent to every people to show them the right path, therefore, all people will be questioned as to how they treated the messengers of Allah and followed their teachings. The messengers of Allah will bear witness over their followers when they will be asked to give their report about them. The Holy Prophet (see commentary of an Nisa: 41) will be a witness over all the witnesses, which means he was present in the times of all the prophets. It is obvious that the omniscient creator, all-aware of everything that took place, will lay bare before them what they used to do. (see Ya Sin: 65-“We will put a seal upon their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us and their feet will bear witness as to what they used to do”).

In verse 8 wazn literally means weight, but verse 9 implies that the deeds will be examined in the light of the mental attitude unto the signs of Allah.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

Deeds are not material substance to be weighed, therefore “heavy weighing” means good deeds outbalance the bad deeds. Even if a man prays the whole night and fasts throughout his life, his deeds will not benefit him if he does not regulate his life in the light of the teachings and guidance of the guide-leaders appointed by Allah.

Yazlimuna refers to those who treated the signs of Allah with injustice. The Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt are the signs of Allah, so those who persecuted and killed them are referred to aszalimin and kafirin.

 

فَلَنَقُصَّنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِعِلْمٍ ۖ وَمَا كُنَّا غَائِبِينَ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:7] (see commentary for verse 6)

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ ۚ فَمَنْ ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:8] (see commentary for verse 6)

وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:9] (see commentary for verse 6)

وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَّاكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَعَايِشَ ۗ قَلِيلًا مَا تَشْكُرُونَ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:10]

Ma-ayish means the means for the fulfilment of life. In addition to all the material things necessary to sustain life, it also refers to all those powers and faculties which help man to rise to a higher plane to prepare for his spiritual destiny, on account of which the angels were asked to prostrate themselves before Adam. Iblis refused to be of those who bowed down, because he arrogantly despised the angels who bowed down as well as man to whom they bowed down. Arrogance, envy and rebellion were his crimes .

As said above the spiritual destiny of man put him above the angels and jinn, so the refusal of Shaytan (Iblis) to accept man’s superiority was unreasonable. It was egotism which prompted him to impertinent rebellion.

Allah created man with His own hands from clay and gave him His own spirit (ruh)). The essential quality of clay is softness which makes it adaptable to any form or shape-obedience and submission, and total submission to Allah’s will is Islam-the spiritual destiny of man. So Shaytan, a product of fire, not having the qualities of adaptability, nor blessed with the holy spirit, was the first creature of Allah who resorted to conjecture, therefore was thrown out, eternally accursed. On his request Allah gave him respite (by saying): Be you among those who have respite. It implies that there are others, like him, under respite.

Shaytan has a large army of wicked seducers, and those who are their associates, helpers and deputies. The assault of Shaytan’s evil is from all sides, and as said in verse 17; most men are led astray by him, while verse 18 says that Allah will fill hell with all of them.

 

For verses 19 to 25 see commentary of al Baqarah: 21 to 38.

 

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنَ السَّاجِدِينَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:11] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلَّا تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ ۖ قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:12] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَنْ تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:13] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ أَنْظِرْنِي إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:14] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الْمُنْظَرِينَ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:15] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:16] (see commentary for verse 10)

ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَنْ شَمَائِلِهِمْ ۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:17] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَدْحُورًا ۖ لَمَنْ تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنْكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:18] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَيَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلَا مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:19] (see commentary for verse 10)

فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِنْ سَوْآتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَاكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:20] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَقَاسَمَهُمَا إِنِّي لَكُمَا لَمِنَ النَّاصِحِينَ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:21] (see commentary for verse 10)

فَدَلَّاهُمَا بِغُرُورٍ ۚ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِنْ وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ وَنَادَاهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا أَلَمْ أَنْهَكُمَا عَنْ تِلْكُمَا الشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُلْ لَكُمَا إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لَكُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:22] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنْفُسَنَا وَإِنْ لَمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:23] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:24] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَالَ فِيهَا تَحْيَوْنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنْهَا تُخْرَجُونَ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:25] (see commentary for verse 10)

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:26]

Allah created man “bare and alone” (An-am: 94). The soul in its naked purity knew no shame because there was no guilt, but after it was touched by guilt, covering (garment) became necessary. The best clothing and adornment is righteousness which covers the nakedness of sin and adorns man with virtue.

 

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُمْ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنْزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْآتِهِمَا ۗ إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَوْنَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:27]

These verses are a warning to mankind that Shaytan along with his associates and their followers involves them into conflict and discord because he and his confederates through power, influence and riches make fair-seeming to them the progress in the field of material gains, having no trace of godliness, and obtained by total rejection of Allah’s commands pertaining to the lawful and the unlawful. It is a disguise, therefore, man does not see Shaytan’s plan of action. His activities engender willingness to carry out his mischief only in those people who possess the in-built complex of his characteristics. The irrationality of the devils prompts the disbelievers to put forward the lame excuse (for their rejection of true faith) that they are following age-old customs and theories.

 

وَإِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهَا آبَاءَنَا وَاللَّهُ أَمَرَنَا بِهَا ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:28] (see commentary for verse 27)

قُلْ أَمَرَ رَبِّي بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَأَقِيمُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۚ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمْ تَعُودُونَ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:29]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 142 and 144 for “setting faces to Allah at every time and place of worship”-qibla; and see commentary of Ali Imran: 18 for justice (qist)-Allah is just, therefore, He enjoins justice. Refer to the commentary of nufkhus sur in al Fatihah: 4 on page 22 for ultimate return to Allah.

 

فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الضَّلَالَةُ ۗ إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:30]

Those who take Shaytan and his agents as their guardians have been described in the commentary of verses 10 to 28 of this surah.

 

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:31]

Zinat refers to adornment or clean, graceful and dignified style of living. When one solemnly applies one’s mind to being in the presence of Allah one must honour the most honourable Lord by presenting oneself in the best of his available adornments. According to Imam Hasan bin Ali: “Allah is absolute beauty, therefore He loves beauty.” Along with physical manner of presentation, zinat also implies purity and refinement of character, spiritual excellence and full attention to Allah.

“But waste not by excess” refers to luxury and extravagance which Allah does not like.

 

قُلْ مَنْ حَرَّمَ زِينَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي أَخْرَجَ لِعِبَادِهِ وَالطَّيِّبَاتِ مِنَ الرِّزْقِ ۚ قُلْ هِيَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا خَالِصَةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:32]

Asceticism often means the negation of beauty. Zinatallah means those beautiful things made lawful by Allah.

The beautiful and beautifying things are available in this world for a short time to the believers as well as disbelievers; but the eternal beauty and grace in the life of hereafter has been reserved for those who have believed and done good deeds in the life of this world.

 

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَنْ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَنْ تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:33]

This verse contains some of the divine prohibitions. “Do not say that which you do not know” refers to the conjectures put forward to amend or deny the commandments of Allah.

 

وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ أَجَلٌ ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ لَا يَسْتَأْخِرُونَ سَاعَةً ۖ وَلَا يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:34]

The time is limited for an individual or for a group of people. If they do not do good and believe during that time of probation, the chance is lost, and it cannot come back.

 

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ إِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ رُسُلٌ مِنْكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِي ۙ فَمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَأَصْلَحَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:35]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 38. Piety and self-development are not possible unless one follows the teachings of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt.

 

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا عَنْهَا أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:36]

“Signs” refers to the guidance made available by Allah and the divinely appointed guides.

Was-takbaru refers to those who arrogantly defy and belie the divinely appointed guides-the Holy Prophet and the Imams among his Ahl ul Bayt. Those who had persecuted or killed them are the inmates of the fire, wherein they shall abide for ever.

These verses describe that which will be the fate of the beliers of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, for whom to enter the gate of paradise will be as impossible as for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle.

 

فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ يَنَالُهُمْ نَصِيبُهُمْ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا يَتَوَفَّوْنَهُمْ قَالُوا أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ ۖ قَالُوا ضَلُّوا عَنَّا وَشَهِدُوا عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:37] (see commentary for verse 36)

قَالَ ادْخُلُوا فِي أُمَمٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنْسِ فِي النَّارِ ۖ كُلَّمَا دَخَلَتْ أُمَّةٌ لَعَنَتْ أُخْتَهَا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا ادَّارَكُوا فِيهَا جَمِيعًا قَالَتْ أُخْرَاهُمْ لِأُولَاهُمْ رَبَّنَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَضَلُّونَا فَآتِهِمْ عَذَابًا ضِعْفًا مِنَ النَّارِ ۖ قَالَ لِكُلٍّ ضِعْفٌ وَلَٰكِنْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ{38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:38] (see commentary for verse 36)

وَقَالَتْ أُولَاهُمْ لِأُخْرَاهُمْ فَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ عَلَيْنَا مِنْ فَضْلٍ فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْسِبُونَ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:39] (see commentary for verse 36)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا عَنْهَا لَا تُفَتَّحُ لَهُمْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ وَلَا يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ حَتَّىٰ يَلِجَ الْجَمَلُ فِي سَمِّ الْخِيَاطِ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُجْرِمِينَ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:40] (see commentary for verse 36)

لَهُمْ مِنْ جَهَنَّمَ مِهَادٌ وَمِنْ فَوْقِهِمْ غَوَاشٍ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الظَّالِمِينَ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:41] (see commentary for verse 36)

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:42]

Those who believe in Allah, the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, follow their teachings and do good will dwell in everlasting bliss, where harmony of thoughts and feelings among the believers, on account of higher intellectual awareness, will be one of the pleasures of eternal life.

Verses 36 to 41 and 42 to 43 show the difference between the beliers of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt and the followers of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt in the life of hereafter.

