بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ ۖ ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:1]

Alhamdu lillah – refer to the commentary of al Fatihah : 2. See commentary of al Baqarah : 164 for the “creation of the heavens and the earth.”

This verse repudiates the theory of duality of old Persian theology, preached by the Magians, that light and darkness are eternal. They are both creatures of the Lord of the worlds. Adala, here, means to hold something as equal to something else. As the ultimate cause of every created thing, in the universe, is Allah, no reasonable person, except a disbeliever, can set up any of His creatures as equal, particularly when He cherishes and loves His creatures. To confound the eternal being of the true God with false ideas and superstitions is shirk (polytheism), which must be punished. He has created light and darkness to help man to distinguish the true from the false. He alone should be praised and glorified.

 

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ طِينٍ ثُمَّ قَضَىٰ أَجَلًا ۖ وَأَجَلٌ مُسَمًّى عِنْدَهُ ۖ ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ تَمْتَرُونَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:2]

Allah created Adam from clay, and through him He brought into being the whole mankind. (See Adam on page 67). The first term, life in this world till death, is a period of probation; and the second term leads upto the time of resurrection, known to Him alone (Nazi-at : 42 to 44), yet the disbelievers have doubt concerning resurrection.

 

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:3]

It is folly to suppose that Allah only reigns in the heavens (see page 11). He also reigns on the earth. He knows all our secret thoughts and motives, and the real worth of all that is behind what we care to show. It is by our deeds that He judges us; for our deeds, whether good or evil, we shall get due recompense in due time.

Allah is one, the (only) creator, the Lord-cherisher of the worlds. Hidden and disclosed are the terms related to man. Allah knows everything. His knowledge encompasses the whole universe (see commentary of al Baqarah : 255).

 

وَمَا تَأْتِيهِمْ مِنْ آيَةٍ مِنْ آيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَّا كَانُوا عَنْهَا مُعْرِضِينَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:4]

Ayat (signs) means revelations, communications and the messengers of Allah and the divinely appointed successors of the Holy Prophet (the holy Imams among his Ahl ul Bayt), who put forward conclusive arguments to establish the truth of Allah’s message, but the rejectors of faith turned away from it, and, at last, they learned the reality of what they used to mock at. The shortsighted and arrogant pagans (who supposed that they were firmly established on this earth, secure in their privileges) were reminded of much greater nations in the past, who failed in their duty and were wiped out.

If a book, written on paper, was sent to the Holy Prophet the pagans would have said (in sheer pugnacity) that it was obvious magic, and they were not helped at all in attaining faith, because their hearts were diseased. A similar demand was made by the Jews (see Nisa : 153).

 

فَقَدْ كَذَّبُوا بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِيهِمْ أَنْبَاءُ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:5] (see commentary for verse 4)

أَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ مِنْ قَرْنٍ مَكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَا لَمْ نُمَكِّنْ لَكُمْ وَأَرْسَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِدْرَارًا وَجَعَلْنَا الْأَنْهَارَ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهِمْ فَأَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَأَنْشَأْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ قَرْنًا آخَرِينَ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:6] (see commentary for verse 4)

وَلَوْ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ كِتَابًا فِي قِرْطَاسٍ فَلَمَسُوهُ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ لَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُبِينٌ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:7] (see commentary for verse 4)

وَقَالُوا لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ ۖ وَلَوْ أَنْزَلْنَا مَلَكًا لَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ثُمَّ لَا يُنْظَرُونَ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:8]

As demanded by the infidels, if Allah did send down an angel (who is by nature invisible to human eye) he would have certainly appeared as a human being, and the paganish nature would also have rejected him. In any event severe punishment is the ultimate fate of the disbelievers. See commentary of al Baqarah : 210.

 

وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَاهُ مَلَكًا لَجَعَلْنَاهُ رَجُلًا وَلَلَبَسْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ مَا يَلْبِسُونَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:9]

Even if an angel was sent to act as a prophet, he would also appear to them, in form and appearance, like a man; in which case their already confused notions about spiritual life would be still more confounded.

 

وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِينَ سَخِرُوا مِنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:10]

Many prophets (Nuh, Lut and Thamud), before the Holy Prophet, were also mocked at, but the scoffers were subdued and destroyed by the thing that they mocked at. The mockers of Isa were destroyed by Titus in Jerusalem. The mockers, who drove out the Holy Prophet from Makka, were overpowered; and they begged for mercy and the “mercy unto the worlds” granted it to them.

 

قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ انْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:11]

Look at the ruins of the disobedient nations with great and glorious past.

 

قُلْ لِمَنْ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ قُلْ لِلَّهِ ۚ كَتَبَ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ ۚ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۚ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:12]

All that exists in the universe belongs to Allah. Human experience (history) proves the mercy of Allah and the law that without His mercy man would have lost his soul and destroyed himself completely He mercifully deals with those who repent sincerely, adopt piety and avoid evil. Those who have destroyed their souls by refusing to give ear to the Holy Prophet shall be punished on the day of resurrection, because they did not exercise their will to believe in Allah and His last Prophet and obey them, inspite of his clear warnings.

