بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ وَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:1]

“Fear Allah (safeguard yourselves against evil with the help of the divine laws made by Allah) and do not obey, hearken or follow the disbelievers and the hypocrites” is addressed to the followers of the Holy Prophet through him. The fifth year of Hijra was a critical year in the history of early Islam. The pagans of Makka, the Jews and bedouin Arabs entered into an unholy alliance against Islam, and came with a force of 10000 men in the month of Shawwal and besieged Madina. The hypocrites among the Muslims in Madina were in secret league with the invading army. Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah 6 to 20 and Ali Imran: 121, 122, 128, 140 to 142, 144, 151 to 156, 159, 166 to 168; Nisa: 65;Anfal: 16 and Bara-at 25 to 27 and 86 and 87 to know about the role played by the hypocrites among the Muslims to stop the march of Islam. As to the battle of Khandaq which took place when the allied forces of the disbelievers besieged the city of Madina, refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 214 and 251 and verses 9 and 10 to 20, 21, 22 and 25 of this surah. The huge army of the infidels and the mischief making of the hypocrites created despondency among the Muslims, so they have been asked to remain steadfast on the religion of Allah revealed to the Holy Prophet and rely upon Allah, and not to pay attention to the schemes hatched by the hypocrites in league with the disbelievers.

The Holy Prophet follows only that which is revealed to him as has also been confirmed in verses 1 to 9 of An Najm. The verb ta-maluna (“what you do”) in plural, confirms this interpretation.

 

وَاتَّبِعْ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:2] (see commentary for verse 1) Hafsa, daughter of Umar bin Khattab.

 

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:3] (see commentary for verse 1) Ummi Habiba daughter of Abu Sufyan.

 

مَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِنْ قَلْبَيْنِ فِي جَوْفِهِ ۚ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَاجَكُمُ اللَّائِي تُظَاهِرُونَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ ۚ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَاءَكُمْ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِكُمْ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِي السَّبِيلَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:4]

“Two hearts in one breast” means two inconsistent attitudes: serving Allah and His prophet and also subscribing to the theories and actions of the disbelievers and the hypocrites.

Such a phenomenon is against Allah’s command and will.

Imam Ali ibn abi Talib said:

“The love of the Ahl ul Bayt can never coexist with allegiance to their enemies, because there are not two hearts in one breast. He who is a friend of our enemies is not our friend, even if he claims to be attached with us, nor do we accept him as our ally and follower.”

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

“If the heart of a person is wrapped up in the fascination of anything other than the presence of Allah at the time of prayer he is to be considered as worshipping that thing, not Allah.”

Abu Mu-mur Jamil bin Uwaris, an idol worshipper of Makka, was known among the disbelievers as the “man with two hearts” because he claimed that on account of his vast knowledge and wisdom he could understand men and matters more clearly and correctly than the Holy Prophet; but after the battle of Badr, while running away from the battlefield Abu Sufyan noticed that he had one of his shoes in his hand to which fact he drew his attention. Abu Mu-mur realized his folly because all the time he was thinking that both the shoes were on his feet. Then the myth of his “two hearts in one breast” was broken and people came to know that he was an ordinary man.

In the market of Akkaz Zayd bin Harith was being sold as a slave. The Holy Prophet purchased him and adopted him as his son. The father of Zayd was a man of means. When he came to know that his kidnapped son was sold as a slave, he approached Abu Talib to obtain the freedom of Zayd from his nephew. The Holy Prophet at once set him free and gave him permission to go with his father, but Zayd decided to remain with the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet asked the people to bear witness that from that day Zayd was his son and he was his father. Then he married his cousin Zaynab, a very beautiful young woman, to Zayd. It so happened that they could not live happily together. Zayd divorced Zaynab. To save Zaynab from the misery of a divorcee Allah commanded the Holy Prophet to marry Zaynab. According to pagan formula when a man wanted to get rid of his wife without making her free to remarry, he simply said to her: “You are to me as the back of my mother.” Likewise an adopted son was treated as a natural son. It was this crudity of the pagan morals that, upon the Holy Prophet’s marrying the divorced wife of his freed man Zayd, who was also his adopted son, gave rise to a great deal of hostile criticism. Islam abolished these widespread foolish customs. In Islam, according to verse 23 of Nisa, those who have been “wives of your sons proceeding from your loins” are within the prohibited degrees of marriage, and this does not apply to adopted sons. Adoption in the technical sense is not allowed in Muslim law.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

If there is absolute submission to the will of Allah in the heart of a man, there cannot be any room for ghayrallah (other than Allah) in it.

Sawda daughter of Zum-a.

 

ادْعُوهُمْ لِآبَائِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا آبَاءَهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَمَوَالِيكُمْ ۚ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَٰكِنْ مَا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:5]

Call the adopted sons by their natural fathers and not by those who have adopted them which corresponds with truth and reality. It is better to call them brothers in faith or friends, because brotherhood is used in a wider sense than fatherhood and is not likely to be misunderstood.

Ummi Salima daughter of Abi Ummya.

 

النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ ۗ وَأُولُو الْأَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَىٰ بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ إِلَّا أَنْ تَفْعَلُوا إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِكُمْ مَعْرُوفًا ۚ كَانَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَسْطُورًا {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:6]

This verse was revealed when some of the Holy Prophet’s companions made excuses to avoid the march the Holy Prophet ordered to meet the enemy at Tabuk. The word awla refers to mawla,the term the Holy Prophet used for himself and Ali ibn abi Talib at Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Ma-idah: 67). This verse decisively establishes the superior authority of the Holy Prophet over the selves or souls of all the believers. Even the considerations, pertaining to the nearest blood relatives are subjected to his superior authority. There is a complete surrender of self to the commands of the Holy Prophet in all material and spiritual matters.

The Holy Prophet said:

“None among you can ever be a true believer unless he accepts and obeys me as his master.”

The wives of the Holy Prophet are the mothers of the believers.

It is a well known tradition that the Holy Prophet gave Ali the authority to divorce any of his (the Holy Prophet’s) wives. According to Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al Qa-im the Holy Prophet said:

“O Abul Hasan, Allah has bestowed honour on my wives, but if they disobey the laws and commands of Allah, made known through me, they come out of the sacred range of the divine grace. At anytime, after me, if any of them rebel against you, you have the authority to divorce her on my behalf.”

Please refer to the commentary of Anfal: 75 for “blood relations are nearer one to another in the book of Allah than the believers and muhajirs” Refer to the commentary of Ma-idah: 67 for “the prophet has a greater or nearer claim over the believers than they have on their own selves.” Also refer to the commentary of Anfal: 24 and 27.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse makes known the basis of the wilayah and imamah (the absolute authority of the Holy Prophet and of Ali as declared at Ghadir Khum) over the believers.

Refer to the commentary of Anfal: 75 to know the principle of inheritance-he who is closer and nearer to him in wisdom and character should be his spiritual heir, and the closest relation in blood should inherit his property, therefore he in whom both “nearnesses” are combined should inherit his position as well as his property. Also refer to the introduction of surah al Bara-at for the closeness to the point of indivisible oneness between the Holy Prophet and Ali ibn abi Talib.

“His wives are their mothers” has been mentioned to say “you should not marry his widows after him at any time” in verse 53 of this surah. There is no significance in it other than the fact that whatever is associated with the Holy Prophet is to be respected and honoured even if the thing or person possesses no merits of his own just like the “black stone” which was fixed by Ibrahim and Ismail in the house of Allah by His command.

Safiya daughter of Hayy ibn Akhtab.

 

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَمِنْكَ وَمِنْ نُوحٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ ۖ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُمْ مِيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:7]

Please refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 81; Nisa: 41 and Anfal: 89.

Maymuna daughter of Harith Hilah.

 

لِيَسْأَلَ الصَّادِقِينَ عَنْ صِدْقِهِمْ ۚ وَأَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:8] (see commentary for verse 7) Zaynab daughter of Jahsh Asadi.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَاءَتْكُمْ جُنُودٌ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحًا وَجُنُودًا لَمْ تَرَوْهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:9]

Verses 20, 22 and 23 and this verse refer to the battle of Khandaq. The surah Al Ahzab takes its name from the army of the allied clans which came against the Muslims in the 5th year of the Hijrah. The pagans of Makkah, the Jews and bedouin Arabs entered into an unholy alliance came with a force of 10000 men and besieged the Muslim community in Madina. This battle has been described in detail in the commentary of Baqarah: 214 and 251. A trench (khandaq) was dug round Madina, as advised by Salman, by the order of the Holy Prophet. When Ali ibn abi Talib killed Amr bin Abdwud in single combat the whole army of 10000 men went back to Makka without further fighting. This type of unique retreat after the defeat of one warrior never happened in the history except in the time of Prophet Dawud when he killed Jalut. Ali’s triumph became so decisive that the pagans of Makka or their allies never made any attempt thereafter to attack Muslims in Madina.