 

وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِمْ مِنْ غِلٍّ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهِمُ الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي هَدَانَا لِهَٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لِنَهْتَدِيَ لَوْلَا أَنْ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ ۖ لَقَدْ جَاءَتْ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالْحَقِّ ۖ وَنُودُوا أَنْ تِلْكُمُ الْجَنَّةُ أُورِثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:43] (see commentary for verse 42)

وَنَادَىٰ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ أَصْحَابَ النَّارِ أَنْ قَدْ وَجَدْنَا مَا وَعَدَنَا رَبُّنَا حَقًّا فَهَلْ وَجَدْتُمْ مَا وَعَدَ رَبُّكُمْ حَقًّا ۖ قَالُوا نَعَمْ ۚ فَأَذَّنَ مُؤَذِّنٌ بَيْنَهُمْ أَنْ لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:44]

“A crier shall cry between them”-according to Ibn Marduwayh, in Kashf al Ghummah, this crier is Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib.

 

الَّذِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَيَبْغُونَهَا عِوَجًا وَهُمْ بِالْآخِرَةِ كَافِرُونَ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:45]

This verse refers to those who misinterpret the Quran, change or omit the sayings of the Holy Prophet and fabricate traditions in order to hinder or turn away people from the true path of Allah.

 

وَبَيْنَهُمَا حِجَابٌ ۚ وَعَلَى الْأَعْرَافِ رِجَالٌ يَعْرِفُونَ كُلًّا بِسِيمَاهُمْ ۚ وَنَادَوْا أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ أَنْ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ لَمْ يَدْخُلُوهَا وَهُمْ يَطْمَعُونَ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:46]

The men of exalted spiritual honour (e.g. the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt identified in Ahzab: 33) shall occupy the heights (araf) overlooking those described in verses 36 to 41 and those mentioned in verses 42 and 43, waiting in two separate areas divided by a partition, before going into hell or paradise respectively. The men on the heights will recognise them all by their marks.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

These verses clearly establish the fact that the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt have the permission of Allah to intercede on behalf of those whom they recognise as their true followers. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 48

Imam Ali said:

What you beget is buried under the earth. What you build will be demolished. What you do is recorded and will be referred to (as material evidence) on the day of reckoning.

 

وَإِذَا صُرِفَتْ أَبْصَارُهُمْ تِلْقَاءَ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:47] (see commentary for verse 46)

وَنَادَىٰ أَصْحَابُ الْأَعْرَافِ رِجَالًا يَعْرِفُونَهُمْ بِسِيمَاهُمْ قَالُوا مَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْكُمْ جَمْعُكُمْ وَمَا كُنْتُمْ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:48] (see commentary for verse 46)

أَهَٰؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمْتُمْ لَا يَنَالُهُمُ اللَّهُ بِرَحْمَةٍ ۚ ادْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَا أَنْتُمْ تَحْزَنُونَ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:49]

The men of the heights (araf) will point out men like Salman, Ammar, Abu Dharr and Bilal to the inmates of fire and ask: “Are these not the men whom you swore that Allah would never bless them with His mercy?” Then to them Allah will say: “Enter you the garden; no fear shall be on you, nor shall you grieve.”

 

وَنَادَىٰ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ أَنْ أَفِيضُوا عَلَيْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَهُمَا عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:50]

The dwellers of paradise will have Allah’s mercy and His pleasure. They will enjoy the bliss of Allah’s nearness. The provision, Allah gives to the believers in return of their true faith (belief in Allah, the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt) and the good deeds they did in accordance with their teachings are not transferable. The inmates of hell shall remain deprived of these provisions.

 

الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَهُمْ لَهْوًا وَلَعِبًا وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا ۚ فَالْيَوْمَ نَنْسَاهُمْ كَمَا نَسُوا لِقَاءَ يَوْمِهِمْ هَٰذَا وَمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَجْحَدُونَ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:51]

The disbelievers deliberately turned away and ignored the hereafter in spite of clear warnings given to them through the Quran-a guide and a mercy. Allah shall ignore and neglect them on the day of judgement.

The Quran, a complete book (see commentary of al Baqarah: 2 and “Genuineness of the Holy Quran” on page (i)), was a guide and a mercy to the believers, but the disbelievers who remained unmoved by its teachings will learn the truth too late. As there will be no salvation except on their own record, they will wish that they may have another chance, but their chance will be gone.

 

وَلَقَدْ جِئْنَاهُمْ بِكِتَابٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ هُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:52] (see commentary for verse 51)

هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا تَأْوِيلَهُ ۚ يَوْمَ يَأْتِي تَأْوِيلُهُ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ نَسُوهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ قَدْ جَاءَتْ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالْحَقِّ فَهَلْ لَنَا مِنْ شُفَعَاءَ فَيَشْفَعُوا لَنَا أَوْ نُرَدُّ فَنَعْمَلَ غَيْرَ الَّذِي كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ ۚ قَدْ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:53] (see commentary for verse 51)

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ ۗ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:54]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 255 for arsh or kursi; and refer to al Fatihah: 4 for yawm (day), on page 22.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

From the lowest form of creation to the highest level of intellectual and spiritual existence, there are finite beings, but the latter control the former, and the infinite supreme being, through His omnipotence (arsh or kursi) encompasses and controls the entire mass of finite beings, low or high. This hold and domination of the infinite over the finite is implied in the word istawa. It does not mean “Allah sitting on any throne” as some anthropomorphic schools of thought imagine. Istawa alal arsh means that the process of creation, its operation and administration belong to Allah.

 

ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:55]

Man, a humble creature, cannot show arrogance and vanity before the omnipotent Lord who knows all. Humility and earnestness prepare the ground for his spiritual progress. The creation of the Lord is a harmonious order.

Man should not upset the divine order by introducing evil and mischief.

 

وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا وَادْعُوهُ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا ۚ إِنَّ رَحْمَتَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:56] (see commentary for verse 55)

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرًا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالًا سُقْنَاهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَيِّتٍ فَأَنْزَلْنَا بِهِ الْمَاءَ فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُخْرِجُ الْمَوْتَىٰ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:57]

From sending the heralding winds to raising all kinds of produce Allah’s grace (as the rahman) has been described. The same process is applicable to the resurrection of our bodies and souls after we die in this world.

His mercy, the guidance revealed through the Holy Prophet, has been compared to rain. The fertile land is good and the barren land is evil. The rain, His beneficence, is there for all, but the good obtain profit and the evil suffer loss. The guidance is true but the response varies according to the nature developed by every individual.

VERSES 59 to 177

THE PREACHINGS OF SOME OF THE PROPHETS FROM NUH TO MUSA POINT OUT THE UNITY OF THE PURPOSE OF THEIR MISSION, THE METHOD OF PREACHING, AND THE REACTION OF THE PEOPLE. THE THEORY OF INCARNATION WAS COMMON AMONG THE POLYTHEISTIC PEOPLE, SO THEY THOUGHT THAT ALL MORTALS LAYING CLAIM TO PROPHETHOOD WERE IMPOSTERS. IT IS A LESSON AND A WARNING FOR THE FOLLOWERS OF THE HOLY PROPHET.

 

وَالْبَلَدُ الطَّيِّبُ يَخْرُجُ نَبَاتُهُ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِي خَبُثَ لَا يَخْرُجُ إِلَّا نَكِدًا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَشْكُرُونَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:58] (see commentary for verse 57)

لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:59]

When Nuh tried to put fear of the torment of a dreadful day in the hearts of the people they laughed at him. Allah’s retribution came soon afterwards-the great flood, in which his unbelieving people were drowned, but he and those who believed and came into the ark were saved.

The Holy Prophet said:

“My Ahl ul Bayt are like the ark of Nuh. He who sails on it will be safe, but he who holds back shall be drowned.”

The great flood has been described in verses 37 to 48 of al Hud. Chapters 6 and 7 of Genesis in the Old Testament describe the great flood.

Nuh literally means one who weeps. He used to weep continuously in fear of Allah. There were ten prophets between him and Adam. Nuh lived for two thousand five hundred years. He used to live in a small hut. He never built a permanent dwelling abode for himself. In spite of his ceaseless preaching the people were corrupt and full of violence. The men, women and children used to throw stones at him. Whenever he was buried under the heap of stones, wounded and helpless, Jibra-il was deputed to save him and nurse him. His preaching of goodness and godliness continued in the face of violent opposition by his loathsome people. At last the waters of the great flood came upon the earth. Allah wiped out every thing on the earth, and only Nuh and his companions in the ark survived.

Nuh was standing in the sun when the angel of death came. He asked Izra-il to let him go into a nearby shade before his soul was taken away from his body. After coming under the shade he said: “The life of this world is as long as the time he took to come under the shade from the sun, even shorter.”

 

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْ قَوْمِهِ إِنَّا لَنَرَاكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:60] (see commentary for verse 59)

قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَيْسَ بِي ضَلَالَةٌ وَلَٰكِنِّي رَسُولٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:61] (see commentary for verse 59)

أُبَلِّغُكُمْ رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّي وَأَنْصَحُ لَكُمْ وَأَعْلَمُ مِنَ اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:62] (see commentary for verse 59)

أَوَعَجِبْتُمْ أَنْ جَاءَكُمْ ذِكْرٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِنْكُمْ لِيُنْذِرَكُمْ وَلِتَتَّقُوا وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:63] (see commentary for verse 59)

فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَنْجَيْنَاهُ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ فِي الْفُلْكِ وَأَغْرَقْنَا الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا عَمِينَ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:64] (see commentary for verse 59)

وَإِلَىٰ عَادٍ أَخَاهُمْ هُودًا ۗ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:65]

Prophet Hud, in the progeny of Nuh through Sam, was sent to preach the message of Allah to the people of Ad, who were physically very strong and lived in Arabian peninsula. They were zealous idolaters. In vain Hud tried to bring them to true faith. On account of their ever increasing corruption a three years’ famine visited them, but they took no warning and challenged Hud to bring on them what he threatened them with. At last dark clouds appeared on the sky. Thinking that it was going to rain they all assembled under the clouds. A terrible blast of wind destroyed them and their land. It continued for eight days. Under the command of Allah Hud along with his virtuous companions had left the scene of calamity before it fell on the people of Ad. The people mentioned here are known as the tribe of first Ad.