 

وَلَهُ مَا سَكَنَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:13]

Sakana means to dwell, to rest, to be still – which implies time and space. All that exists in time and space belongs to Allah. So He is the owner of whatever is in time as well as of whatever is in space; so believe in His unity and profit by His mercy.

 

قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيًّا فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ ۗ قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ ۖ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:14]

Islam means total submission to the will of Allah In this sense all creatures in the heavens and on the earth, willingly or unwillingly, have submitted to His will, accepted Islam, according to verse 83 of Ali Irnran; and in verse 93 of Maryam the word abdiyat also refers to total submission of all creatures to the beneficent Lord of the worlds.

The Holy Prophet was the first abid (worshipper of Allah) among all His creation, therefore it is wrong to say that he was the first convert, which implies that before that he was not a Muslim. “If Allah had a son, I would be the first to worship”, in Zukhruf : 81, proves the fact that the Holy Prophet was the first worshipper of Allah among all His creation.

“Feeds but is not fed”, is true both literally and figuratively. To Allah we owe the satisfaction of all needs, but He is independent of all needs.

 

قُلْ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:15]

Mankind is addressed through the Holy Prophet that whoso disobeys Allah should be ready to face the consequences, in the shape of a severe and eternal punishment, on the day of reckoning.

 

مَنْ يُصْرَفْ عَنْهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمَهُ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:16]

Those who receive mercy from their Lord shall be able to avert the torment of the day of judgement. It is deliverance, the obvious fulfilment of all desires – that is a supreme achievement, a manifest triumph.

 

وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلَا كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:17]

The vulgar worship false gods out of fear that they would harm them, or hope that they would confer some benefits on them. These false gods can do neither. All power, all goodness, is in the hands of one true God. All else is pretence or illusion.

 

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:18]

Allah is the absolute supreme in His infinite power, and in his infinite knowledge and awareness.

 

قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادَةً ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنْذِرَكُمْ بِهِ وَمَنْ بَلَغَ ۚ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَىٰ ۚ قُلْ لَا أَشْهَدُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:19]

The mission of the Holy Prophet was universal. The Holy Prophet was sent to the whole mankind as a messenger for all times. Matthew 10 : 5, 6; and 15 : 22 to 26 confirm that Isa was sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israil. Also refer to Araf : 158; Anbiya : 107 and Saba : 28. The Quran, revealed to him, is a divine evidence of his prophethood.

 

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمُ ۘ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:20]

Refer to al Baqarah : 146.

As explained in the commentary of al Baqarah : 40 to 42, 75, 78 to 91, 101, 105, 109 and 124 the Jews and the Christians knew that the Holy Prophet was the promised prophet as clearly mentioned in their books, but they obstinately refused to accept the truth.

 

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ ۗ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:21]

He who says things like “Isa is the son of God,” or “He has daughters”, or “He has coequals acting on His behalf'”, or denies the description of the Holy Prophet in the old scriptures, is a fabricator of lies. Those who have associated others with Allah shall be brought before the true God, the Lord of the worlds, on the day of reckoning for a just requital, then their subterfuge will not help them, their sedition will earn eternal damnation for them, because the acceptance of the falsity of their notions will practically convict them.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Unzur implies that the Holy Prophet had seen the scene of the day of resurrection, in advance, and was fully aware of that which will take place. Once he had said:

“I and the final hour have been sent together; and everything is moving towards this end.”

It shows that he is viewing all that which is taking place in the universe.

 

وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا أَيْنَ شُرَكَاؤُكُمُ الَّذِينَ كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:22] (see commentary for verse 21)

ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:23] (see commentary for verse 21)

انْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَذَبُوا عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ ۚ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:24] (see commentary for verse 21)

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَنْ يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ۚ وَإِنْ يَرَوْا كُلَّ آيَةٍ لَا يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَا ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوكَ يُجَادِلُونَكَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:25]

Some of the pagans used to visit the Holy Prophet not to listen to what he said but to dispute with him. They were not seekers of truth at all, and they never wanted to profit by the signs (miracles) of Allah. By keeping themselves and others away from it they destroyed their own souls.

It is reported that when Nasr bin Khalid had said to Abu Sufyan, Atbah and Shaybah that the Holy Prophet only recited the tales of the ancients, and he could also relate many fables of the Persians, these verses were revealed.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Quran is meaningful and a guidance to those whose minds and hearts accept it (verse 19 of this surah), but it is recited as a hujjat (argument) to those also whose hearts do not receive it as said in verse 26.