It is reported that at the time of digging the trench a stone in the earth was found which neither could be removed nor broken. The people went to the Holy Prophet to seek his help. He came and struck it thrice with an axe, each time a flashing spark sparkled from the stone and people saw the glimpses of Syria, Madina and Yeman one after another. The stone was broken. The Holy Prophet told them Allah would grant the Muslims victories over those towns. The weak in faith and the hypocrites, who were expecting certain end of the Holy Prophet, openly accused him of telling morale boasting lies to keep the people in delusion. There was no food in the city. Jabir bin Abdullah had a lamb and a little quantity of corn. The Holy Prophet asked him to prepare whatever food he could from those provisions. The people were invited to eat the prepared food in batches of ten. They all came as advised and ate to their full satisfaction, yet the quantity remained as it was. During the nearly 3 weeks blockade the hypocrites left no stone unturned to demoralise the people through rumours and to convince them that the best course was to go to their homes and save themselves from utter annihilation.

The enemy was struck dumb with astonishment because this mode of defence was not known to the Arabs, and they were at a loss to understand how to overcome the difficulty. At length a select party of the besiegers’ horsemen found out a narrow part of the ditch which was not guarded. Amr bin Abdwud, Nawafal bin Abdullah, Darar bin Khattab and Ikrima bin Abu Jahl succeeded in leaping over the trench. Amr, reining forward towards the Muslims, challenged them to single combat. What followed after this challenge has been mentioned in the commentary of al Baqarah : 214 and 251.

When Ali and Amr stood face to face Amr said to Ali: “By God, I do not like to put you to death because your father was my friend, and I enjoyed many a feast at his dinner table.” Ali replied: “There could be no friendship between belief and disbelief, so by Allah, I am here to kill you.”

Amr was described by the Holy Prophet as the personification of infidelity, nevertheless even such a person had a moral sense to give respect and have consideration for the son of the man who treated him well, but the so-called followers of the Holy Prophet who not only guided them to the right path but also took them out from the darkness of ignorance and depths of degradation to the light of civilisation, harassed, persecuted and killed his children in Karbala and after Karbala till his last son and inheritor Imam Mahdi al Qa-im was taken up by Allah, as Isa was taken up to heaven, to make him invisible.

The Holy Prophet said:

“It is a struggle between faith and infidelity, the embodiment of faith shall crush the entirety of infidelity.”

At last the voice of Ali, pronouncing Allahu Akbar, was heard, which was a signal of his victory. The divine decree (There is no god save Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah and Ali is his supporter) which the Holy Prophet saw inscribed in letters of celestial light on heavens in the night of mi-raj (see commentary of Bani Israil: 1) was found by him fulfilled on every such occasion.

Beholding the fate of their renowned champion, his comrades in the enterprise rushed back to escape, spurred their horses and crossed the ditch except Nawfal who fell in the ditch.

The Holy Prophet said:

“The victory of Ali on the day of the ditch is much more in worth than the devotional worship performed by the created beings of both the worlds (seen and unseen) till the day of judgement.”

Then there was a piercing blast of the cold east wind, the enemy’s tents were torn up, their fires were extinguished, the sand and rain beat in their faces, and they were terrified by the signs against them.

All the above noted events and those mentioned in the commentary of al Baqarah: 214 and 251 are mentioned in Tarikh al Khamis; Madarij al Nabuwah; Mustadrak of Hakim, Firduws al Akhbar Rawdat al Ahbab; Izalatal Khifa and Habib al Siyar and the histories by Ibn Athir and Abul Fida.

Juwari-ah daughter of Harith Mustalaqa.

It is reported that Abu Bakr and Umar bin Khattab had expressed their displeasure to their daughters and reprimanded them for their unjustified demands and their insolent behaviour. Once Ali tried to put fear of Allah in their hearts but A-isha lost her temper and used harsh words to insult him. Then and their the Holy Prophet gave authority to Ali to divorce any of his wives on his behalf. See commentary of At Tahrim: 1 to 5.

Bukhari in his commentary of Tahrim in his Sahih record several traditions as related by Umar stating that the two women who were insolent and haughty towards the Holy Prophet were A-isha and Hafsa. It refers to her address to the Holy Prophet: “I smell maghafir (a kind of flower having a very bad odour) from you.” She said this in order to prevent him from visiting the house of Zaynab and eating honey there.

When some malevolent persons falsely accused Mariyah mother of Ibrahim, A-isha supported the accusers and tried in vain to confirm the false blame, but Allah absolved them (the Prophet and Mariyah) and saved them from injustice through Imam Ali. Those who want to know the details of the unhappy incident should refer to the account of Mariyah in Hakim’s Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 30; or Dhahabi’s Talkhis al Mustadrak.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Due to the unbecoming, envious and avaricious behaviour of the wives referred to in verses 28 to 34 they have not been included in the clause of purification of Ahl ul Bayt in verse 33, in which the highest degree of purification has been bestowed only on the Ahl ul Bayt. This is the reason that in all these verses the wives of the Holy Prophet are referred to in personal plural pronoun in feminine gender, but in the clause of purification the pronoun is plural in masculine gender, just as in verse 73 of Hud. In verse 5 of at Tahrim it is stated that the Holy Prophet had discretionary power to divorce any of his wife, and if he did so Allah would give him better women as his wives in place of the existing wives. When evident unbecoming misconduct has been proved against the wives, the element of rijs (pollution) is established, therefore as they could be divorced and no more be the Holy Prophet’s wives, they were not included in the Ahl ul Bayt.

As the wives of the Holy Prophet they were expected not only to display refinement, decency and decorum but also imbibe moral and spiritual excellence in their character because of their close and constant association with the Holy Prophet; and if they did not, their punishment in the hereafter would be doubled (greater in degree), because as the wives of the Holy Prophet they should have been models of piety for other women. Refer to the commentary of Nur: 26.

To the good and obedient wives Allah will give double reward and a honourable sustenance.

It has been made clear to the wives of the Holy Prophet that mere association with him does not give them any privilege unless they obey the Holy Prophet and safeguard themselves against evil. Although they have been declared “the mothers of the believers”, yet they are warned not to be too friendly lest some one is moved with desire. In this there is guidance for all women that they should keep all men at arm’s length-not to give even a slight unconscious indication of possible complaisance.

 

إِذْ جَاءُوكُمْ مِنْ فَوْقِكُمْ وَمِنْ أَسْفَلَ مِنْكُمْ وَإِذْ زَاغَتِ الْأَبْصَارُ وَبَلَغَتِ الْقُلُوبُ الْحَنَاجِرَ وَتَظُنُّونَ بِاللَّهِ الظُّنُونَا {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:10]

The sight of the enemy who surrounded the city round the trench was frightful. All the Muslims save the Holy Prophet, his Ahl ul Bayt and their followers feared that they might not be able to stand the trial and would be slaughtered and destroyed. “The hearts jumped to the throats” is expressive of cowardice.

“They came on you from above you” refers to the heathens and “from below you” refers to the hypocrites and the weak-hearted wavering converts.

The word muminin in verse 11 refers to those who posed themselves as believers but were not in fact true faithfuls. Their insincerity and false guise became known when Amr threw an open challenge but none of the companions came forward to meet him in single combat because they were shaken by a frightening terror.

As stated in the commentary of verse 9 the Holy Prophet had seen clear signs of victory, but the hypocrites and the insincere believers accused him and the true believers of keeping the Muslims in delusive hopes.

Yathrib is the ancient name of Madina. The disaffected hypocrites and the insincere spread defeatist rumours and persuaded the Muslims to leave the scene of the impending battle and withdraw for the defence of their homes, although their homes were not exposed to enemy attack. So prone and ever-ready were they to every act of hostility against Islam that if the enemy had been able to penetrate into the city, they, sitting on the fence, would have joined the forces of the invaders at once, although, after the battle of Uhad, certain men who had deserted the Holy Prophet, made a covenant with Allah and His Prophet that they would behave better next time. See commentary of Ali Imran: 121, 122, 128, 140 to 142, 144, 151 to 156, 159, 166 to 168 and Anfal: 16.

Imam Ali said:

“On which day (can) I run away from death? The day which is decreed (or) the day which is not decreed!”.

Most of the companions of the Holy Prophet who were weak in faith fell easy prey to the machination of the clever hypocrites, as they did in the battles of Badr and Uhad (see verses of Ali Imran and Anfal noted above) and afterwards in Hunayn (see commentary of Bara-at: 25 to 27). In times of danger they would look to the Holy Prophet and Ali for protection, and keep themselves snugly away from the fight. When the danger is past, they would come and brag and wrangle and show their covetousness and greed for gains. Even any good they might have done was obliterated

because there was no sincere motive behind it except envy, greed and cowardice.