 

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ إِنَّا لَنَرَاكَ فِي سَفَاهَةٍ وَإِنَّا لَنَظُنُّكَ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:66] (see commentary for verse 65)

قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَيْسَ بِي سَفَاهَةٌ وَلَٰكِنِّي رَسُولٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:67] (see commentary for verse 65)

أُبَلِّغُكُمْ رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّي وَأَنَا لَكُمْ نَاصِحٌ أَمِينٌ {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:68] (see commentary for verse 65)

أَوَعَجِبْتُمْ أَنْ جَاءَكُمْ ذِكْرٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِنْكُمْ لِيُنْذِرَكُمْ ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِنْ بَعْدِ قَوْمِ نُوحٍ وَزَادَكُمْ فِي الْخَلْقِ بَسْطَةً ۖ فَاذْكُرُوا آلَاءَ اللَّهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:69] (see commentary for verse 65)

قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا لِنَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَحْدَهُ وَنَذَرَ مَا كَانَ يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا ۖ فَأْتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَا إِنْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:70] (see commentary for verse 65)

قَالَ قَدْ وَقَعَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ رِجْسٌ وَغَضَبٌ ۖ أَتُجَادِلُونَنِي فِي أَسْمَاءٍ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنْتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُمْ مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِنْ سُلْطَانٍ ۚ فَانْتَظِرُوا إِنِّي مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الْمُنْتَظِرِينَ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:71] (see commentary for verse 65)

فَأَنْجَيْنَاهُ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ بِرَحْمَةٍ مِنَّا وَقَطَعْنَا دَابِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۖ وَمَا كَانُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:72] (see commentary for verse 65)

وَإِلَىٰ ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا ۗ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ ۖ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُمْ بَيِّنَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ هَٰذِهِ نَاقَةُ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ آيَةً ۖ فَذَرُوهَا تَأْكُلْ فِي أَرْضِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَلَا تَمَسُّوهَا بِسُوءٍ فَيَأْخُذَكُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:73]

Akhakum (their brother) does not mean “real brother” but “one of them”.

Thamud has often been mentioned along with Ad in the Holy Quran. The people of Thamud are known as the tribe of second Ad who lived in Ahqaf, from Umman to Hadhramawt (Ahqaf: 21). Their prophet and warner was Salih. Their territory included both rocky country and fertile valley of Qura, and the crisis in their history is connected with a wonderful she-camel. They were also, like the tribe of Ad, godless and idol worshippers. They used to worship a part of a mountain and offer sacrifices on it. There was scarcity of water and the arrogant privileged classes tried to prevent the access of the poor or their cattle to the springs, while Salih used to intervene on their behalf (Shu-ara: 155 and Qamar: 28), also they tried to monopolise the pasture, a free gift of Allah as per verse 73 of this surah. This particular she-camel was made a test case (Qamar: 27) to see if the arrogant people would see light and come to reason. On their demand Salih, with the pemmission of Allah, made a she-camel come out from the mountain with a baby camel. It was decided that one day the she-camel would drink water from the spring and on the next day the people would take it. The she-camel, after drinking the water, gave as much milk as the whole town could drink, but in spite of Salih’s warning that the she-camel was a sign of Allah and if they let her come to any harm, they would be seized with a grievous punishment, they hamstrung her, and insolently defied the order of their Lord. Consequently they were destroyed by a dreadful earthquake, which threw them on the ground and buried them with their houses and their buildings. Salih was saved by Allah’s mercy. There was no survivor. His speech is a warning as well as a reference to the sin and folly of the people who belie the signs of Allah in any time.

Thalabi writes in his Tafsir that the Holy Prophet said to Ali:

“The worst of men in the days gone by were those who killed the she camel of Salih. The worst men among the present generation are those who will slay you.”

Thalabi says that the name of the killer of the she camel was Qaddar and his mother’s name was Quttama. So also Qaddar was the name of Ibn Muljim and Quttama was his mother’s name .

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In verse 74 it is said that the people of Thamud had hewed the mountains to make houses, which shows that they were a nation of architects, well versed in the art of masonry. They also built palaces in the plains as their abodes but used the houses in the mountains after nightfall to protect themselves, and also kept there those among them who were about to die. Professor Nicholson says that according to the monuments found in Madayan al Salih in the mountain-houses the people of Thamud buried their dead. It does not disprove the Quran. Obviously when the sick died they must have been buried there.

 

وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِنْ بَعْدِ عَادٍ وَبَوَّأَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْ سُهُولِهَا قُصُورًا وَتَنْحِتُونَ الْجِبَالَ بُيُوتًا ۖ فَاذْكُرُوا آلَاءَ اللَّهِ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:74] (see commentary for verse 73)

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِمَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُمْ أَتَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ صَالِحًا مُرْسَلٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۚ قَالُوا إِنَّا بِمَا أُرْسِلَ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:75] (see commentary for verse 73)

قَالَ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا إِنَّا بِالَّذِي آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ كَافِرُونَ {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:76] (see commentary for verse 73)

فَعَقَرُوا النَّاقَةَ وَعَتَوْا عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِمْ وَقَالُوا يَا صَالِحُ ائْتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَا إِنْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:77] (see commentary for verse 73)

فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:78] (see commentary for verse 73)

فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَةَ رَبِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ لَا تُحِبُّونَ النَّاصِحِينَ {79}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:79] (see commentary for verse 73)

وَلُوطًا إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ أَتَأْتُونَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مَا سَبَقَكُمْ بِهَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِنَ الْعَالَمِينَ {80}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:80]

Lut was a cousin of Ibrahim, his maternal aunt’s son. Lut’s own sister, Sara, was the first wife of Ibrahim. He was sent as a prophet to the people of Mutafikat, a complex of five towns, Sodom being the largest. He was not one of them but looked upon them as his brethren (Qaf: 13). He was a messenger of Allah, and was therefore free from the shameful features attributed to him in Genesis 19: 30 to 38. The people of Mutafikat were wicked and extremely niggardly. The road connecting Egypt with Syria went through their towns. Those who travelled on this road had to break journey and stay in their towns which they did not like. It is reported that one day Shaytan came to them as a male human being and taught them homo-sexuality in order to stop the travellers from taking shelter with them. From then on they became so addicted to this unnatural wickedness that the word sodomy now literally means male homo-sexuality. They turned a deaf ear to all the warnings given by Lut. Then angel Jibra-il along with some other angels visited Ibrahim and told him that they were going to Sodom to carry out Allah’s command. When they entered the town in human form, Lut was watering the fields. He warned them to be on guard against the wickedness of the people and took them to his own house. The wife of Lut was in league with the people and as their agent at once informed them that Lut had brought some travellers as guests. They surrounded Lut’s house and shouted at him to deliver the guests to them. Jibra-il made them blind and asked Lut to leave the place along with those who believed. After their departure Allah rained down on them a shower of stones. Everything was buried under the mountain of stones. Nothing was left, no trace of anything could ever be found. According to verse 84 they were criminals.

Once a slave, charged with the murder of his master, was brought to Imam Ali. The slave told him that his master copulated with him by force at midnight when they were alone in the house, therefore, he killed him. When asked by Imam Ali the slave said that his master neither repented nor asked pardon of Allah when he struck him. It was the Holy Prophet who had told him that: “The dead body of a sodomist who had not repented before death is removed from his grave and thrown into the heap of the sodomists of Sodom so that they all shall be raised together on the day of judgement.” Accordingly when the grave of the slain master was opened it was found empty. The slave was set free. Then the people came to know that the jurisdiction of Ali’s authority was equally applicable over the dead and the alive.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

For the first time sodomy is declared a crime, a most horrible crime; and capital punishment has been ordained. Refer to fiqh.

 

إِنَّكُمْ لَتَأْتُونَ الرِّجَالَ شَهْوَةً مِنْ دُونِ النِّسَاءِ ۚ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ قَوْمٌ مُسْرِفُونَ {81}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:81] (see commentary for verse 80)

وَمَا كَانَ جَوَابَ قَوْمِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا أَخْرِجُوهُمْ مِنْ قَرْيَتِكُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ أُنَاسٌ يَتَطَهَّرُونَ {82}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:82] (see commentary for verse 80)

فَأَنْجَيْنَاهُ وَأَهْلَهُ إِلَّا امْرَأَتَهُ كَانَتْ مِنَ الْغَابِرِينَ {83}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:83] (see commentary for verse 80)

وَأَمْطَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ مَطَرًا ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ {84}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:84] (see commentary for verse 80)

وَإِلَىٰ مَدْيَنَ أَخَاهُمْ شُعَيْبًا ۗ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ ۖ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُمْ بَيِّنَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ فَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ وَلَا تَبْخَسُوا النَّاسَ أَشْيَاءَهُمْ وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ {85}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:85]

Madyan was the name of one of the sons of Ibrahim. Madyan was married to one of the daughters of Lut. The land Midian takes its name from him.