 

وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ ۖ وَإِنْ يُهْلِكُونَ إِلَّا أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:26] (see commentary for verse 25)

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ وُقِفُوا عَلَى النَّارِ فَقَالُوا يَا لَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلَا نُكَذِّبَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:27]

Their falsity was not due to want of knowledge, but on account of perversity and selfishness. In their hearts was a disease (al Baqarah : 10), therefore neither their understanding, nor their ears, nor their eyes do the proper work. They twist what they see, hear, or are taught, and go deeper and deeper into the mire. The deceptions which they used to practise on their people will, on the day of reckoning, become clear to their own eyes.

Every soul reveals its inherent nature in whatever form it assumes.

 

بَلْ بَدَا لَهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يُخْفُونَ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَوْ رُدُّوا لَعَادُوا لِمَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:28] (see commentary for verse 27)

وَقَالُوا إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا حَيَاتُنَا الدُّنْيَا وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَبْعُوثِينَ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:29]

The pagans were no less materialistic than superstitious, therefore, they did not accept the doctrine of resurrection. They totally denied the life of hereafter and believed that, if at all there was another life, they would be sent back again in this world.

 

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ وُقِفُوا عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ قَالَ أَلَيْسَ هَٰذَا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّنَا ۚ قَالَ فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:30]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Resurrection is an evolutionary stage (from the terrestrial to the heavenly and spiritual) where one feels the presence of Allah.

 

قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِلِقَاءِ اللَّهِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمُ السَّاعَةُ بَغْتَةً قَالُوا يَا حَسْرَتَنَا عَلَىٰ مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِيهَا وَهُمْ يَحْمِلُونَ أَوْزَارَهُمْ عَلَىٰ ظُهُورِهِمْ ۚ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَزِرُونَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:31]

Grievous is the burden of sins which the wicked will bear on their backs when they will meet Allah on the day of reckoning – meeting is not seeing with the eyes but communion with Him in a way agreeable to His absoluteness and suitable to His infiniteness.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Consciousness of the worldly life (its sorrows and pleasures) is an essential feature of the life of hereafter. It renders the theory of transmigration null and void.

 

وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلَّا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ ۖ وَلَلدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ ۗ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:32]

This life is a preparation for the eternal home to which we are going. It is far more important than the ephemeral and empty pleasures which seduce us in the life of this world.

 

قَدْ نَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُ لَيَحْزُنُكَ الَّذِي يَقُولُونَ ۖ فَإِنَّهُمْ لَا يُكَذِّبُونَكَ وَلَٰكِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:33]

The pagans used to say that the Holy Prophet was certainly truthful (they called him al sadiq and al amin) as he had never uttered a falsehood. They did not call in question his honesty. What they stoutly denied was the message he claimed to have received from Allah.

 

وَلَقَدْ كُذِّبَتْ رُسُلٌ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فَصَبَرُوا عَلَىٰ مَا كُذِّبُوا وَأُوذُوا حَتَّىٰ أَتَاهُمْ نَصْرُنَا ۚ وَلَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكَ مِنْ نَبَإِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:34]

In “There is none that can alter the words of Allah”, the words of Allah means the decrees and promises of Allah (Allah’s creative or legislative will) to send “help” to the Holy Prophet, as it was provided to His messengers and prophets before him.

 

وَإِنْ كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيْكَ إِعْرَاضُهُمْ فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَنْ تَبْتَغِيَ نَفَقًا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَوْ سُلَّمًا فِي السَّمَاءِ فَتَأْتِيَهُمْ بِآيَةٍ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ ۚ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:35]

The Holy Prophet, as the “mercy unto the worlds”, sincerely wanted to save all the people from the degradation of polytheism. There were many signs of a divine mission in the Holy Prophet’s life and in the message he delivered. If so many signs and evidences had failed to convince the believers, no sign, miracle or wonder would carry conviction to those ignorant dissenters.

The followers of the Holy Prophet, to whom the persistent aversion of the polytheists seemed unyielding and vengeful, have been addressed here through the Holy Prophet. Allah’s plan is that only those shall find guidance who would seek it.

 

إِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ يَسْمَعُونَ ۘ وَالْمَوْتَىٰ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:36]

Only those who pay attention to the call of the Holy Prophet with an open heart and with fairness of mind will accept the truth and believe in the Holy Prophet, because if people listen to the truth sincerely and earnestly, they must believe. If their spiritual faculty is dead, then they are like the dead. They cannot escape being brought to face the judgement on the day of resurrection.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Notwithstanding the universality of the teachings of the Holy Prophet, the real purpose of the divine guidance is to provide guidance to those who have enlightened minds and spiritual integrity to use their free will and intention in order to choose the right path and walk on it.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq said:

“Do not try to increase the number of the true faithfuls by inviting those who do not possess the essential intelligence and tendency for development and progress. Certainly Allah has pointed out, in verse 17 and 18 of al Zumar, the men of understanding who study, examine, rationalize, and, through their free will and candid intention, make a choice of the path of Allah and reject the suggestions made by Shaytan .”