Verse 20 gives a vivid picture of the psychology of the most of the companions of the Holy Prophet. Even when the enemy had gone they were so much confused in their minds that they secretly decided to run away from the city and take refuge in the desert if the enemy made another attack.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“They would fight but little” shows that the companions made almost no contribution to the mission of the Holy Prophet. Even a commentator like Allama Yusuf Ali (who has not mentioned the Ahl ul Bayt at all in his entire commentary) admits in his note (3685) that “Ali particularly distinguished himself in many fights, wearing the prophet’s own sword and armour.”

 

هُنَالِكَ ابْتُلِيَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَزُلْزِلُوا زِلْزَالًا شَدِيدًا {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:11] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَإِذْ يَقُولُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ مَا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:12] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَإِذْ قَالَتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ يَا أَهْلَ يَثْرِبَ لَا مُقَامَ لَكُمْ فَارْجِعُوا ۚ وَيَسْتَأْذِنُ فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمُ النَّبِيَّ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ بُيُوتَنَا عَوْرَةٌ وَمَا هِيَ بِعَوْرَةٍ ۖ إِنْ يُرِيدُونَ إِلَّا فِرَارًا {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:13] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَلَوْ دُخِلَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ أَقْطَارِهَا ثُمَّ سُئِلُوا الْفِتْنَةَ لَآتَوْهَا وَمَا تَلَبَّثُوا بِهَا إِلَّا يَسِيرًا {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:14] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَلَقَدْ كَانُوا عَاهَدُوا اللَّهَ مِنْ قَبْلُ لَا يُوَلُّونَ الْأَدْبَارَ ۚ وَكَانَ عَهْدُ اللَّهِ مَسْئُولًا {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:15] (see commentary for verse 10)

قُلْ لَنْ يَنْفَعَكُمُ الْفِرَارُ إِنْ فَرَرْتُمْ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ أَوِ الْقَتْلِ وَإِذًا لَا تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:16] (see commentary for verse 10)

قُلْ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَعْصِمُكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ سُوءًا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ رَحْمَةً ۚ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا{17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:17] (see commentary for verse 10)

قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ الْمُعَوِّقِينَ مِنْكُمْ وَالْقَائِلِينَ لِإِخْوَانِهِمْ هَلُمَّ إِلَيْنَا ۖ وَلَا يَأْتُونَ الْبَأْسَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:18] (see commentary for verse 10)

أَشِحَّةً عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ الْخَوْفُ رَأَيْتَهُمْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ تَدُورُ أَعْيُنُهُمْ كَالَّذِي يُغْشَىٰ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ ۖ فَإِذَا ذَهَبَ الْخَوْفُ سَلَقُوكُمْ بِأَلْسِنَةٍ حِدَادٍ أَشِحَّةً عَلَى الْخَيْرِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا فَأَحْبَطَ اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا{19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:19] (see commentary for verse 10)

يَحْسَبُونَ الْأَحْزَابَ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا ۖ وَإِنْ يَأْتِ الْأَحْزَابُ يَوَدُّوا لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ بَادُونَ فِي الْأَعْرَابِ يَسْأَلُونَ عَنْ أَنْبَائِكُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كَانُوا فِيكُمْ مَا قَاتَلُوا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:20] (see commentary for verse 10)

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:21]

This verse describes the rational, functional, individual, social and dynamic attitude of the sincere believers. They always kept the ideal pattern of the Holy Prophet in their minds and faithfully followed his example in letter and spirit. He was sent in this world as the perfect exemplar of all that Allah has commanded mankind to do. In blind envy his critics fail to understand the in depth meaningfulness of his way of life every smallest aspect of which contains useful and profitable guidance for mankind, in every age, for individual and collective life, from material as well as spiritual point of view, because he did not do anything or utter any word unless commanded by Allah (Najm: 2 to 10). The theory of his preaching was always demonstrated by actual practice. If he had not done so he would not have fulfilled the purpose of his advent and his ministry. He has no equal. Whatever he preached, he and his Ahlul Bayt put into practice.

About his defensive wars refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 190 to 193 and 216 and about the polygamy allowed in Islam refer to the commentary of Nisa: 3.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Ali ibn abi Talib said: “When the fighting was most intense we always found the Holy Prophet nearest the enemy lines.”

Before him, his father, Abu Talib, used to say that Muhammad was the pivot around whom the Hashimite warriors would gather to take refuge and fight.

 

وَلَمَّا رَأَى الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْأَحْزَابَ قَالُوا هَٰذَا مَا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَصَدَقَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ۚ وَمَا زَادَهُمْ إِلَّا إِيمَانًا وَتَسْلِيمًا {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:22]

In contrast to what the hypocrites and the weak in faith said in verses 12 and 13, the sincere believers, when they saw the large number of allied forces, instead of losing heart and confidence decided to stand their ground against the enemy, with sure conviction that what Allah and the Holy Prophet had promised would come true.

Refer to the commentary of verses 1 to 3 and 9 and 10 to 20, 21 of this surah and other verses mentioned therein.

 

مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُوا مَا عَاهَدُوا اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ قَضَىٰ نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَنْتَظِرُ ۖ وَمَا بَدَّلُوا تَبْدِيلًا {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:23]

Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir said that among the believers who were true in their promise to Allah and had discharged their vow by martyrdom were Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib and Jafar bin Abu Talib, and he who was waiting was Ali ibn abi Talib.

Ali ibn abi Talib said:

“I, my uncle Hamza, my brother Jafar and my cousin Abu Obayda had made a voluntary promise to Allah to always stand our ground against the enemy in the battles fought in the cause of Allah. My comrades have completed their vow. I am waiting my turn.”

The Holy Prophet said:

“O Lord, Obayda was martyred at Badr, Hamza at Uhad, Jafar at Muta, but Ali is still with me; let me not depart from this world without a heir to succeed me.”

The best and the greatest example of voluntarily, willingly and readily sacrificing lives, property and children in the cause of Allah was shown, set and established in the battle of Karbala in 61 Hijra by Imam Husayn bin Ali. In Karbala every companion of Imam Husayn was vying with one another to give his life in the cause of Allah. At the time of giving permission to every aspirant for martyrdom the Imam said: “Go. We will follow you”; and recited this verse.

It is reported that Imam Ali recited this verse after the martyrdom of Ammar Yasir and Khuzayma ibn Thabit.

 

لِيَجْزِيَ اللَّهُ الصَّادِقِينَ بِصِدْقِهِمْ وَيُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ إِنْ شَاءَ أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:24]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse refers to the faith of the companions of the Holy Prophet. The true believers among them are described in verse 23 who shall certainly attain success in the life of the hereafter, and in this verse the other category of the companions is addressed as pretenders who shall certainly be punished.

 

وَرَدَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِغَيْظِهِمْ لَمْ يَنَالُوا خَيْرًا ۚ وَكَفَى اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْقِتَالَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ قَوِيًّا عَزِيزًا {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:25]

In spite of the mighty preparations and the great forces which the allied enemies of Islam brought to destroy the Muslims, all their plans were frustrated by Allah through Ali ibn abi Talib who single-handedly made the enemy abandon the attack and return to Makka. They came in anger and fury but departed in defeat and dejection. This was their last and dying effort. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 214 and 251; and verses 1 to 3 and 9 and 10 to 20, 21, 22 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The books of history give three reasons for the retreat of the allied forces. Verse 9 of this surah says: “We (Allah) sent (i) a hurricane (ii) and the armies which you did not see.” In addition to these two the 3rd reason was the role Ali played in this battle.

In this verse it is said: “Allah repelled the disbelievers in their rage.” Although the human will was present in the 3rd cause yet it has not been mentioned, because Ali’s will worked in total submission to Allah’s will as also the Holy Prophet’s action is described in verse 17 of An-am: “When you (O Muhammad) threw (dust) at them, it was not your act, but Allah’s.” The Holy Prophet told the dejected Muslims in the battle of Khaybar when he gave the standard to Ali: “He will not come back till Allah gives us victory through his hands.” So Ali is also known yadullah (the hand of Allah).

Imam Ali said:

“Whatever I do is in the cause of Allah. I do nothing for myself. Wholly and solely all my actions are for Allah.”

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 214; 251 and verse 1 to 3 and 9 and 10 to 20, 21, 22 of this surah.