Shu-ayb, a descendant of Ibrahim, was sent as a prophet by Allah to guide the people of Midian and A-ikah.

Giving short measure or weight, depriving people of rightful dues, creating mischief and disorder, taking to highway robbery, cutting off people from access to the worship of Allah and abusing and exploiting religion itself for their crooked ends, were some of their sins which Shu-ayb wanted to eradicate. The gentle and persuasive arguments of Shu-ayb fell on hard hearts.

The fate of Midian people was the same as that of the people of Thamud. A shower of ashes and cinders accompanying a volcanic eruption seized them, and then an earthquake by night buried all of them in their own homes.

The miraculous staff, which Musa had, is reported to have been given to him by Shu-ayb. Another miracle associated with him was that whenever he wanted to climb a mountain to reach its peak, it used to lower itself for him.

 

وَلَا تَقْعُدُوا بِكُلِّ صِرَاطٍ تُوعِدُونَ وَتَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَتَبْغُونَهَا عِوَجًا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلًا فَكَثَّرَكُمْ ۖ وَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُفْسِدِينَ {86}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:86] (see commentary for verse 85)

وَإِنْ كَانَ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْكُمْ آمَنُوا بِالَّذِي أُرْسِلْتُ بِهِ وَطَائِفَةٌ لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا فَاصْبِرُوا حَتَّىٰ يَحْكُمَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَنَا ۚ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْحَاكِمِينَ{87}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:87] (see commentary for verse 85)

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ لَنُخْرِجَنَّكَ يَا شُعَيْبُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَكَ مِنْ قَرْيَتِنَا أَوْ لَتَعُودُنَّ فِي مِلَّتِنَا ۚ قَالَ أَوَلَوْ كُنَّا كَارِهِينَ {88}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:88] (see commentary for verse 85)

قَدِ افْتَرَيْنَا عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا إِنْ عُدْنَا فِي مِلَّتِكُمْ بَعْدَ إِذْ نَجَّانَا اللَّهُ مِنْهَا ۚ وَمَا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَنْ نَعُودَ فِيهَا إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ رَبُّنَا ۚ وَسِعَ رَبُّنَا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ۚ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا افْتَحْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَنْتَ خَيْرُ الْفَاتِحِينَ {89}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:89] (see commentary for verse 85)

وَقَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ لَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتُمْ شُعَيْبًا إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا لَخَاسِرُونَ {90}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:90] (see commentary for verse 85)

فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ {91}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:91] (see commentary for verse 85)

الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَأَنْ لَمْ يَغْنَوْا فِيهَا ۚ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَانُوا هُمُ الْخَاسِرِينَ {92}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:92] (see commentary for verse 85)

فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ آسَىٰ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ {93}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:93] (see commentary for verse 85)

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِي قَرْيَةٍ مِنْ نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا أَخَذْنَا أَهْلَهَا بِالْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَضَّرَّعُونَ {94}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:94]

The prophets of Allah were sent to eradicate corruption and evil-a natural consequence of polytheism. Allah gave enough rope to the people, but neither affluence nor suffering taught them patience, humility, gratitude and kindness to others because they belied the signs of Allah and rejected belief and guidance preached to them by the messengers of Allah. They thought such things happened in all ages, but they were found napping and helpless when wrath of Allah seized them in the midst of their obstinate infidelity. The prophets who were rejected by their own people stood firm on Allah’s message, and were able to convince a few to believe in Allah and His message. Those who had heard the message and rejected it found it more difficult to retrace their steps. Evil had blocked the channels of Allah’s grace to them. With each step they fell deeper and deeper into the mire.

It must be noted that while all the prophets, having tried their best to reform their people, left them to their fate when nothing positive could be done, but the Holy Prophet, as the “mercy unto the worlds”, notwithstanding a more adamant and clever opposition, always felt deeply concerned about the human race. “You may perhaps wear out your heart because they do not come to belief” says Allah to him in ash-Shu-ara: 3.

As said in al Baqarah: 7 (see its commentary) Allah seals up the hearts of those who do not believe.

 

ثُمَّ بَدَّلْنَا مَكَانَ السَّيِّئَةِ الْحَسَنَةَ حَتَّىٰ عَفَوْا وَقَالُوا قَدْ مَسَّ آبَاءَنَا الضَّرَّاءُ وَالسَّرَّاءُ فَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ بَغْتَةً وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ {95}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:95] (see commentary for verse 94)

وَلَوْ أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْقُرَىٰ آمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَفَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ بَرَكَاتٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَٰكِنْ كَذَّبُوا فَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ{96}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:96] (see commentary for verse 94)

أَفَأَمِنَ أَهْلُ الْقُرَىٰ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُمْ بَأْسُنَا بَيَاتًا وَهُمْ نَائِمُونَ {97}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:97] (see commentary for verse 94)

أَوَأَمِنَ أَهْلُ الْقُرَىٰ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُمْ بَأْسُنَا ضُحًى وَهُمْ يَلْعَبُونَ {98}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:98] (see commentary for verse 94)

أَفَأَمِنُوا مَكْرَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَلَا يَأْمَنُ مَكْرَ اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ {99}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:99] (see commentary for verse 94)

أَوَلَمْ يَهْدِ لِلَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ الْأَرْضَ مِنْ بَعْدِ أَهْلِهَا أَنْ لَوْ نَشَاءُ أَصَبْنَاهُمْ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ ۚ وَنَطْبَعُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ{100}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:100] (see commentary for verse 94)

تِلْكَ الْقُرَىٰ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ أَنْبَائِهَا ۚ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا بِمَا كَذَّبُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَطْبَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِ الْكَافِرِينَ {101}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:101] (see commentary for verse 94)

وَمَا وَجَدْنَا لِأَكْثَرِهِمْ مِنْ عَهْدٍ ۖ وَإِنْ وَجَدْنَا أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَفَاسِقِينَ {102}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:102] (see commentary for verse 94)

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ مُوسَىٰ بِآيَاتِنَا إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِ فَظَلَمُوا بِهَا ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُفْسِدِينَ {103}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:103]

“The Moses of Quran is a Muhammad in disguise” is an interesting comment of a Christian scholar. There is an instructive parallelism in Musa’s mission to Muhammad’s mission.

The Quran never mentions the Egyptian king or kings by name. It uses the general designation, viz., Firawn, a dynastic title.

During the time of prophet Yusuf the children of Israil prospered in Egypt, but times changed and the Egyptians treated them as their slaves. Musa was raised up as one who had been brought up among themselves to preach unity of Allah to them and to unite and reclaim his own people, rescue them and lead them to a new life. Astrologers had informed Firawn that a boy would be born among the children of Israel who would put an end to his life. Firawn issued orders to all midwives to kill the male babies born to the Israelites but spare the female babies. When Musa was born the attending midwife was overawed by the light radiating from his face and advised his mother to hide him. She reported to the king that a dead girl was born and buried.

Allah revealed to his mother.

“Suckle him. If you are afraid for him, cast him in the river without any fear or regret, for We shall restore him to you, and make him a prophet. (Qasas: 7) Put him in a wooden box and cast it in the river. The river will cast it on the bank. An enemy of Ours, and his, will retrieive it.” (Ta Ha: 39)

The mother of Musa did as was directed. Then he was picked up by the family of Firawn unaware that he was. the boy who would destroy them. Asiya, the wife of Firawn, requested Firawn not to kill him and let her adopt him as a son. Musa refused the wet nurse appointed by them. Through his sister his mother was appointed as his nurse. So Musa grew up in the palace of Firawn. Refer to the following verses to know more about Musa- Baqarah: 49 to 71 ; Nisa: 153; Ma-idah: 20 to 26; Yunus: 75 to 92; Hud: 96 to 99; Bani Israil: 101 to 104; Kahf: 60 to 82; Maryam: 51 to 53; Ta Ha: 9 to 98; Muminun: 45 to 49; Shu-ara: 10 to 68; Naml: 7 to 14; Qasas: 7 to 48; Saffat: 114 to 122; Mumin: 23 to 55; Zukhraf: 46 to 56; Ahqaf: 12; Dhariyat: 38 to 40; Saf: 5; Nazi-at: 15 to 26.

When Musa came before Firawn to tell him that he was a prophet from the Lord of the worlds, Firawn was sitting in his court with his ministers and chiefs around him relying upon their own superior worldly power aided by the magic which was a part of the Egyptian religion. Confronting them stood two men, Musa with his mission from Allah, and his brother Harun who was his lieutenant (note the instructive parallelism between “Musa and Harun” and “Muhammad and Ali”-“Ali is to me as Harun was to Musa save that prophethood terminated with me”, said the Holy Prophet) .