 

وَقَالُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَادِرٌ عَلَىٰ أَنْ يُنَزِّلَ آيَةً وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:37]

Refer to the commentary of verse 35 of this surah. Signs were all around them, but they did not understand. They picked holes in anything that descended to their level of intelligence. Also refer to the commentary of the preceding verse. By “most of them do not know” majority has been censured.

 

وَمَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلَّا أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۚ مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ{38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:38]

In our pride we may exclude animals (living in air, sea and land), but they all live a life, social and individual, like ourselves, and all life is subject to the plan and will of Allah. They are all answerable to His will and plan (“shall be gathered to their Lord in the end”). Everything is registered in the book of creation (nothing is left out or misplaced) of which the Quran is the condensed demonstration .

The religion, in detail, has been explained in the Quran, and knowledge of everything (in the universe) has been given to the Holy Prophet; therefore, the people have been commanded to carry out the orders of the Holy Prophet (Ali Imran : 32, 132; Ma-idah : 92; Hashr : 7) because “nor does he speak of his own desire, it is not but revelation revealed” (Najm : 3, 4); and the Quran contains everything (An-am: 59). On this basis the Holy Prophet declared that he is the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. So the Holy Prophet, and after him, Ali and the holy Imams among the Ahl ul Bayt (Nisa : 59; Ma-idah : 55 and 67) are authorised to deal with and make known details pertaining to nature and all that which has been created by Allah.

 

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا صُمٌّ وَبُكْمٌ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ ۗ مَنْ يَشَإِ اللَّهُ يُضْلِلْهُ وَمَنْ يَشَأْ يَجْعَلْهُ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:39]

If man sees the signs but shuts his ears to the true message and refuses (like a dumb) to speak out the message which all nature proclaims, then according to the divine plan he must suffer and wander, just as, in the opposite case, he will receive grace and salvation.

Allah bestows His pleasure according to inclination and competence.

 

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَتَتْكُمُ السَّاعَةُ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ تَدْعُونَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:40]

The pagans, who believe in false gods, must call upon the imaginary deities whom they worship, but instead they cry out to Allah in moments of extreme helplessness, danger and affliction.

In utter helplessness, unable to find help from any quarter, the “inner self” of every human being, be he an unbeliever, is liberated from the obstinacy of personal views, and commands to cry for the help of the omnipotent and omniscient Lord.

When a man asked Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq to enable him to see Allah, the Imam advised him to meet him some other day. On one occasion he met the Imam while he was standing beside a river, and repeated his request. As directed by the Imam, his companions tied the hands and legs of the man and threw him in the river. While struggling to save himself from drowning he solicited help from every man standing there one by one, but none came to his rescue. Losing all hopes, he cried “O God! Help me”, when he was about to go down under the water. Then the Imam took him out from the river and asked him “Did you see Allah?” He said: “Yes, my master.” The Imam said: “You cannot see Allah with your eyes. You can see Him through your insight by realizing His essential existence.”

 

بَلْ إِيَّاهُ تَدْعُونَ فَيَكْشِفُ مَا تَدْعُونَ إِلَيْهِ إِنْ شَاءَ وَتَنْسَوْنَ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:41] (see commentary for verse 40)

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ بِالْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَضَرَّعُونَ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:42]

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 136, 177, 285; Ali Imran : 84; Nisa : 136, 152, 164.

 

فَلَوْلَا إِذْ جَاءَهُمْ بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا وَلَٰكِنْ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:43]

Having inadvertently sinned, if man does not turn repentant to Allah so that he would have been forgiven, but, on the contrary, becomes stubborn and hardhearted, Shaytan gets his opportunity to exploit him by putting forward the alluring pleasures of his vanity fair.

 

فَلَمَّا نَسُوا مَا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَابَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فَرِحُوا بِمَا أُوتُوا أَخَذْنَاهُمْ بَغْتَةً فَإِذَا هُمْ مُبْلِسُونَ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:44]

The good things of life must teach us not only goodness but also develop sensitiveness and spiritual awareness, otherwise we are puffed up in prosperity which is a punishment from a higher point of view. We go deeper and deeper into sin, until we are pulled up all of a sudden, and then, instead of being contrite, we merely become desperate.

The Holy Prophet said:

“When you see a man, more and more blessed with bounties of Allah, inspite of his repeated sinfulness, then be sure that he is enjoying a respite, either to repent and walk on the right path, or be prepared for a sudden affliction from Allah.”

 

فَقُطِعَ دَابِرُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا ۚ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:45]

Allah’s punishment to wrongdoers is a measure of justice. To protect the righteous from their depredations and maintain His just decrees, the last remnant of the unjust had to be cut off, so they were completely destroyed.

 

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ سَمْعَكُمْ وَأَبْصَارَكُمْ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُمْ مَنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُمْ بِهِ ۗ انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:46]

Allah explains His signs in various ways in order to admonish the wrongdoers, yet they turn aside (see commentary of al Baqarah 7).