 

وَأَنْزَلَ الَّذِينَ ظَاهَرُوهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ صَيَاصِيهِمْ وَقَذَفَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ فَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ وَتَأْسِرُونَ فَرِيقًا {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:26]

The reference is to the Jewish tribe of the Banu Qurayza. As citizens of Madina they were bound by solemn agreement to help in the defence of the city. But on the occasion of the siege by the Quraysh and their allies they intrigued with the enemies and treacherously aided them. The Banu Qurayza were filled with terror and dismay when Madina was free from the Quraysh danger. They shut themselves in their fortress about three or four miles to the east of Madina.

Ahul Fida and Tabari in their histories and Hirwi in Habib al Siyar say that soon after his return from the battle of Khandaq, while laying aside his armour, the Holy Prophet was washing his hands and face in the house of his beloved daughter Fatimah whom he used to visit before going to his own quarter on return from an expedition or excursion the angel Jibrail brought a command from Allah to proceed immediately against the Qurayza Jews.

The Holy Prophet instantly sent Ali with his standard, and himself following with his army laid siege to the fortress of the Jews. The Holy Prophet himself went near the gate of their fortress and asked them to surrender. They did not. Had they done as suggested by the Holy Prophet they would have enjoyed the fair and lenient terms given to the tribe of Banu Quinuqa It is said that at the command of the Holy Prophet the grove of the trees near the walls of the fortress moved over to a place away from it so as to give shelter to the Muslim army.

At last, after twenty five days they offered to surrender, if Sad bin Mu-az, the chief of their allies-the Bani Aws- might be appointed to decide their fate. The Holy Prophet agreed. Sad decreed that the male captives should be put to sword, women and children be sold as slaves and their goods be confiscated and divided among the besiegers. This decision was given by Sad in the light of the verses 13 and 14 of Deuteronomy 20:

“You shall put all its males to the sword, but you may take the women, the dependants, and the cattle for yourselves.”

Please refer to Deuteronomy 20: 10 to 18.

 

وَأَوْرَثَكُمْ أَرْضَهُمْ وَدِيَارَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ وَأَرْضًا لَمْ تَطَئُوهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرًا {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:27] (see commentary for verse 26)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِأَزْوَاجِكَ إِنْ كُنْتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:28]

The only youthful marriage of the Holy Prophet was his first marriage to Khadija, mother of Fatimah, the noblest of women and the best of wives. He married her fifteen years before he made known his prophetship; their marriage life lasted for twenty five years, and their love and harmony was ideal. During her life he had no other wife. When she died the Holy Prophet observed “the year of grief”. He would probably never have married again, as he was most abstemious in his physical life, but for two considerations which governed his later marriages-(i) compassion and clemency; (ii) help in his duties of prophetship.

Some of his wives were gentle and faithful; some were envious and avaricious, whom the Holy Prophet, as commanded by Allah in this verse, offered to set free in a goodly manner.

After hearing the Holy Prophet’s declaration Ummi Salima stood up and said: “I have chosen Allah and His Prophet”. Then verse 29 was revealed. It refers to those wives who did not covet for worldly gains but rejoiced in the honour they had as the wives of the Holy Prophet. For such wives there is a great reward from Allah in the hereafter. Most of the commentators say that this verse was revealed because of the persistent demand of his wives for a high standard of living which was beyond the means of the Holy Prophet. According to Irshadus Sari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, volume 7; page 314, the following wives of the Holy Prophet were divided in two groups, one of which including Hafsa, Sawda, Safiya, was dominated by A-isha.

(l) A-isha daughter of Abu Bakr.

 

وَإِنْ كُنْتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْمُحْسِنَاتِ مِنْكُنَّ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:29] (see commentary for verse 28)

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ مَنْ يَأْتِ مِنْكُنَّ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ يُضَاعَفْ لَهَا الْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:30] (see commentary for verse 28)

وَمَنْ يَقْنُتْ مِنْكُنَّ لِلَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا نُؤْتِهَا أَجْرَهَا مَرَّتَيْنِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهَا رِزْقًا كَرِيمًا {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:31] (see commentary for verse 28)

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ ۚ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا{32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:32] (see commentary for verse 28)

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:33]

Obedience to Allah’s law sums up all duties. Regular prayer (seeking nearness to Allah) and regular charity (doing good to fellow-creatures) are mentioned as specially symbolical of the religion of Allah, Islam.

The first command in this verse “stay in your houses” was violated by A-isha when she went to Iraq to organise a mischievous campaign against Ali about whom the Holy Prophet said:

“O Ali, you are to me as Harun was to Musa. You are my brother in this world and the hereafter. Your flesh is my flesh, your blood is my blood. You and me are from one and the same light.”

In his sermon at Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Ma-idah: 67) he invoked Allah to be a friend of those who loved Ali and be an enemy of those who opposed Ali.

Bukhari has recorded in the chapter “What happened in the houses of the Prophet’s wives” in the book “Jihad and Travel” of his Sahih, vol. 2, p. 125, that while delivering an address from the pulpit, the Holy Prophet pointed towards A-isha’s house and said: “Here lies the scandal; here lies the scandal; here lies the scandal, where the horn of Shaytan would be rising.” In the words of Sahih Muslim: “The Prophet came out of the house of A-isha and remarked: “Here is the head of infidelity where the horn of Shaytan will rise.” Refer to Sahih Muslim, vol. 2,0.502.

“Verily Allah intends to keep off from you uncleanness, O you Ahl ul Bayt and purify you with a thorough purification” is a separate verse revealed on a particular occasion but placed here. Please refer to Aqa Mahdi Puya’s note in the commentary of verses 28 to 32.

The time, occasion and people concerned in connection with the revelation of the above noted verse have been discussed and made known in many authentic books of the Muslim scholars.

The one and only reference available to the commentators is the event of the blanket (Hadith al Kisa).

The “event of the blanket” has been written by the following authors whom the Muslim Ummah acclaim with one voice.

(1) Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal (241 H) “Musnad” (Egypt: 131 H) pages 259, 285, 292.

(2) Muslim bin Hajjaj Nayshapuri (261 H) Sahih Muslim” (Egypt: 1349) vol. 4, page 116.

(3) Abi Isa Muhammad Tirmidhi (275 or 279 H) “Sahih Tirmidhi” (Sharah ibnul Arabi) (Egypt: 1352 H) vol. 13 pages 200, 248.

(4) Ahmed ibn Shu-ayb Nisa-i (303 H) “Khasa-is” (Egypt: 1348 H) page 4.

(5) Ibn Jarir Tabari (310 H) “Tafsir Tabari” (Jama ul Bayan fi Tafsir il Quran) (Egypt: 1331 H) vol.22, page 5.

(6) Sulayman bin Ahmad Al Tibrani (360 H) “Al Mu-jam Al Saghir” (Dehli: 1311 H), page 34, 75.

(7) Hakim Nayshapuri (405 H) “Al Mustadrak” (Hyderabad Deccan: 1334 H), pages 146, 147, 148.

(8) Yusuf bin Abdullah ibni Abdul Birr (463 H) “Al Isti-ab” (Hyderabad Deccan: 1346 H),

vol. 2, page 460.

  1. Ali bin Ahmad Al Wahidi (468 H) “Asbab ul Nuzul” (Egypt: 1315 H) pages 266, 267.

Tirmidhi, Ibn Jarir Tabari, Hakim and Tibrani have related from Ummi Salima that when this verse was revealed the Holy Prophet was under a blanket or mantle along with Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, and he declared that his family consisted of only these persons. Ummi Salima, his wife, within whose quarters the revelation came, asked permission to be included in the group under the blanket, but she was politely refused permission. The group is known ever since with the epithet “panjtan pak” or “the holy group of five”. These are the persons who were compared by the Holy Prophet with the ark of Nuh wherein those who embarked were saved, while those who sought shelter elsewhere were drowned. Refer to Tafsir Azizi by Shah Abdul Aziz and Tafsir Durr al Manthur by Jalal al Din al Suyuti. In Yanabi al Mawaddat, page 87, Shaykh al Islam writes that A-isha said: “Ayah al Tat-hir refers only to the Holy Prophet, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. No wife of his is included.” On page 280 of volume two of Sharah Nuwi of Sahih Muslim it is written that when Zayd bin Arqam was asked whether the wives of the Holy Prophet are included in the Ahl ul Bayt, he said: “By Allah the wives of the Holy Prophet cannot be included in the Ahl ul Bayt at all, because after the pronouncement of divorce the wives are reverted to their parent; and, moreover, sadqah (charity) is prohibited to be given to the Ahl ul Bayt.” Also please refer to the commentary of Shura: 42 and Ali Imran : 61 for further confirmation and proofs.

Some commentators report this tradition through A-isha who says that this event took place in her house. So two wives of the Holy Prophet have confirmed that they both were not given permission by the Holy Prophet to come under the blanket, so they could never be described as Ahl ul Bayt.