“I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds”, Musa introduced himself to Firawn and said: “Let the people of Israil go with me; because I have come with a clear sign.” Firawn asked Musa to display the sign. Musa threw down his staff and it became a live serpent. He also drew forth his hand from his garment, it was shining bright and white. (See Exodus 4: 1 to 8). These miracles were displayed to prove that Egyptian magic was nothing before the true power of Allah. In Islam the “white hand” of Musa has passed into a proverb, for a symbol of divine glory dazzling to the beholders. Although the Egyptians were impressed by the two signs but they thought that Musa was a clever magician, so, on the advice of his courtiers Firawn summoned the best magicians of Egypt. They cast their spell first. The ropes they threw on the floor turned into swirling snakes. Their trickery made a great impression on the people. Then Musa threw down his staff, it swallowed up their conjurations in no time. The falsehood was exposed and the truth was confirmed. Vanquished and humiliated the magicians fell down prostrate in adoration and said, “We believe in the Lord of the worlds, the Lord of Musa and Harun.” Firawn was furious. He threatened them with severe punishment. They answered: “We have (in any case) to go back to our Lord.” The same reply the faithful companions of Imam Husayn gave in Karbala. Along with the magicians a large number of Egyptians also came into the fold of true faith. Firawn arrested all of them and kept them in captivity. Musa and his followers camped outside the city. Allah afflicted the people of Firawn with famine and dearth of everything that they might take heed, but they did not believe. Then Allah let loose on them floods and locusts and vermin, but they were a people full of sin (see Exodus 7: 19, 20; and 8: 2 to 6 and 16 to 17 and 21 to 24; and 9: 3 to 6, and 9 to 11, and 22 to 24; and 10: 12 to 14 and 22; and 12: 29). Then Musa and his followers crossed the Red Sea, while Firawn’s host which came in pursuit was drowned. See commentary of al Baqarah: 50. After crossing the Red Sea they were in Sinai peninsula. There they met the people who were idolworshippers. The Israelites were at once attracted by their idols, and asked Musa to make them also an idol like theirs. See Exodus 32 : 1. When Allah had exalted them over all the nations of the world, why did they want to seek a god other than Allah? Because idolatry is a national characteristic of the Jews.

For verse 141 see commentary of al Baqarah: 49; and for verse 142 see commentary of al Baqarah: 51, wherein the similarity between “Musa and Harun” and “Muhammad and Ali” has been made clear.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The importance of the number 40 (days, nights, weeks, months or years) for spiritual attainments has been confirmed by many authentic traditions.

The desire of Musa to see Allah was not because he was unsure but like Ibrahim (al Baqarah: 260) he wanted to witness the glory of Allah. Also his companions wanted to see Allah (see al Baqarah: 55). Musa could not withstand the manifestation of the divine glory, because it was reserved for the Holy Prophet about whose advent Musa and Isa had made clear announcement, in advance. See commentary of al Baqarah: 40.

Please refer to An-am: 104 according to which no one can see Allah, neither in this world nor in the hereafter. Lan in verse 143 means “never”. Musa turned repentant to Allah and declared his firm belief in Him. “First” means not the first in time, but most firm in faith. Only finite beings or things which can be arrested by vision are seen and Allah is an infinite being. So to say that Allah can be visible is an ignorant conjecture, put forward by those who do not believe in the absoluteness of His existence.

Imam Ali said:

O He! O He whom none knows what He is, nor how He is, nor where He is, nor in what respect He is, but He.

Allah chose Musa, above other men and gave him the Tawrat, with instructions to warn his followers that if they rejected the word of Allah, calamities would seize them as in the case of ancient Egyptians, the Ad and the Thamud.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Manifestation in verse 143 does not mean taking form or appearance. In Najm: 18 it is stated that the Holy Prophet witnessed much greater signs (manifestations) of Allah. Allah’s absolute infiniteness makes it impossible to attribute corporeality to Him, but it is possible to have spiritual awareness of His being through the faculties developed by devoted concentration of heart and mind-the “meeting with the Lord” in An-am: 155 and Ha Mim: 54 must be understood in this sense.

 

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَا فِرْعَوْنُ إِنِّي رَسُولٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {104}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:104] (see commentary for verse 103)

حَقِيقٌ عَلَىٰ أَنْ لَا أَقُولَ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ ۚ قَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِبَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَأَرْسِلْ مَعِيَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ {105}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:105] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ إِنْ كُنْتَ جِئْتَ بِآيَةٍ فَأْتِ بِهَا إِنْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ {106}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:106] (see commentary for verse 103)

فَأَلْقَىٰ عَصَاهُ فَإِذَا هِيَ ثُعْبَانٌ مُبِينٌ {107}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:107] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَنَزَعَ يَدَهُ فَإِذَا هِيَ بَيْضَاءُ لِلنَّاظِرِينَ {108}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:108] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْ قَوْمِ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسَاحِرٌ عَلِيمٌ {109}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:109] (see commentary for verse 103)

يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُخْرِجَكُمْ مِنْ أَرْضِكُمْ ۖ فَمَاذَا تَأْمُرُونَ {110}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:110] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالُوا أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ وَأَرْسِلْ فِي الْمَدَائِنِ حَاشِرِينَ {111}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:111] (see commentary for verse 103)

يَأْتُوكَ بِكُلِّ سَاحِرٍ عَلِيمٍ {112}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:112] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَجَاءَ السَّحَرَةُ فِرْعَوْنَ قَالُوا إِنَّ لَنَا لَأَجْرًا إِنْ كُنَّا نَحْنُ الْغَالِبِينَ {113}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:113] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ نَعَمْ وَإِنَّكُمْ لَمِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ {114}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:114] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالُوا يَا مُوسَىٰ إِمَّا أَنْ تُلْقِيَ وَإِمَّا أَنْ نَكُونَ نَحْنُ الْمُلْقِينَ {115}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:115] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَلَمَّا أَلْقَوْا سَحَرُوا أَعْيُنَ النَّاسِ وَاسْتَرْهَبُوهُمْ وَجَاءُوا بِسِحْرٍ عَظِيمٍ {116}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:116] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ أَنْ أَلْقِ عَصَاكَ ۖ فَإِذَا هِيَ تَلْقَفُ مَا يَأْفِكُونَ {117}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:117] (see commentary for verse 103)

فَوَقَعَ الْحَقُّ وَبَطَلَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {118}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:118] (see commentary for verse 103)

فَغُلِبُوا هُنَالِكَ وَانْقَلَبُوا صَاغِرِينَ {119}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:119] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سَاجِدِينَ {120}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:120] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {121}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:121] (see commentary for verse 103)

رَبِّ مُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ {122}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:122] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ آذَنَ لَكُمْ ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَمَكْرٌ مَكَرْتُمُوهُ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ لِتُخْرِجُوا مِنْهَا أَهْلَهَا ۖ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ {123}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:123] (see commentary for verse 103)

لَأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ مِنْ خِلَافٍ ثُمَّ لَأُصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ {124}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:124] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالُوا إِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا مُنْقَلِبُونَ {125}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:125] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَمَا تَنْقِمُ مِنَّا إِلَّا أَنْ آمَنَّا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا لَمَّا جَاءَتْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَتَوَفَّنَا مُسْلِمِينَ {126}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:126] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَقَالَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْ قَوْمِ فِرْعَوْنَ أَتَذَرُ مُوسَىٰ وَقَوْمَهُ لِيُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَيَذَرَكَ وَآلِهَتَكَ ۚ قَالَ سَنُقَتِّلُ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ وَنَسْتَحْيِي نِسَاءَهُمْ وَإِنَّا فَوْقَهُمْ قَاهِرُونَ {127}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:127] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ اسْتَعِينُوا بِاللَّهِ وَاصْبِرُوا ۖ إِنَّ الْأَرْضَ لِلَّهِ يُورِثُهَا مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۖ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ {128}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:128] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالُوا أُوذِينَا مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَأْتِيَنَا وَمِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جِئْتَنَا ۚ قَالَ عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمْ أَنْ يُهْلِكَ عَدُوَّكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ {129}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:129] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَلَقَدْ أَخَذْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ بِالسِّنِينَ وَنَقْصٍ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ {130}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:130] (see commentary for verse 103)

فَإِذَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْحَسَنَةُ قَالُوا لَنَا هَٰذِهِ ۖ وَإِنْ تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَطَّيَّرُوا بِمُوسَىٰ وَمَنْ مَعَهُ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّمَا طَائِرُهُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {131}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:131] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَقَالُوا مَهْمَا تَأْتِنَا بِهِ مِنْ آيَةٍ لِتَسْحَرَنَا بِهَا فَمَا نَحْنُ لَكَ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ {132}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:132] (see commentary for verse 103)

فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الطُّوفَانَ وَالْجَرَادَ وَالْقُمَّلَ وَالضَّفَادِعَ وَالدَّمَ آيَاتٍ مُفَصَّلَاتٍ فَاسْتَكْبَرُوا وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا مُجْرِمِينَ {133}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:133] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَلَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِمُ الرِّجْزُ قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِنْدَكَ ۖ لَئِنْ كَشَفْتَ عَنَّا الرِّجْزَ لَنُؤْمِنَنَّ لَكَ وَلَنُرْسِلَنَّ مَعَكَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ {134}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:134] (see commentary for verse 103)

فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ الرِّجْزَ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ هُمْ بَالِغُوهُ إِذَا هُمْ يَنْكُثُونَ {135}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:135] (see commentary for verse 103)

فَانْتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ فِي الْيَمِّ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَكَانُوا عَنْهَا غَافِلِينَ {136}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:136] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَأَوْرَثْنَا الْقَوْمَ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا يُسْتَضْعَفُونَ مَشَارِقَ الْأَرْضِ وَمَغَارِبَهَا الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا ۖ وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ الْحُسْنَىٰ عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ بِمَا صَبَرُوا ۖ وَدَمَّرْنَا مَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ فِرْعَوْنُ وَقَوْمُهُ وَمَا كَانُوا يَعْرِشُونَ {137}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:137] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَجَاوَزْنَا بِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتَوْا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَىٰ أَصْنَامٍ لَهُمْ ۚ قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى اجْعَلْ لَنَا إِلَٰهًا كَمَا لَهُمْ آلِهَةٌ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ قَوْمٌ تَجْهَلُونَ {138}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:138] (see commentary for verse 103)

إِنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ مُتَبَّرٌ مَا هُمْ فِيهِ وَبَاطِلٌ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {139}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:139] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِيكُمْ إِلَٰهًا وَهُوَ فَضَّلَكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ {140}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:140] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَإِذْ أَنْجَيْنَاكُمْ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ ۖ يُقَتِّلُونَ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءَكُمْ ۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكُمْ بَلَاءٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ {141}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:141] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَوَاعَدْنَا مُوسَىٰ ثَلَاثِينَ لَيْلَةً وَأَتْمَمْنَاهَا بِعَشْرٍ فَتَمَّ مِيقَاتُ رَبِّهِ أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً ۚ وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَخِيهِ هَارُونَ اخْلُفْنِي فِي قَوْمِي وَأَصْلِحْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ {142}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:142] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَلَمَّا جَاءَ مُوسَىٰ لِمِيقَاتِنَا وَكَلَّمَهُ رَبُّهُ قَالَ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنْظُرْ إِلَيْكَ ۚ قَالَ لَنْ تَرَانِي وَلَٰكِنِ انْظُرْ إِلَى الْجَبَلِ فَإِنِ اسْتَقَرَّ مَكَانَهُ فَسَوْفَ تَرَانِي ۚ فَلَمَّا تَجَلَّىٰ رَبُّهُ لِلْجَبَلِ جَعَلَهُ دَكًّا وَخَرَّ مُوسَىٰ صَعِقًا ۚ فَلَمَّا أَفَاقَ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {143}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:143] (see commentary for verse 103)

قَالَ يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي اصْطَفَيْتُكَ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِرِسَالَاتِي وَبِكَلَامِي فَخُذْ مَا آتَيْتُكَ وَكُنْ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ {144}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:144] (see commentary for verse 103)

وَكَتَبْنَا لَهُ فِي الْأَلْوَاحِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَوْعِظَةً وَتَفْصِيلًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَخُذْهَا بِقُوَّةٍ وَأْمُرْ قَوْمَكَ يَأْخُذُوا بِأَحْسَنِهَا ۚ سَأُرِيكُمْ دَارَ الْفَاسِقِينَ {145}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:145] (see commentary for verse 103)

سَأَصْرِفُ عَنْ آيَاتِيَ الَّذِينَ يَتَكَبَّرُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَإِنْ يَرَوْا كُلَّ آيَةٍ لَا يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَا وَإِنْ يَرَوْا سَبِيلَ الرُّشْدِ لَا يَتَّخِذُوهُ سَبِيلًا وَإِنْ يَرَوْا سَبِيلَ الْغَيِّ يَتَّخِذُوهُ سَبِيلًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَكَانُوا عَنْهَا غَافِلِينَ {146}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:146]

Refer to the commentary of An-am: 110.

 

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَلِقَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ ۚ هَلْ يُجْزَوْنَ إِلَّا مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {147}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:147]

وَاتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوسَىٰ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَهُ خُوَارٌ ۚ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمْ وَلَا يَهْدِيهِمْ سَبِيلًا ۘ اتَّخَذُوهُ وَكَانُوا ظَالِمِينَ {148}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:148]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The making of the golden calf and its worship by the Jews during the absence of Musa on the mountain have been discussed in the commentary of al-Baqarah: 51. Also refer to Ta Ha: 85 to 97, which say that Harun was, in no way, connected with the Samiri’s plot to hoodwink the people, on the contrary he warned them to beware as it was a test of their faith, but they did not listen to him. The anger of Musa, in fact, was directed against the mischief-makers, but he brought Harun into picture so that it could be established that he had discharged his responsibility faithfully. It proves that if people accept any one as authority without divine or prophetic sanction, they are led astray as the followers of Musa were duped by Samiri.

Allah forgives those who turn repentant unto Him sincerely and amend, with firm determination not to sin again.

 

وَلَمَّا سُقِطَ فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ وَرَأَوْا أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ ضَلُّوا قَالُوا لَئِنْ لَمْ يَرْحَمْنَا رَبُّنَا وَيَغْفِرْ لَنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ {149}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:149] (see commentary for verse 148)

وَلَمَّا رَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا قَالَ بِئْسَمَا خَلَفْتُمُونِي مِنْ بَعْدِي ۖ أَعَجِلْتُمْ أَمْرَ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ وَأَلْقَى الْأَلْوَاحَ وَأَخَذَ بِرَأْسِ أَخِيهِ يَجُرُّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ قَالَ ابْنَ أُمَّ إِنَّ الْقَوْمَ اسْتَضْعَفُونِي وَكَادُوا يَقْتُلُونَنِي فَلَا تُشْمِتْ بِيَ الْأَعْدَاءَ وَلَا تَجْعَلْنِي مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ {150}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:150] (see commentary for verse 148)

قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِأَخِي وَأَدْخِلْنَا فِي رَحْمَتِكَ ۖ وَأَنْتَ أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ {151}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:151] (see commentary for verse 148)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ سَيَنَالُهُمْ غَضَبٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَذِلَّةٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُفْتَرِينَ {152}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:152] (see commentary for verse 148)

وَالَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ ثُمَّ تَابُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهَا وَآمَنُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {153}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:153] (see commentary for verse 148)

وَلَمَّا سَكَتَ عَنْ مُوسَى الْغَضَبُ أَخَذَ الْأَلْوَاحَ ۖ وَفِي نُسْخَتِهَا هُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِلَّذِينَ هُمْ لِرَبِّهِمْ يَرْهَبُونَ {154}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:154]

It is clearly mentioned in this verse that Musa did not break the tablets as mentioned in Exodus 32: 19. He took up the tablets which were a guidance and mercy from Allah, and guided the people through the laws written on them.

 

وَاخْتَارَ مُوسَىٰ قَوْمَهُ سَبْعِينَ رَجُلًا لِمِيقَاتِنَا ۖ فَلَمَّا أَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ قَالَ رَبِّ لَوْ شِئْتَ أَهْلَكْتَهُمْ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَإِيَّايَ ۖ أَتُهْلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَّا ۖ إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا فِتْنَتُكَ تُضِلُّ بِهَا مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتَهْدِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ ۖ أَنْتَ وَلِيُّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۖ وَأَنْتَ خَيْرُ الْغَافِرِينَ {155}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:155]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 55. Seventy of the elders were taken up to the mountain, but when they insisted upon seeing Allah, they were dazed with lightning and thunder, and were raised up on the intercession of Musa. It was a trial to establish the fact that there is freedom of choice by which some go astray and some walk on the right path.

 

وَاكْتُبْ لَنَا فِي هَٰذِهِ الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ إِنَّا هُدْنَا إِلَيْكَ ۚ قَالَ عَذَابِي أُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ أَشَاءُ ۖ وَرَحْمَتِي وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۚ فَسَأَكْتُبُهَا لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ بِآيَاتِنَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {156}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:156]

“My mercy encompasses everything” shows that the canvas of Allah’s mercy enfolds all those sinners who turn repentant unto Him as mentioned in verse 153. While warning people in Bani Israil: 15(No one shall carry another’s burden), and in Zilzal: 7 (whosoever has done even an atom’s weight of good shall be rewarded), Islam assures the sinners that the doors of Allah’s mercy always remain open for those who sincerely turn repentant to Allah (see commentary of al Fatihah: 3).

The theory of a general and unconditional pardon propagated by any religion that the price of the sins committed, being committed and to be committed by all the human beings has been paid by a prophet, gives birth to evil, disorder and corruption. It becomes a licence to sin and make mischief in the world. See Jathiyah: 21 and 22.

Verse 157 says that the divine mercy is available to those who safeguard themselves against evil and follow the teachings of the Holy Prophet, again repeated in verse 158. See commentary of Nisa: 80.

For ummi see commentary of al Baqarah: 78.

The advent of the Holy Prophet had been announced by Musa and Isa. See commentary of al Baqarah: 40.

For amr bil maruf and nahya anil munkar see commentary of Ali Imran : 101 to 115 (Aqa Mahdi Puya’s note on page 245.

The Holy Prophet was sent to the whole mankind as a messenger of Allah for all times. See also Nisa: 7 ; Anbiya: 107 and Saba: 28. Matthew 10: 5, 6; and 15: 22 to 26 confirm that Isa was sent to the lost sheep of the children of Israil.

See commentary of al Baqarah: 255 for “There is no god but He and to Him belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth”; and for “He gives life and death” refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 259 and 260.

 

الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِنْدَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ مَعَهُ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ {157}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:157] (see commentary for verse 156)

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ {158}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:158] (see commentary for verse 156)

وَمِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَىٰ أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ {159}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:159]

Incidents in Jewish history have been referred to in many verses of the Quran. Here they have special reference to their bearing when Islam was preached. See commentary of al Baqarah: 60 for water gushed forth from the rock for the twelve tribes of the Jews when Musa used his staff as directed by Allah. See commentary of al Baqarah: 57 for the shades of clouds and manna and quails.

See commentary of al Baqarah: 57 for the injustice they had done to themselves; and al Baqarah: 58 for entering the gate bowing; and al Baqarah: 59 for wrongfully changing the words; and al Baqarah: 65 for exceeding the limits of the Sabbath.