 

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُ اللَّهِ بَغْتَةً أَوْ جَهْرَةً هَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الظَّالِمُونَ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:47]

The punishment of Allah comes to the wrongdoers without warning or with many warnings. All wrongdoing must eventually have its punishment. A general calamity may not destroy the righteous, because they receive Allah’s mercy and pleasure both in this world and in the hereafter.

 

وَمَا نُرْسِلُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ ۖ فَمَنْ آمَنَ وَأَصْلَحَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:48] Allah sent His messengers to preach and teach, to give hope (glad tidings), to the repentant and to warn the rejectors and the ungodly of the wrath to come.

 

وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَمَسُّهُمُ الْعَذَابُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:49] (see commentary for verse 48)

قُلْ لَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِنْدِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَفَكَّرُونَ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:50]

This verse implies that the Holy Prophet was not like deceitful soothsayers, who pretend to reveal hidden treasures, or see into the future, or claim to be the masters who control everything. In a wider sense the Holy Prophet dealt out great treasures of truth, given to him by Allah; he had received Allah’s inspiration to know all about everything, and always made clear to the people that his power, his wisdom and his glory reached the highest position by Allah’s permission. Outwardly to the common man he was a “plain preacher”, who presented the truth in its pristine purity, without any misleading ambiguity about his relationship with Allah, so that his unwary followers might not idolize him as the Christians worshipped Isa.

At all events the Holy Prophet demonstrated his total submission to Allah as all human beings are commanded to do, notwithstanding his singular achievements, on the basis of which he could be tempted to present himself as a being whose nature is partly divine so that the people who, for centuries, had been accustomed to the worshipping of supernatural phenomena, should demi-deify him; but he never gave to his followers any room to raise him to godhead.

For “can the blind (disbelievers) be held equal to the seeing (believers)” see commentary of Ma-idah : 100.

“Will you not then reflect?” indicates that Islam invites man to use his intellect and power of reasoning for arriving at a rational conclusion.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt have been distinguished from other human beings because their physical and spiritual lives attained perfection through divine guidance and inspiration which they earned because whatever they did, natural or supernatural, was in total submission to Allah’s will and in compliance with His commands, by His permission. It is a state of absolute ubudiyat (obedience).

Besides Allah, no one knows and controls the unseen, and he who claims knowledge of the unseen and control over it, either by his own inherent skill and effort or through some other agency not connected with and subservient to Allah, is a vulgar soothsayer – deaf, dumb and blind. Also refer to Tur : 37, 38; Qalam : 47.

According to verses 112 and 121 of this surah the evil ones among men and jinn inspire each other.

 

وَأَنْذِرْ بِهِ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَنْ يُحْشَرُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ ۙ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ وَلِيٌّ وَلَا شَفِيعٌ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:51]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

There are some men (sinners) who, aware of the warnings given by the Holy Prophet, believe in the day of reckoning; and eventually realize their responsibility to guard themselves against evil, so they adopt piety, and rely upon Allah.

For intercession see commentary of al Baqarah : 48, 123.

 

وَلَا تَطْرُدِ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ مَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَمَا مِنْ حِسَابِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَتَطْرُدَهُمْ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:52]

Wajh (face) means Allah’s grace or pleasure, the highest aim of spiritual aspiration.

Some of the rich and influential Quraysh thought it beneath their dignity to listen to the Holy Prophet’s teachings in company with the less fortunate companions like Ammar, Bilal, Salman, Abu Dharr, Miqdad and Suhayb known as ashab al sufah (the sincere and devout companions), who were true seekers of Allah’s grace, nearness and pleasure. The Holy Prophet took care of and looked after them. Whether wealthy or poor, black or white, every companion was treated alike, and preference over each other was given according to the degree of piety. Bani Israil : 15; Fatir : 18; Zumar : 7; Hujurat : 13; and Zilzal : 7 and 8 say that no bearer of burdens bears the burden of another. Every individual is accountable for what he does in this life.

In fact the true sincerity of the abovenoted less fortunate companions entitled them to precedence over worldly men in the kingdom of Allah; whose justice was vindicated in the Holy Prophet’s daily life. The rich and influential persons were on trial. More often than not they failed to match the faith of the poor companions who were always grateful to Allah and His Prophet for their guidance.

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ فَتَنَّا بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لِيَقُولُوا أَهَٰؤُلَاءِ مَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ بَيْنِنَا ۗ أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَعْلَمَ بِالشَّاكِرِينَ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:53] (see commentary for verse 52)

وَإِذَا جَاءَكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِنَا فَقُلْ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ ۖ أَنَّهُ مَنْ عَمِلَ مِنْكُمْ سُوءًا بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَنَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:54]

Refer to the commentary of verse 12 of this surah for “your Lord has prescribed mercy for Himself”. When one is blessed with the mercy of Allah, his sins are wiped out. He wipes out what He pleases (Rad : 39), and He even changes the sins of some people into goodness (Furqan : 70), provided the inadvertent sinner turns repentant to Him and amends.

The humble and sincere believers were not avoided or kept at a distance to humour the wealthy, but on the contrary were highly respected and greeted by the Islamic salutation (salamu alaykum).