Thalabi reports that when A-isha was asked as to why she violated the command of Allah “to stay in your houses” by going to the battle of Jamal against Ali, she said:

“It was my fate. I saw the Holy Prophet taking Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain under his mantle and heard him saying: ‘O Allah, these are my Ahl ul Bayt. Keep off impurity from them.’ I asked him: ‘Am I not of your Ahl ul Bayt?’ He said: ‘Go away from here. You are not of my Ahlul Bayt.'”

Abu Dawud and Malik relate from Anas that for six months after the revelation of this verse every morning, while going for fajr salat, the Holy Prophet used to recite this verse at the door of Fatimah’s house.

In verse 73 of Hud Sara is addressed as Ahli Bayt, not as the wife of Ibrahim but as the mother of prophet Is-haq, because the state of being a wife of a prophet gives no privilege to a woman as stated above and clearly indicated by the Holy Prophet himself, and decisively proved by the condemnation of the wives of Nuh and Lut.

Innama implies the determined decision or will of Allah. Although the decision of a created being may not take effect at all, but the will of Allah takes immediate effect. There cannot be a slightest gap of time or space in the will of Allah taking effect. When He commands: “Be”; it becomes. Refer to Baqarah: 117; Nahl: 40 Maryolm: 35; Ya Sin 83; Mumin: 68 and Qamar 50. It is not only the will of Allah but the declaration of its effect. Since the Ahl ul Bayt have been thoroughly purified, they remain thoroughly purified for ever. The prayer of Ibrahim in Baqarah: 127 to 129 is prayed to continue the excellence in themselves and in their descendants mentioned in Baqarah: 124. When a quality or attribute is described or mentioned in indefinite sense it refers to the perfect possibility. The purity in this verse is absolute purity. Polytheism (shirk) is described in the Quran as impurity and also the greatest iniquity (refer to Luqman : 13). Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 124 for the condition that imamah is not bestowed on those who have ever (even once in their lives) worshipped any ghayrallah. All the companions of the Holy Prophet and his wives were polytheists before embracing Islam. Only the Holy Prophet, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn were at that time free from the dirt of shirk, therefore they alone could be throughly purified.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

(i) Innama (verily or only) signifies exclusive distinction. To emphasise this exclusiveness, the second object of the verb yudh-hiba (keep off)-the phrase ankum (from you)-has been put before the first object rijs (uncleanness); and for further emphasis, the phrase Ahl ul Bayt has been mentioned to explain the pronoun ankum (from you). The grammatical structure of the whole clause indicates that this a unique privilege or distinction granted to the Ahl ul Bayt only, excluding all others.

(ii)

The verb yuridu implies that the continuous will or intention of Allah is His creative will or intention, not legislative. To interpret the will as the legislative will as in Ma-idah: 6, distorts the whole fabric of the verse and renders meaningless the exclusive particle and the constructional arrangement. Even then it means that only the Ahl ul Bayt exclusively achieved the standard.

(iii) This verse is a preface to verses 77 to 79 of al Waqi-ah: “Verily this is an honourable (Karim) Quran, in a hidden (preserved) book, which no one can touch save the purified.” (Refer to page 3.)

(iv) The excellences of Ahl ul Bayt have been openly demonstrated in the event of mubahilah (refer to the commentary of Ali Imran : 61).

(v) The Ahl ul Bayt had only been thoroughly purified by Allah because of their total submission to Allah’s will and their state of being always in communion with Allah.

The event of revelation of this verse as reported by Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari, one of the most reliable companions of the Holy Prophet has been mentioned in “Awalim al Ulum” by Shaykh Abdullah bin Nurullah Al-Bahrayni and is reproduced here:-

In the name of Allah, the beneficent, the merciful. It is reported by Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari that Fatimah Zahra said;

One day my father, the messenger of Allah, came into (my house),

and said “Fatimah! Peace be on you.” “Peace be on you too.” I replied.

“I am not feeling well.” He said.

“May Allah keep you safe from weakness, O my father.” I prayed.

“Fatimah! Please bring the Yamani blanket and cover me with it.” He said.

So I brought the Yamani blanket and covered him with it. I turned my eyes upon his face. It was shining bright like a full moon in its full glory and splendour.

Then, not a moment passed before my son, Hasan, walked in and said:

“Peace be on you, mother.”

“Peace be on you too, my dearest darling” I answered.

“I breathe the pure aroma of the messenger of Allah, my grandfather, coming from you!” He observed.

“True; your grandfather is under the blanket.” I confirmed.

Hasan went near his grandfather (covered with the blanket) and said:

“Peace be on you, grandfather, the messenger of Allah, may I join you under the blanket?”

“Peace be on you, my son, my companion at the spring of Kawthar, come in.”

He went inside the blanket.

Then, not a moment passed, before my son, Husayn, walked in and said: “Peace be on you, mother.” “Peace be on you too, my dearest darling” I answered .

“I breathe the pure aroma of the messenger of Allah, my grandfather, coming from you!” He observed .

“True, your grandfather and your brother are under the blanket.” I confirmed.

Husayn went near the blanket (under which his grandfather was resting with his brother) and said:

“Peace be on you grandfather, the choice of Allah, may I join you both under the blanket ?”

“Peace be on you, my son, the saviour of my people, come in.”

He went inside the blanket.

In that instant Abul Hasan. Amir al Muminin, Ali ibn abi Talib, stepped in and said:

“Peace be on you, O the daughter of the messenger of Allah!”

“Peace be on you too, Abul Hasan, Amir al Muminin.” I answered.

“Fatimah, I breathe the pure aroma of my brother, the son of my uncle, the messenger of Allah, coming from you!” He observed.

“True, he is under the blanket with your sons” I confirmed.

Ali went near the blanket and said:

“Peace be on you, the messenger of Allah, may I join you (all) under the blanket?”

“Peace be on you, my brother, the executor of my will, my successor, my standard bearer, come in.”

Ali went inside the blanket.

Then I went near the blanket and said:

“Peace be on you, my father, the messenger of Allah, may I join you (all), under the blanket?”

“Peace be on you; my daughter my darling, come in.”

I went inside the blanket.

As soon as all of us united under the blanket, my father, the messenger of Allah, held the two ends of the blanket and raised his right hand toward the heaven and said:

“O Allah! These are my Ahl ul Bayt, very special to me, my near and dear ones, my own flesh and blood; whoso annoys them disturbs me; whoso makes them sad makes me unhappy. I make war on those who carry on hostilities against them; I am well disposed towards those who make their peace with them; I oppose those who run counter to them; I favour those who love them. They are from me and I am from them. So send Thy blessings, benefits, mercy, protection and favours on me and on them, and keep off from them uncleanliness, and purify them with a thorough purification.”

Thereupon The Almighty and the Glorious Allah said: “O My angels and the dwellers of the heavens, verily I have not created the indeclinable sky, the levelled earth, the bright moon, the resplendent sun, the rotating cosmic system, the flowing seas, and the sailing ship, but for the sake of and in the love of the five souls lying underneath the blanket.”

The trusted Jibrail asked:

“O Lord! Who are underneath the blanket?” The Almighty and the Glorious replied:

“They are the ‘Ahl ul Bayt’ of the Prophet, the custodians of the message; they are-Fatimah, her father, her husband and her sons.”

Jibrail (submissively) asked:

“O Lord! May I descend on the earth and be the sixth with them?”

“Yes. I give you permission,” said Allah.

The trusted angel, Jibrail, came down (on the earth), and said:

“Peace be on you, O the messenger of Allah. The Highest High says: “Peace be on you. And distinguishes you with greetings and blessings.

He tells you:

‘In the name of My majesty and glory, verily, I have not created the indeclinable sky, the levelled earth, the bright moon, the resplendent sun, the rotating cosmic system, the flowing seas, and the sailing ship, but for your sake and in your love.’

And He has also given me permission to be with you. So may I have your permission O the messenger of Allah.”

The messenger of Allah replied: “Peace be on you, O the custodian of Allah’s revelation, come in and join (us).”

Jibrail came in and joined us under the blanket.

He told my father: “Verily, Allah has sent a revelation to you. He said:

‘Verily Allah’s wish is but to keep off from you uncleanness, O Ahl ul Bayt, and to purify you (with) a thorough purification.'”

Ali asked my father: “O messenger of Allah, tell us that which makes our assembly under this blanket an event of surpassing excellence before Allah.”

The Prophet replied:

“In the name of He who sent me as a truthful prophet, and chose me as a redeemer to convey His message, I declare that no assembly of our followers and devotees, on the earth, where this event is narrated shall spend a single moment but the mercy of Allah will envelop them, then and there; and countless angels of Allah shall pray for the remission of their sins till the group of the faithful disperse.”