 

وَقَطَّعْنَاهُمُ اثْنَتَيْ عَشْرَةَ أَسْبَاطًا أُمَمًا ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ إِذِ اسْتَسْقَاهُ قَوْمُهُ أَنِ اضْرِبْ بِعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ ۖ فَانْبَجَسَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا ۖ قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَشْرَبَهُمْ ۚ وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْغَمَامَ وَأَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَىٰ ۖ كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ ۚ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ {160}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:160] (see commentary for verse 159)

وَإِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْكُنُوا هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ وَكُلُوا مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ وَقُولُوا حِطَّةٌ وَادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا نَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطِيئَاتِكُمْ ۚ سَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ {161}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:161] (see commentary for verse 159)

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْهُمْ قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِجْزًا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَظْلِمُونَ {162}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:162] (see commentary for verse 159)

وَاسْأَلْهُمْ عَنِ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ حَاضِرَةَ الْبَحْرِ إِذْ يَعْدُونَ فِي السَّبْتِ إِذْ تَأْتِيهِمْ حِيتَانُهُمْ يَوْمَ سَبْتِهِمْ شُرَّعًا وَيَوْمَ لَا يَسْبِتُونَ ۙ لَا تَأْتِيهِمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَبْلُوهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ {163}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:163] (see commentary for verse 159)

وَإِذْ قَالَتْ أُمَّةٌ مِنْهُمْ لِمَ تَعِظُونَ قَوْمًا ۙ اللَّهُ مُهْلِكُهُمْ أَوْ مُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا ۖ قَالُوا مَعْذِرَةً إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ{164}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:164]

This verse refers to amr bil maruf and nahyal anil munkar. See commentary of Ali Imran : 101 to 115 (Aqa Mahdi Puya’s note on page 245).

 

فَلَمَّا نَسُوا مَا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ أَنْجَيْنَا الَّذِينَ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ السُّوءِ وَأَخَذْنَا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا بِعَذَابٍ بَئِيسٍ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ {165}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:165]

فَلَمَّا عَتَوْا عَنْ مَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ قُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ {166}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:166]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 65.

 

وَإِذْ تَأَذَّنَ رَبُّكَ لَيَبْعَثَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ يَسُومُهُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَسَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ ۖ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ{167}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:167]

The beliers of the signs of Allah and the prophethood of the Holy Prophet, in spite of clear prophecies in their book, among the Jews are an accursed group whom Allah shall continue to punish till the day of resurrection in this world, and a painful torment awaits them in the hereafter.

 

وَقَطَّعْنَاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ أُمَمًا ۖ مِنْهُمُ الصَّالِحُونَ وَمِنْهُمْ دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَبَلَوْنَاهُمْ بِالْحَسَنَاتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ {168}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:168] (see commentary for verse 167)

فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُوا الْكِتَابَ يَأْخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَٰذَا الْأَدْنَىٰ وَيَقُولُونَ سَيُغْفَرُ لَنَا وَإِنْ يَأْتِهِمْ عَرَضٌ مِثْلُهُ يَأْخُذُوهُ ۚ أَلَمْ يُؤْخَذْ عَلَيْهِمْ مِيثَاقُ الْكِتَابِ أَنْ لَا يَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ وَدَرَسُوا مَا فِيهِ ۗ وَالدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ ۗ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ {169}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:169]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 80 and 88.

 

وَالَّذِينَ يُمَسِّكُونَ بِالْكِتَابِ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّا لَا نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ {170}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:170]

“Hold fast by the book” refers to the Quran and the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet-see hadith al thaqalayn on page 6. Also refer to al Baqarah: 2 for kitab (the book).

 

وَإِذْ نَتَقْنَا الْجَبَلَ فَوْقَهُمْ كَأَنَّهُ ظُلَّةٌ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُ وَاقِعٌ بِهِمْ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُمْ بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُوا مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ {171}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:171]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 63.

The word fawq (over) in this verse and al Baqarah: 63 and rafa-na (we raised) in al Baqarah : 63 clearly establish the fact that the mountain was hanging as if it was a canopy or a covering over the heads of the people. To say that the people were made to stand at the foot of the mountain is to change the meaning and application of the words of Allah, because a mountain is always higher and towering than the people if they stand beside it, therefore, the use of words “we raised the mountain over their head as if it was a canopy” become unnecessary.

 

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ ۖ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ ۛ شَهِدْنَا ۛ أَنْ تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَٰذَا غَافِلِينَ {172}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:172]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Some commentators refer to mithaq ul alast-that after the creation of Adam Allah brought forth from the loins of Adam all his descendants (all humanity, born or unborn, without any limit of time), conscious of their existence, on the earth or in some state before coming on earth, and that a covenant about His rububiyat was taken from all of them, which is binding on each individual. Some Shia commentators say that the covenant also included the finality of the prophethood of the Holy Prophet and imamat of Ali ibn abi Talib. It is also said that some accepted and some rejected the covenant. Those who accepted it there accept it here also, and those who rejected it there reject it here also. The theory of a covenant taken in the state of pre-existence is found unreasonable in view of the following facts:

(1) The words in the text refer to the descendants (dhurriyyatahum) of the children of Adam, who were brought forth from their loins, not from the loins of Adam.

(2) The question “Am I not your Lord?” was addressed to all. All of them said “yes”. It was a unanimous reply. There was no difference of opinion.

(3) Allah made each of them witness over himself so that no one may say: “I was not aware (conscious) of this,” or that, having no choice of his or her own, blindly followed the ancestors. If this refers to the state of pre-existence nobody would remember it, nor the reminders or warnings of any prophet would help to recall as to what took place prior to existence, therefore, on the day of reckoning every person will say: “I do not remember.”

(4) It suggests compulsion, whereas man has free choice to believe or not to believe.

The true meaning of the verse is that Allah brings forth from every human being his offspring and makes each one aware of one’s self or soul when one reaches maturity; and at that stage of full consciousness he knows that there is a (supreme and uncaused) creator who has brought him into existence. This acknowledgement is the result of an inherent awareness in every human being, which makes him responsible for his belief or disbelief, his good deeds or evil deeds. At this stage each individual becomes free from the blind influence of others.

This verse does not refer to any state of development prior to the state when every man becomes a witness over himself.

To presume the existence of the cognitive self (I) prior to the present life, is to accept the possibility of the transmigration of the soul from one body to another body-a doctrine rejected by Islam on the basis of theological and rational arguments. There are stages through which the human soul passes till it reaches full consciousness, but there is no possibility of the existence of any conscious stage, prior to the present consciousness, which cannot be remembered. All that has been said in this connection about the existence of cognitive self in the state of pre-existence is based upon conjecture relied upon by the old pagan cults to believe in the false theories of transmigration. Sayyid Murtada, Shaykh Mufid and Abul Ali Tabrasi have rejected the possibility of a conscious life in any state of pre existence.

Also refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 81. Another interpretation of this verse is as under:

Allah, the omnipotent creator, after creating Adam from clay, asked him and every soul to be born in his progeny, who, in the infinite knowledge of the almighty Allah, would come on this earth: “Am I not your Lord?” All of them said: “Yes. We bear witness”. It was done so that men may not say that they did not know who their Lord-Creator is. This applies to verse 173 also. The Holy Prophet said that if only men knew when Ali was appointed mawla and amir al muminin, they would not deny his superiority over all other created beings. According to Firdaws al Akhyar by Dayami, chap. 14, p. 274; and Tafsir of al Ayyashi, when the almighty Lord decided to create the universe, He assembled all His creatures together before Himself and asked them: “Who is your Lord?” Thereupon the first to answer was the Holy Prophet, and next was Ali ibna abi Talib, and then all the Imams who were to be his descendants. They all said: “You are our Lord.” Then the almighty Lord made them the repositories of divine knowledge and said to the angels: “Behold, these are the repositories of My knowledge and these are the trusted ones from among all My creatures and they shall be the guides of all in everything.”

Then the Lord commanded all the descendants of Adam to acknowledge Him as their Lord and to promise obedience to them, and all said: “We promise.” The angels also said: “We bear witness”.

 

أَوْ تَقُولُوا إِنَّمَا أَشْرَكَ آبَاؤُنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَكُنَّا ذُرِّيَّةً مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ۖ أَفَتُهْلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ {173}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:173] (see commentary for verse 172)

وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ {174}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:174]

وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ الَّذِي آتَيْنَاهُ آيَاتِنَا فَانْسَلَخَ مِنْهَا فَأَتْبَعَهُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَكَانَ مِنَ الْغَاوِينَ {175}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:175]

It is said that “The news of the man whom We gave Our signs” refers to Balam, in the days of Firawn, who knew the ism al azam. Firawn asked him to pray for Musa’s arrest. He agreed and sat on his donkey to go to a particular place to recite the ism al azam for Musa’s arrest, but the donkey did not budge. He beat the animal to its death. Then he realised that he had totally forgotten the ism al azam. He died as an infidel.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Some commentators think the narrative relates to Balam. Some think the person referred here is Umayya ibn Abu Salt who read the old scriptures and knew that Allah would send a prophet about that time, but when the promised prophet, the Holy Prophet did arrive, he refused to acknowledge him. Some think it relates to Amru ibn Numan ibn Sayfi, an ascetic, who believed in the creed of Ibrahim but mixed it with the false beliefs of Christian monks, and when he was censured by the Holy Prophet, he turned against him.

Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir said: “Though it relates to Balam, but Allah intends to set an example for those who receive true guidance from Allah, yet prefer to act according to their own desires in order to lay hands on the worldly gains.”

Earthly desires eventually bring man low to the level of beasts and even worse. If he follows the guidance he receives from Allah he is blessed with exalted spiritual honour. He who rejects Allah and His guidance is like a dog who lolls out his tongue, whether he is attacked and pursued, or left alone. It is part of his nature to slobber and be contemptible. Imam Ali has compared such men to a restive she camel who shows unwillingness to tackle when her rider draws rein, and goes aimlessly in any direction, and stumbles when he applies no check to her.