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِتَسْتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:55] (see commentary for verse 54)

قُلْ إِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ قُلْ لَا أَتَّبِعُ أَهْوَاءَكُمْ ۙ قَدْ ضَلَلْتُ إِذًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:56]

There are a number of arguments put forward by the Holy Prophet, in these verses, against the pagans who refused to believe in Allah’s message.

(i) I have received light and will follow it.

(ii) I prefer my light to your vain desires.

(iii) Punishment rests with Allah. If it rested with me, it would be for me to take up your challenge – “if there is a God, why does He not finish the blasphemers at once?” Be sure that He will call you to account; He is the best of deciders; and he knows best those who are unjust.

(iv) It is a matter between you and Allah; I am only a warner and a bearer of the good tidings of salvation .

 

قُلْ إِنِّي عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّي وَكَذَّبْتُمْ بِهِ ۚ مَا عِنْدِي مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ ۚ إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ ۖ يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ ۖ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفَاصِلِينَ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:57] (see commentary for verse 56)

قُلْ لَوْ أَنَّ عِنْدِي مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ لَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِالظَّالِمِينَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:58] (see commentary for verse 56)

وَعِنْدَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِنْ وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:59]

Mafatih (plural of miftah – a key; or plural of maftah – a treasure).

Everything seen and unseen is ordered and regulated by the laws made by Him; the fresh and the withered, the living and the dead – nothing is outside the plan of His creation. Allah knows that which takes place, manifest or hidden, because it is an effect of His supreme will.

Ayyashi reports that according to Imam Musa bin Jafar al Kazim, Imam Ali, while explaining verse 43 of al Rad, said: The book, mentioned in this verse, knowledge of which is stated to be with the witness who testifies to the prophethood of the Holy Prophet along with Allah; and the book, mentioned in verse 12 of Ya Sin, containing all things, which has been confined in a manifest or declared Imam, is the same clear book mentioned in verse 59 of An-am.

It means that the witness, who has the knowledge of the book is the imamum mubin and knows everything in the universe, is endowed with the divine wisdom and is chosen by Allah.

 

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُمْ بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَىٰ أَجَلٌ مُسَمًّى ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:60]

This verse confirms the meaning of tawaffa referred to in verse 55 of Ali Imran – to take away. Tawaffa does not always mean death.

As the rest of His creation is subject to His law and plan, so is man’s life at every moment, awake or asleep. We go to sleep by night (He takes our souls) with the record of all we have done in our waking moments, and by day we awaken again to our activities, and so it goes on until we fulfil the term of our life appointed for this world. Then comes death with the full record of our whole life; and then in the end, comes the final awakening on the day of reckoning.

 

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ ۖ وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُمْ حَفَظَةً حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:61]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Allah is the subduer of His creatures by His absolute and sovereign power and authority, with or without their will. The angels or “the sent ones” (rusul) carry out His commands all over the universe as His subordinate agents. His absolute authority is supreme. Attribution of any activity to any person or thing for which there is no divine decree or declaration means assigning a parallel authority which is shirk (polytheism).

 

ثُمَّ رُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۚ أَلَا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحَاسِبِينَ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:62]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Mawla (Lord-master) has been used by the Holy Prophet for himself and Imam Ali on the day of Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Ma-idah : 67) in the same sense Allah has used it for Himself in this verse. The Holy Prophet as Allah’s vicegerent and Ali as the Holy Prophet’s vicegerent, appointed by him at the command of the Lord of the worlds, have also been entrusted with the divine power of judgement. Judgement requires the full knowledge of truth and perfect ability to distinguish between right and wrong. No one possesses it save Allah and His messenger and his successors appointed by Him.

Asra ul hasibin – when asked “How Allah would take account of all the created beings simultaneously” Imam Ali replied: Just as He provides sustenance to one and all at the same time.

 

قُلْ مَنْ يُنَجِّيكُمْ مِنْ ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ تَدْعُونَهُ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً لَئِنْ أَنْجَانَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:63] Calling upon Allah in times of danger shows that in the depths of their hearts people feel His need. Allah’s providence saves them, and yet they ungratefully run after false gods. In addition to the physical calamities that they have to fear, there are their mutual discords and craving for vengeance which are much more destructive, and only faith in Allah can save them from all types of calamities.

The pagans of Makka had, as a body, not only rejected Allah’s message but were persecuting His messenger. The Holy Prophet’s duty was to deliver His message, which he did. He was not responsible for their conduct. All warnings from Allah had their time-limit. The leaders of the resistance came to an evil end, and their whole system of fraud and selfishness was destroyed in order to make room for the religion of Allah. Apart from the particular warning in these verses there is a general warning for the present and for all time.