Ali declared:

“Well then, by the Lord of the Ka-bah, we have attained our end, and have been rendered successful, so also our followers!”

The Holy Prophet said again:

“O Ali! In the name of He who sent me as a truthful Prophet, and chose me as a redeemer to convey His message, I declare that in any of the assemblies of our followers and devotees, on the earth, where this event is narrated, there would not be a grief-stricken among them, but Allah dispels his worries; nor there would be a downcast, among them, but Allah disperses his sorrows; nor would there be a needy, among them, but Allah meets his de

وَاذْكُرْنَ مَا يُتْلَىٰ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ لَطِيفًا خَبِيرًا {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:34]

In this verse the gender (feminine plural) again refers to the wives of the Holy Prophet and to “houses”, not to the people of the house (Ahl ul Bayt) of verse 33. The wives of the Holy Prophet are commanded (as an admonition) to pay attention to the teachings of the Quran and the Holy Prophet, the fountain of wisdom, so that they might not go astray as some of them did (see commentary of verses 28 to 32 of this surah.

 

إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:35] Islam, or submitting to Allah’s will, includes all the virtues, as particularly specified in this verse. As soon as a man sincerely believes in the truth of the religion of Allah and becomes a Muslim every virtue takes root in his character.

It is said that, after the return from Abysinia, Asma wife of Jafar Tayyar, wondered as to why there was no particular mention about women in the Quran so far revealed, then this verse was revealed. On several occasions the Holy Prophet had said that every Muslim man and Muslim woman must cultivate the following virtues:

(i) Faith, hope and trust in Allah, and in His benevolent administration of the whole universe;

(ii) devotion and service in practical life;

(iii) love and practice of the teachings of Islam in thought and intention, word and deed;

(iv) patience in suffering and constancy in right endeavour;

(v) humility, the avoidance of an attitude of arrogance and superiority;

(vi) financial help to the poor and less fortunate fellow-beings;

(vii) self denial,

(viii) purity in sex life, purity in motive, thought, word and deed;

(ix) constant attention to Allah’s commands,

(x) safeguarding oneself against evil with full awareness of laws made by Allah.

Forgiveness and equal recompense are for both men and women. Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 195.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The general statement about believing men and women in this verse indicates that the privilege and

distinction mentioned in the preceding verse are exclusive for the Ahl ul Bayt.

Although every wife of the Holy Prophet must be respected as the “mother of believers”, but in view of the verse 5 of Tahrim they may not be included in this verse.

 

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُبِينًا {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:36]

Refer to the commentary of verses 4, 5 and 28 to 32 of this surah about Zayd, Zaynab and the Holy Prophet. Zayd’s marriage with the Holy Prophet’s cousin Zaynab daughter of Jahsh was celebrated in Makka eight years before the hijrat. At the time of their marriage when she was informed by the Holy Prophet she did not like the proposal, so her brother Abdullah bin Jahsh; and both of them, according to Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir, wanted to exercise their freedom of choice in this matter, then this verse was revealed. We must not put our own wisdom in competition with Allah’s wisdom. We must accept it loyally, and do the best we can to carry it out. We must make our will consonant to the will of Allah. Also refer to the commentary of Nisa: 65. Zaynab the high-born could not reconcile herself with Zayd. Both were good believers, and both loved the Holy Prophet; but there was mutual incompatibility and this proved to be the cause of separation between them. Zayd wished to divorce her. The Holy Prophet tried his best to prevent separation between them, because Zaynab’s reputation would be ruined, but as marriage should be according to Allah’s plan, a source of happiness, not torture, Islam permits the bond of marriage to be dissolved, provided that all interests concerned are safeguarded. Refer to the commentary of Nisa : 3 for polygamy and al Baqarah: 227 to 237 for divorce. After the divorce Zaynab’s misery as a widow began to disturb the family of Banu Hashim. In fact, Zaynab’s parents wanted to give Zaynab’s hand to the Holy Prophet right from the beginning, but at the Holy Prophet’s command she was married to Zayd. Now she, and her brothers and other members of the family asked the Holy Prophet to marry her. Then the verse 37 was revealed and the Holy Prophet married her. The issue of an adopted son has been dealt with in the commentary of verse 4 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“An adopted son is not the real son”, and all other Quranic injunctions are valid in all ages.

“You did fear the people” implies that the right course should be followed, whether the people like it or not, as said in verse 54 of Ma-idah: “They fear not the censure of the censurers.”

Prophethood does not deprive the prophet and his family of essential human rights divinely legislated for all.

 

وَإِذْ تَقُولُ لِلَّذِي أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ زَوْجَكَ وَاتَّقِ اللَّهَ وَتُخْفِي فِي نَفْسِكَ مَا اللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَتَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَنْ تَخْشَاهُ ۖ فَلَمَّا قَضَىٰ زَيْدٌ مِنْهَا وَطَرًا زَوَّجْنَاكَهَا لِكَيْ لَا يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِي أَزْوَاجِ أَدْعِيَائِهِمْ إِذَا قَضَوْا مِنْهُنَّ وَطَرًا ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولًا {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:37] (see commentary for verse 36)

مَا كَانَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ مِنْ حَرَجٍ فِيمَا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ لَهُ ۖ سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ فِي الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قَدَرًا مَقْدُورًا {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:38] (see commentary for verse 36)

الَّذِينَ يُبَلِّغُونَ رِسَالَاتِ اللَّهِ وَيَخْشَوْنَهُ وَلَا يَخْشَوْنَ أَحَدًا إِلَّا اللَّهَ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ حَسِيبًا {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:39]

Man’s responsibility is to Allah; and particularly a prophet’s submission to Allah’s will had to be of the highest degree. In conveying Allah’s message or in carrying out His commands a prophet had to fear none other than Allah.

 

مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:40]

Refer to the commentary of verse 4 of this surah for the issue of adopted sons raised by the disbelievers.

Refer to the commentary of Yunus: 47; Ibrahim: 4 and Nahl: 36, according to which messengers of Allah had been sent to preach the religion of Allah to mankind in all ages; and refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 253 and Bani Israil: 55 for the preference given to prophets over one another and the position of the Holy Prophet among them as the last and the superior most prophet along with references from the Bible, also refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 81 for the covenant taken from all the prophets regarding the finality and universality of the prophethood of the Holy Prophet. The commentary of Fatihah: 7 also deals with “the seal of the prophets”. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 124 and Ma-idah: 67 for the continuity of guidance through the Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men” annuls the pagans laws concerning the adopted children, but it does not mean that his posterity was cut off (see commentary of surah al Kawthar, and Ali Imran: 61 wherein abna-ana, nisa-ana and anfusana are distinguished from other people, and min rijalikum (of your men) has been used in this verse to exclude all others from the progeny of the Holy Prophet.

The word khatam implies not only the finality but also signifies that the Holy Prophet is the testimony of the truthfulness of all the earlier prophets.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيرًا {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:41]

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

“There is a limit to everything, but there is no limit to the remembrance of Allah. Excess in anything is disliked by Allah, but Allah’s love increases proportionately to the degree of His remembrance a man commemorates in his thoughts and actions. Our true followers are those who, whenever free from their legitimate duties, remembers Allah a great deal.”

-Tasbihat al Arba, Tasbih of Bibi Fatimah, and Kalimah are the best recitations for the abundant remembrance of Allah, day in and day out.

 

وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:42] (see commentary for verse 41)

هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَائِكَتُهُ لِيُخْرِجَكُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ۚ وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًا {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:43]

The greatest blessing of Allah is His guidance made available to mankind through the Holy Prophet and his thoroughly purified Ahl ul Bayt (Ahzab: 33). Those believers who remember Him, as stated in the commentary of verse 41 and 42 of this surah, are brought into the light of knowledge and righteousness from the darkness of ignorance and evil (see commentary of Nur: 35 and 36 and Baqarah: 257).

 

تَحِيَّتُهُمْ يَوْمَ يَلْقَوْنَهُ سَلَامٌ ۚ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا كَرِيمًا {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:44]

It is said that when Izrail comes to take away the soul of a true believer he says: “Peace be to you (assalamu alaykum).”

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:45]

The Holy Prophet came as a witness to all men about the truths which had been obscured by the falsehood of ignorance and superstition (see commentary of Nisa: 41 and Nahl: 84 and 89). He came as a bearer of the glad tidings of the mercy and reward of Allah to those believers who do good and also to those transgressors who believe, repent and then live a good life. He came also as a warner to those who are heedless of the hereafter which is all important.