 

وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَرَفَعْنَاهُ بِهَا وَلَٰكِنَّهُ أَخْلَدَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ ۚ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ الْكَلْبِ إِنْ تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْهِ يَلْهَثْ أَوْ تَتْرُكْهُ يَلْهَثْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۚ فَاقْصُصِ الْقَصَصَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ {176}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:176] (see commentary for verse 175)

سَاءَ مَثَلًا الْقَوْمُ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَأَنْفُسَهُمْ كَانُوا يَظْلِمُونَ {177}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:177] (see commentary for verse 175)

مَنْ يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِي ۖ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ {178}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:178]

وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنْسِ ۖ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ {179}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:179]

Those who do not use the profit yielding faculties, given to them, which can help them to find out the truth, have been referred to in this verse. Those who misuse or neglect the faculties, which can make them real human beings, superior to all created beings, finally deteriorate to the animal state.

 

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ ۚ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {180}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:180]

Excellent or most beautiful names of Allah are those which give us the idea of His infinite attributes, such as rahman and rahim, rabbul alamin and maliki yawmiddin etcetera. There are people who use His names profanely- which suggest things derogatory to His unity and infiniteness-such as calling Him the father of Isa. Violating the sanctity of His holy names, assigning to Him attributes which negate His absoluteness, omnipotence and hayy al qayyum (self-subsisting) existence, or calling others with names exclusively owned by Him is polytheism. Only the names the Holy Prophet has taught us in view of His unity, wisdom, might and will, and the names mentioned in the Quran should be used.

 

وَمِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ {181}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:181]

Those who have been thoroughly purified by Allah (Ahzab: 33), the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet, are the people who guide mankind with truth. Also refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 143.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Since the creation of man there had been and should always be a person, present in this world, to guide others with truth. In view of this fact the Holy Prophet has said: “Whosoever dies without recognising the Imam (guide) of his age (in order to follow his guidance) dies the death of an ignorant pagan.” According to many authentic traditions this condition remains valid up to the reappearance of the last Imam of the house of the Holy Prophet, the al Qa-im, because after the Holy Prophet, the number of such persons was restricted to twelve by the Holy Prophet himself.

 

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُمْ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {182}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:182]

The most important signs of Allah have been referred to in the preceding verse. The beliers of His signs in verse 182 may enjoy a temporary respite but Allah shall punish them in a way that they will not know.

 

وَأُمْلِي لَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ كَيْدِي مَتِينٌ {183}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:183] (see commentary for verse 182)

أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوا ۗ مَا بِصَاحِبِهِمْ مِنْ جِنَّةٍ ۚ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ مُبِينٌ {184}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:184]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The total absorption of the Holy Prophet in prayer and communion with Allah misled his opponents to think that he was seized with madness. Refer to Najm: 2 to 5. If he was possessed he was possessed by Allah. That is why he was never dazzled by worldly power, wealth or position. True in thought, word and deed, kind and considerate to the weak, merciful even to adversaries, undeterred by fear of the strong or the mockery of the cynics or the indifference of the heedless, he stood out firmly against the evil of polytheism.

 

أَوَلَمْ يَنْظُرُوا فِي مَلَكُوتِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَأَنْ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَكُونَ قَدِ اقْتَرَبَ أَجَلُهُمْ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ {185}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:185]

The universe, created by Him, should convince a thinking mind of man’s limitations and Allah’s power, glory and goodness. Man’s term will draw to an end. If he does not pay attention to His signs and believe, he shall never have another chance.

 

مَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ ۚ وَيَذَرُهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ {186}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:186]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 8 to 20.

 

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّي ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ ثَقُلَتْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ لَا تَأْتِيكُمْ إِلَّا بَغْتَةً ۗ يَسْأَلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِيٌّ عَنْهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {187}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:187]

Isa also gave a similar reply when asked about the end of this world and the day of judgement.

“But about that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, not even the son; only the Father.” (Matthew 24: 36 and Mark 13: 32)

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

About the sa-at (hour) and “when will be its appointed time” the Quran says that none knows it save Allah. See Nazi-at 42 to 44. “To your Lord is the end of it” says verse 44 of an Nazi-at.

The word sa-at refers to the end of the creatures’ striving unto their destiny. The destiny is fixed. It may be individual or collective. There are many grades also. It is a relative term applicable to resurrection or destiny of an individual, or a community or any part of the universe. Many worlds have been created and reached their destinies and experienced their resurrections. There are many worlds which are in the early stages of becoming, and many are drawing to their end. So no finite being knows the hour of termination. Allah is the end, unto Him everything is journeying and to Him everything shall return. He is free and independent of the application of time and space, because they are finite, applicable only to dimensional beings. The resurrection is beyond dimensions.

The fact of coming of the final hour is a certainty. The appointed time is not known to finite beings. Our duty is to be prepared for it at all times.

 

قُلْ لَا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْ كُنْتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ ۚ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ {188}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:188]

The Holy Prophet had to pronounce these words, lest his followers may deify him as the followers of Isa made him god or son of God. It should be remembered that he was the last prophet of Allah, so he could not leave behind the slightest possibility of this nature.

He was a nadhir (warner) to the sinners-the eternal punishment they will be afflicted with in the hereafter.

He was a bashir (giver of glad tidings) to the virtuous-the reward of eternal happiness they will enjoy in the hereafter.

 

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا لِيَسْكُنَ إِلَيْهَا ۖ فَلَمَّا تَغَشَّاهَا حَمَلَتْ حَمْلًا خَفِيفًا فَمَرَّتْ بِهِ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَثْقَلَتْ دَعَوَا اللَّهَ رَبَّهُمَا لَئِنْ آتَيْتَنَا صَالِحًا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ {189}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:189]

Refer to an Nisa: 1.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

There is a general reference to the creation of man, whether male or female, from a single source. They must live in peace and harmony with love and affection for each other. When a child is born to a mother, the parents vow to make the child a true servant of Allah if He gives them a goodly child, but neglect their duties when the child begins to grow. That is how polytheism took roots in human society.

 

فَلَمَّا آتَاهُمَا صَالِحًا جَعَلَا لَهُ شُرَكَاءَ فِيمَا آتَاهُمَا ۚ فَتَعَالَى اللَّهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ {190}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:190] (see commentary for verse 189)

أَيُشْرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخْلُقُ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ {191}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:191] (see commentary for verse 189)

وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمْ نَصْرًا وَلَا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَنْصُرُونَ {192}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:192] (see commentary for verse 189)

وَإِنْ تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى الْهُدَىٰ لَا يَتَّبِعُوكُمْ ۚ سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْكُمْ أَدَعَوْتُمُوهُمْ أَمْ أَنْتُمْ صَامِتُونَ {193}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:193]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 6.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۖ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ {194}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:194]

أَلَهُمْ أَرْجُلٌ يَمْشُونَ بِهَا ۖ أَمْ لَهُمْ أَيْدٍ يَبْطِشُونَ بِهَا ۖ أَمْ لَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا ۖ أَمْ لَهُمْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۗ قُلِ ادْعُوا شُرَكَاءَكُمْ ثُمَّ كِيدُونِ فَلَا تُنْظِرُونِ {195}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:195]

When the Holy Prophet asked the idolaters not to associate others as partners of Allah, they thought that for the Holy Prophet’s denial of their (false) gods he would be punished by them. This verse was revealed to put a stop to the wishful thinking of the polytheists.

 

إِنَّ وَلِيِّيَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ ۖ وَهُوَ يَتَوَلَّى الصَّالِحِينَ {196}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:196]

The Holy Prophet says that Allah who sent down His book to him is a sufficient protector for him, but the false gods of the polytheists would never be able to come to their help.

 

وَالَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ نَصْرَكُمْ وَلَا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَنْصُرُونَ {197}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:197] (see commentary for verse 196)

وَإِنْ تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى الْهُدَىٰ لَا يَسْمَعُوا ۖ وَتَرَاهُمْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ وَهُمْ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ {198}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:198]

خُذِ الْعَفْوَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْعُرْفِ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْجَاهِلِينَ {199}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:199]

وَإِمَّا يَنْزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {200}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:200]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُمْ مُبْصِرُونَ {201}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:201]

وَإِخْوَانُهُمْ يَمُدُّونَهُمْ فِي الْغَيِّ ثُمَّ لَا يُقْصِرُونَ {202}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:202]

وَإِذَا لَمْ تَأْتِهِمْ بِآيَةٍ قَالُوا لَوْلَا اجْتَبَيْتَهَا ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَتَّبِعُ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ مِنْ رَبِّي ۚ هَٰذَا بَصَائِرُ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ {203}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:203]

وَإِذَا قُرِئَ الْقُرْآنُ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ وَأَنْصِتُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ {204}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:204]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Listening to the recital of the Quran is highly commendable, but it becomes obligatory when it is recited in congregational prayer or in the sermon of Friday prayer. Refer tofiqh.

 

وَاذْكُرْ رَبَّكَ فِي نَفْسِكَ تَضَرُّعًا وَخِيفَةً وَدُونَ الْجَهْرِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِ وَلَا تَكُنْ مِنَ الْغَافِلِينَ {205}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:205]

In congregational prayers those who are praying the salat should only listen the verses of the Quran the imam of jamat recites as if they are repeating them.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيُسَبِّحُونَهُ وَلَهُ يَسْجُدُونَ ۩ {206}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 7:206]

To celebrate His praises after the salat; and then to prostrate oneself in adoration before Allah (sajdah) is said to be the sunnah of the Holy Prophet.

Sajdah becomes obligatory, according to the Ahl ul Bayt, when the particular verse of sajdah in the following surahs is recited.

(1) Sajdah
(2) Ham Mim
(3) Najm
(4) Alaq

Source:quran.al-islam.org


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