 

قُلِ اللَّهُ يُنَجِّيكُمْ مِنْهَا وَمِنْ كُلِّ كَرْبٍ ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:64] (see commentary for verse 63)

قُلْ هُوَ الْقَادِرُ عَلَىٰ أَنْ يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابًا مِنْ فَوْقِكُمْ أَوْ مِنْ تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِكُمْ أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعًا وَيُذِيقَ بَعْضَكُمْ بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ ۗ انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:65] (see commentary for verse 63)

وَكَذَّبَ بِهِ قَوْمُكَ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ ۚ قُلْ لَسْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ بِوَكِيلٍ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:66] (see commentary for verse 63)

لِكُلِّ نَبَإٍ مُسْتَقَرٌّ ۚ وَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:67] (see commentary for verse 63)

وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ وَإِمَّا يُنْسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَلَا تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَىٰ مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:68]

Refer to Nisa : 140.

The followers of the Holy Prophet are warned not to sit in the company of those who ridicule the truth revealed through the Holy Prophet. According to verse 42 of al Hijr Shaytan has no authority (influence) over Allah’s servants, of whom His chosen prophets and their successors are the best example .

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The prophets of Allah did not commit mistakes intentionally, or unintentionally, or by forgetfulness.

The Holy Prophet said:

“My eyes sleep, but my heart always remains awake.”

 

وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَلَٰكِنْ ذِكْرَىٰ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:69]

وَذَرِ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَهُمْ لَعِبًا وَلَهْوًا وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَذَكِّرْ بِهِ أَنْ تُبْسَلَ نَفْسٌ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ لَيْسَ لَهَا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيٌّ وَلَا شَفِيعٌ وَإِنْ تَعْدِلْ كُلَّ عَدْلٍ لَا يُؤْخَذْ مِنْهَا ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أُبْسِلُوا بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۖ لَهُمْ شَرَابٌ مِنْ حَمِيمٍ وَعَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:70]

See commentary of verse 32 of this surah.

Worldly people are deceived by the allurement of this life and the illusion of vicarious atonements. Every soul delivers itself to ruin by its own act. They do not profit by admonition and pay no heed to the voice of reason.

 

قُلْ أَنَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُنَا وَلَا يَضُرُّنَا وَنُرَدُّ عَلَىٰ أَعْقَابِنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ كَالَّذِي اسْتَهْوَتْهُ الشَّيَاطِينُ فِي الْأَرْضِ حَيْرَانَ لَهُ أَصْحَابٌ يَدْعُونَهُ إِلَى الْهُدَى ائْتِنَا ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىٰ ۖ وَأُمِرْنَا لِنُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:71]

If, after receiving guidance from the self-subsisting eternal Lord who created the universe (with every increase of knowledge we see in what true and perfect proportions all creation is held together), we turn to lifeless idols, it would indeed show that we were made into fools, wandering to a precipice; therefore, we must accept the only true guidance, the guidance of Allah, and only His law, for we shall have to answer His questioning on the day of reckoning when the trumpet sounds for the last day and His judgement will, with perfect justice, establish the dominion of right and reality. [DILP Note: The original text had split verse 73 into two, and therefore, this commentary applied to verses 71 through 74. Subsequent references to verse numbers in the remaining commentaries in this chapter may be one off.]

 

وَأَنْ أَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّقُوهُ ۚ وَهُوَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:72] (see commentary for verse 71)

وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ ۚ قَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ ۚ وَلَهُ الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ ۚ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:73] (see commentary for verse 71)

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ آزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آلِهَةً ۖ إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:74]

It is a historical fact that in the days of Ibrahim the patriarch of the family was addressed as father. The Christians address their priests as father, and in the same sense they refer to God as the father in heaven. Many traditions say that the real father of Ibrahim died before his birth and he was brought up by Azar, his uncle, who was the patriarch of his family. It is also said that Azar, his uncle, married his mother after his father’s death, therefore Azar was also his step-father. The Holy Prophet’s claim that impurity of ignorance and infidelity never touched any of his ancestors from Adam to Abdullah also confirms the abovenoted fact. The word ab may mean an uncle or an ancestor as Ismail, the uncle of Yaqub, has been addressed as ab in verse 133 of al Baqarah. According to Genesis 11 : 27 the name of Ibrahim’s father was Terah. In the Talmud his name is Therach. In verse 41 of Ibrahim, Ibrahim prays for his parents along with the other believers which shows that his father was a believer, otherwise a prophet of Allah could never have associated an infidel with believers and prayed to cover him with Allah’s mercy. Azar was his uncle or the brother of his grandfather.

Ibrahim lived among the Chaldeans, who had great knowledge of the stars and heavenly bodies. The Babylonian religion was an admixture of animism and nature worship. The two powers most commonly chosen were the sun and the moon. Allah showed him the spiritual glories behind the magnificent powers and laws of the physical universe. When he saw the waning of the stars, the moon and the sun, he saw through the folly of idol-worship and the futility of worshipping distant beautiful things that shine, to which the ignorant ascribe a power which is not in them. They rise and set according to laws whose author is Allah. Its worship is therefore futile. Appearances are deceptive. That is not God. It is a folly to worship created things and beings when the author and the creator is there. All must turn to the true God, renounce all these follies, and proclaim one true Allah.