He also came as one who has a right to invite all men to the religion of Allah. Above all he came as an eternal light or lamp (sirajan munira) to illuminate the right path (see commentary of Nuh : 16 wherein the sun has been described as a lamp), therefore the Holy Prophet is like the sun which will illuminate the whole world till the end.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

By Allah’s permission and under His command the Holy Prophet invited every person to the right path. See the commentary of Ali Imran: 52, 53 and 61; and Ma-idah: 67, according to which the appointment of Ali and the Imams in the progeny of Ali and Fatimah as his successors were strictly under the commands of Allah. Therefore the promise of the great grace of Allah is for those who accept and follow his declarations made in dawat dhil ashira and at Ghadir -Khum.

 

وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُنِيرًا {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:46] (see commentary for verse 45)

وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَضْلًا كَبِيرًا {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:47] (see commentary for verse 45)

وَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَدَعْ أَذَاهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:48]

So far as the infidels and the hypocrites were refusing to believe in the message of Allah and indulging in slander, ridicule and vain talk, the Holy Prophet was commanded not to heed their annoyances, but when their mischief and intrigues developed into physical threat to the Muslim community fighting was enjoined on him (see commentary of Baqarah: 216, 244; Nisa: 75, 76, 84; Bara-at: 36, 73, 123).

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نَكَحْتُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ فَمَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ عِدَّةٍ تَعْتَدُّونَهَا ۖ فَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ وَسَرِّحُوهُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:49]

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 228, 236, 237.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَحْلَلْنَا لَكَ أَزْوَاجَكَ اللَّاتِي آتَيْتَ أُجُورَهُنَّ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ يَمِينُكَ مِمَّا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ وَبَنَاتِ عَمِّكَ وَبَنَاتِ عَمَّاتِكَ وَبَنَاتِ خَالِكَ وَبَنَاتِ خَالَاتِكَ اللَّاتِي هَاجَرْنَ مَعَكَ وَامْرَأَةً مُؤْمِنَةً إِنْ وَهَبَتْ نَفْسَهَا لِلنَّبِيِّ إِنْ أَرَادَ النَّبِيُّ أَنْ يَسْتَنْكِحَهَا خَالِصَةً لَكَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۗ قَدْ عَلِمْنَا مَا فَرَضْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِي أَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ لِكَيْلَا يَكُونَ عَلَيْكَ حَرَجٌ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:50]

As explained in the commentary of verses 28 to 32 of this surah the Holy Prophet as a young man married Khadijah Kubra, a woman older than him, and she remained his only wife till her death. She gave birth to Fatimah Zahra through whom he was blessed with his progeny (see commentary of surah al Kawthar). It clearly indicates that he was not at all a sensuous male. The reason for his marriages, after the death of Khadijah Kubra has also been stated in the commentary of abovesaid verses.

Amir Ali in Spirit of Islam says (on the authority of many Muslim historians like Tabari etcetera) that after the death of Khadijah Kubra with a view to cement his friendship Abu Bakr made an offer of his daughter A-isha to the Holy Prophet. At his persuasive solicitations the Holy Prophet consented. This was an act of Abu Bakr’s characteristic foresight. With the example of Abu Bakr before him, Umar, also desirous of having a like influence in the close circle of the Holy Prophet, gave his daughter to him. Hafsa was a widow. Umar first offered her to Abu Bakr and then to Uthman but the offer was rejected by both, Umar mentioned this to the Holy Prophet, as a complaint, who, out of compassion, accepted her as his wife.

Similarly, he married other women mentioned in the commentary of verses 28 to 32, either out of compassion, or on account of clemency, or to help his mission. All the books of history are clear on this point.

For polygamy see commentary of Nisa: 3.

 

تُرْجِي مَنْ تَشَاءُ مِنْهُنَّ وَتُؤْوِي إِلَيْكَ مَنْ تَشَاءُ ۖ وَمَنِ ابْتَغَيْتَ مِمَّنْ عَزَلْتَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَنْ تَقَرَّ أَعْيُنُهُنَّ وَلَا يَحْزَنَّ وَيَرْضَيْنَ بِمَا آتَيْتَهُنَّ كُلُّهُنَّ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَلِيمًا {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:51]

This verse allowed the Holy Prophet to get rid of any of his wives as and when he pleased.

 

لَا يَحِلُّ لَكَ النِّسَاءُ مِنْ بَعْدُ وَلَا أَنْ تَبَدَّلَ بِهِنَّ مِنْ أَزْوَاجٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكَ حُسْنُهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ يَمِينُكَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ رَقِيبًا {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:52]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Allah commanded the Holy Prophet not to marry any woman after the revelation of this verse.

Although his followers are prohibited to marry more than four women (see commentary of Nisa: 3) but muta (temporary marriage) is allowed in addition to four wives (see commentary of Nisa: 24).

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتَ النَّبِيِّ إِلَّا أَنْ يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَاظِرِينَ إِنَاهُ وَلَٰكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُوا فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانْتَشِرُوا وَلَا مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِي النَّبِيَّ فَيَسْتَحْيِي مِنْكُمْ ۖ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَنْ تُؤْذُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَنْ تَنْكِحُوا أَزْوَاجَهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ أَبَدًا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمْ كَانَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمًا {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:53]

Generally it is an essential principle of refined society to show deference to all women. To the “mothers of the believers” this respect was due in a higher degree due to their connection with the Holy Prophet.

“From behind a curtain” implies hijab (veil).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse shows that there was a noticeable dearth of good manners in the companions of the Holy Prophet. Their conduct was annoying and objectionable. Refer to the commentary of Nur: 271.

 

إِنْ تُبْدُوا شَيْئًا أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:54]

لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِنَّ فِي آبَائِهِنَّ وَلَا أَبْنَائِهِنَّ وَلَا إِخْوَانِهِنَّ وَلَا أَبْنَاءِ إِخْوَانِهِنَّ وَلَا أَبْنَاءِ أَخَوَاتِهِنَّ وَلَا نِسَائِهِنَّ وَلَا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُنَّ ۗ وَاتَّقِينَ اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدًا {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:55]

Refer to the hijab (veil) mentioned in verse 53 above. The list of those before whom the Holy Prophet’s wives could appear informally without a veil includes their fathers, sons, brothers, brother’s or sister’s sons, and slaves.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The status of the motherhood conferred on the wives of the Holy Prophet did not affect the ordinary relationship of man and woman between them and the people.

 

إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ۚ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:56]

Allah sends His blessings (salawat) on the Holy Prophet. The angels invoke Allah to send His blessings on him. The believers are also commanded to invoke Allah to send His blessings on him. The Muslims asked the Holy Prophet: “How are we to seek blessings on you?” He said: “Say: ‘O Allah, send blessings on Muhammad and on the al (children) of Muhammad.”

Fakh al Din al Razi writes that the Ahl ul Bayt are at par with the Holy Prophet in five things (one of which is) in invoking the blessings of Allah during prayers, after each tashahud which, if not recited, renders the salat null and void. Bukhari writes in his Sahih, page 127, volume 3 (Egypt edition) that the Holy Prophet said: “Say: ‘O Allah send blessings on Muhammad and on aliMuhammad (Ah ul Bayt) just as You blessed Ibrahim and ali Ibrahim’.”

Ibn Hajar Makki writes in his Sawa-iq al Muhriqah, on page 87, that the Holy Prophet warned the people not to send batar salawat (salawat which has lost the tail i.e. curtailed). When asked what a batar salawat was he replied: “If you stop at ‘Allahumma salli ala Muhammad’ You should say: ‘Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad'”

In religious meetings and gatherings it has become a “fashion” to say in melodious accent: SALLALLAHU ALA YKA YA RASULLILLAH WA SALLAM ALA YKA YA HABIBALLAH which in the light of the abovenoted authentic traditions is deviation from the right path shown by Allah in this verse. When Allah Himself sends blessings (salawat) on the Holy Prophet as made clear by him in various traditions, if some one selects words not approved by the Holy Prophet, it can be described as hypocrisy, punishment of which is eternal damnation in the fire of hell.

Ahmad bin Hanbal writes in his Musnad, volume 6 page 323, that the Holy Prophet covered Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn with a blanket and said: “O Allah these are my Abl ul Bayt so I invoke You to send Your blessings on Muhammad and ali Muhammad.”

Muslim has also related this in his Sahih, in part I of “the book of prayers.”

Also refer to Mushkil al Athar by Tahawi (volume 1, page 334), Kanz al Ummal by Ali Muttaqi (volume 7, page 103) and Tafsir Durr al Manthur by Jalaluddin al Suyuti in his interpretation ofayah al tat-hir. He has also quoted the well-known verse composed by Al Shafi-i:

“O Ahl ul Bayt of Allah’s messenger, your love is a duty made obligatory upon us in the Quran. It is enough among your great privileges that whoever does not invoke Allah’s blessings on you, his prayer (salat) is void.”

Ibn Hajar also quoted these lines of Shafi-i on page 88 of his Sawa-iq al Muhriqah, in connection with his interpretation of verse 33 of Ahzab.

It is compulsory to recite salawat whenever the name of the Holy Prophet is mentioned.

If a believer really desires fulfilment of his or her supplication, salawat must be recited before and also at the end of the prayer because in that case whatever the prayer contains in the beginning, in the middle, and in the end will be accepted by Allah as the salawat has covered and encircled the whole supplication, and as salawat is always accepted by Allah (because He Himself recites salawat on the Holy Prophet) the entire prayer is accepted by Him.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The recitation of salawat implies that the believers should not worship the Holy Prophet as a deity. He is the most honoured servant of Allah for whom Allah sends His highest blessings, because he is the first and the foremost in submission and devotion to Allah. The Ahl ul Bayt have been included with him, by his command, because they are also equal to him in submission and devotion to Allah.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:57]

Refer to the commentary of Nisa: 115; Anfal: 13 and Bara-at: 61 for the accursed position of those who annoyed the Holy Prophet, particularly refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 to 5 on page 51 to know that whosoever annoyed the daughter of the Holy Prophet, Fatimah Zahra, had annoyed the Holy Prophet, and he who annoyed the Holy Prophet had annoyed Allah, and he is a disbeliever for whom Allah has prepared a humiliating punishment.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Whosoever recites curtailed salawat as mentioned in the commentary of verse 56, by omitting ali Muhammad causes a continuous annoyance to Allah and his prophet, therefore condemns himself to the humiliating punishment promised in this verse.

 

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ بِغَيْرِ مَا اكْتَسَبُوا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلُوا بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُبِينًا {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:58]

When annoying the believers has been condemned by Allah as a calumny and a manifest sin, what will be the fate of those who annoyed, persecuted and killed the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet whose unique excellences have been made known by Allah and His Prophet (see commentary of verses 33 and 56 of this surah, Baqarah : 124, Ali Imran : 61, Ma-idah : 67 and many other verses).

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَنْ يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:59]

Refer to the commentary of Nur: 30 and 31 and 58. Every believing woman is commanded to cover herself with outer garments whenever she goes outside of her home.

 

لَئِنْ لَمْ يَنْتَهِ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ وَالْمُرْجِفُونَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ لَنُغْرِيَنَّكَ بِهِمْ ثُمَّ لَا يُجَاوِرُونَكَ فِيهَا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:60]

As said in the commentary of Bara-at: 47 to 50, even in 9 Hijra a large number of hypocrites were present among the believers and were actively plotting to undermine the divine mission of the Holy Prophet (also see commentary of Bara-at: 41 and 42), but history written by their associates and followers do not mention them and their activities at all after the departure of the Holy Prophet from this world. In fact it was these hypocrites who annoyed, persecuted and killed the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet till the disappearance of the last Imam, al Qa-im, and continued the persecution of their followers in all ages.

The hypocrites, the disbelievers and the enemies of the truth had been seized and destroyed by Allah in the times of earlier prophets and Allah undertakes in verses 61 and 62 that such people among the ummah of the Holy Prophet will also meet the same fate. History does not furnish a single example of any action taken by the Holy Prophet against the hypocrites in the sense mentioned here. As Allah’s promise has to be fulfilled, Ali, as prophesied by the Holy Prophet, performed this duty in the battle of Siffin, Jamal and Nahrwan; and the living Imam Al Qa-im will complete it when he is sent again in this world by Allah (see commentary of Bara-at: 32 and 33.)

 

مَلْعُونِينَ ۖ أَيْنَمَا ثُقِفُوا أُخِذُوا وَقُتِّلُوا تَقْتِيلًا {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:61] (see commentary for verse 60)

سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ فِي الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:62] (see commentary for verse 60)

يَسْأَلُكَ النَّاسُ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّ السَّاعَةَ تَكُونُ قَرِيبًا {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:63]

Refer to the commentary of Araf: 187.

 

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَنَ الْكَافِرِينَ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ سَعِيرًا {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:64] (see commentary for verse 63)

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ لَا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:65] (see commentary for verse 63)

يَوْمَ تُقَلَّبُ وُجُوهُهُمْ فِي النَّارِ يَقُولُونَ يَا لَيْتَنَا أَطَعْنَا اللَّهَ وَأَطَعْنَا الرَّسُولَا {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:66] (see commentary for verse 63)

وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّا أَطَعْنَا سَادَتَنَا وَكُبَرَاءَنَا فَأَضَلُّونَا السَّبِيلَا {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:67]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This will be the fate of those who follow the self-proclaimed leaders instead of the divinely appointed leaders at Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Ma-idah: 67.)

 

رَبَّنَا آتِهِمْ ضِعْفَيْنِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ وَالْعَنْهُمْ لَعْنًا كَبِيرًا {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:68] (see commentary for verse 67)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ آذَوْا مُوسَىٰ فَبَرَّأَهُ اللَّهُ مِمَّا قَالُوا ۚ وَكَانَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَجِيهًا {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:69]

Refer to the plot of Qarun to malign Musa in the commentary of Qasas: 80; and refer to the commentary of verses 4, 5, 28 to 32 and 36 and 37 of this surah for annoyance caused to the Holy Prophet when he married his cousin Zaynab daughter of Jahsh.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:70]

يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:71]

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الْأَمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأَبَيْنَ أَنْ يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الْإِنْسَانُ ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُومًا جَهُولًا {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:72]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Amanat means trust. There is no trust if the trustee has no power, and the trust implies that the giver of the trust expects that the trustee would use it according to the wish or will of the creator of the trust, and not otherwise.

The offer implies the unrestricted grace of Allah which reaches all beings in the heavens and the earth and in between them; and the refusal refers to their inability or lack of competency to carry out the responsibility. If haml (to bear) implies acceptance of the offer, then this verse means that the heavens, the earth and the mountains refused to accept the offer and man undertook the responsibility. According to some commentators haml, in this verse, implies “failure in the fulfilment and bearing the consequences.” Iniquity and ignorance of those who failed to fulfil the entrusted responsibility, pointed out in the last clause, refers, by inference, to those trustees who used the trust according to the will of the creator of the trust, and not otherwise. Therefore this verse implies the praise of those who fulfil the responsibility and denunciation of those who, on account of their iniquity and ignorance, fail to do so. The book of Allah and the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet are the two most important trusts of Allah given to the Muslims, about which they will be questioned (see hadith al thaqalayn).

Do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge. Verily the ear, the eye and the heart, each shall be questioned.(Bani Israil: 36)

The trust is the viceregency of Allah (khilafat) given to man as a gift from the Lord to represent Him according to His will. If the last clause is taken as the failure of Adam then the verses of al Baqarah: 30 to 32 and 124 and Ali Imran: 33 and 34 become meaningless.

In Hashr: 21 the sending down of the Quran to the mountains is mentioned, and it is also mentioned therein that such parables are put forth in order to aid man to reflection. The heavens, the earth and the mountains submit themselves to the laws made by Allah. They have no free will. The first and foremost pre-requisite to accept the responsibility is freedom of choice which implies answerableness for all acts of thought and conduct. The trust referred to is the trust of free will or accountability. The evil ones among the human beings have betrayed the trust and brought punishment on themselves, but there are some chosen ones who have been endowed with divine wisdom to rise far above the common level of human abilities, to be the muqarrabin, the nearest ones to Allah as stated in Waqi-ah: 11 and 88. There can be no higher attainment than this for any creature.

See commentary of Baqarah: 30 to 34, according to which man (Adam) was taught the names (of the personalities of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt) which no created being, nor even the angels knew before. By making known “these names” Allah intended the highest destiny for man. He made him His vicegerent. To know the highest height man could rise refer to the commentary of Bani Israil: 1 and Najm: 2 to 9. The Holy Prophet, Ali, Fatimah and the eleven Imams in their progeny (see commentary of Baqarah: 124) were the only chosen men who took the responsibility of administrating the trust of the viceregency of Allah and successfully fulfilled it to the fullest satisfaction of the creator of the trust.

Allama Abd al Husayn Sharaf al Din al Musawi says in Al Muraji-at:

“The trust given to mankind is the imamah (leadership) of the Ahl ul Bayt which the Muslims failed to follow because of their iniquity and ignorance.”

 

لِيُعَذِّبَ اللَّهُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكَاتِ وَيَتُوبَ اللَّهُ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 33:73]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

As the response to the trust was not alike among the mankind, they have been divided into two groups, one includes the hypocrites and the disbelievers and the other the believers.
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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