Ibrahim was free from superstitious fears, for he had found the true God, without whose will nothing can happen. He admonished his people to come in the security of faith instead of wandering in the wilderness of fear by worshipping the “setting ones” creatures created by Him.

Those who believe and do not intermix belief with iniquity (zulm) are the rightly guided. In view of this Quranic condition the position of those companions, who deserted the Holy Prophet in battlefields, now and then, doubted his integrity and judgement, becomes dubious.

The spiritual education of Ibrahim (given to him by Allah) enabled him to preach the truth among his people.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Zulm means (any) evil or transgression in thought or action. In their supplications, the prophets and the Imams have used the word zalim for themselves in order to describe their humble position before Allah at the time of seeking His mercy (refer to Anbiya : 87) because all created beings, be they prophets or Imams, need His mercy at all times in their lives here and hereafter. They have used it to avoid vanity or pride so that through utmost humility they could become thoroughly devoted to the service of Allah. Such a confession is a part of the tasbih (glorification of Allah) they used to recite again and again, sitting, standing, walking or reclining.

The Holy Prophet said:

“We do not know Thee, O Lord, as Thou should be known, nor do we worship Thee as Thou should be worshipped.”

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:75] (see commentary for verse 74)

فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّيْلُ رَأَىٰ كَوْكَبًا ۖ قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَا أُحِبُّ الْآفِلِينَ {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:76] (see commentary for verse 74)

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِنْ لَمْ يَهْدِنِي رَبِّي لَأَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّالِّينَ {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:77] (see commentary for verse 74)

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي هَٰذَا أَكْبَرُ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:78] (see commentary for verse 74)

إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ {79}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:79] (see commentary for verse 74)

وَحَاجَّهُ قَوْمُهُ ۚ قَالَ أَتُحَاجُّونِّي فِي اللَّهِ وَقَدْ هَدَانِ ۚ وَلَا أَخَافُ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ رَبِّي شَيْئًا ۗ وَسِعَ رَبِّي كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ۗ أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ {80}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:80] (see commentary for verse 74)

وَكَيْفَ أَخَافُ مَا أَشْرَكْتُمْ وَلَا تَخَافُونَ أَنَّكُمْ أَشْرَكْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا ۚ فَأَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ أَحَقُّ بِالْأَمْنِ ۖ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ {81}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:81] (see commentary for verse 74)

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الْأَمْنُ وَهُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ {82}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:82] (see commentary for verse 74)

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ ۚ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَنْ نَشَاءُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ {83}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:83] (see commentary for verse 74)

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا ۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ {84}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:84]

All the prophets mentioned in these verses were the descendant of Ibrahim. In fulfilment of His promise made with Ibrahim, Allah chose them, preferred them above the worlds and guided them unto the right path. All of them followed the religion of Ibrahim, Islam. Only those who are guided by Allah are commissioned by Him to guide mankind.

In verse 84 the pronoun “his” (min dhuriyyatihi) refers to Ibrahim.

 

وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلْيَاسَ ۖ كُلٌّ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ {85}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:85] (see commentary for verse 84)

وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ {86}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:86] (see commentary for verse 84)

وَمِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَانِهِمْ ۖ وَاجْتَبَيْنَاهُمْ وَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ {87}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:87] (see commentary for verse 84)

ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {88}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:88]

Mere good deeds, without the essential belief in Allah, are useless. The prophets of Allah never associated any one with Allah because they knew that even the highest form of good conduct would have gone waste if even the slightest trace of shirk was found in their faith. They were pure, therefore, Allah gave them the book, authority and prophethood. When the followers of those prophets rejected the book and their authority it was taken away from them and entrusted to the Holy Prophet and his descendants, whom Allah Himself thoroughly purified (Ahzab : 33).

Fa-bi-huda humuq-tadih means follow the guidance they received and manifest all the goodness, that was endowed in the previous missions, in their character as a consolidation of all the goodness preached and practised until now. What every prophet of Allah individually possessed, the Holy Prophet was commissioned to demonstrate in his divinely integrated personality as the final, complete and perfect guide because there was no other prophet of Allah to come after him.

All the prophets were commanded by Allah not to seek from the people any recompense for their service except the Holy Prophet who was directed by Allah to announce “No reward do 1 ask of you for it save the love of (my) relatives (Shura : 23).” This recompense was also in the interest of the people because love of Ahl ul Bayt is a self generating goodness as has been said in verse 23 of al Shura.

Verses 86 to 88 of al Sad also say that the mission of the Holy Prophet is a reminder to the worlds. It is clearly made known that his mission is to guide mankind till the end of this world. It also means that the recompense of his toils is to let his message continue through the Imams, among his Ahl ul Bayt, until the day of resurrection.

 

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ۚ فَإِنْ يَكْفُرْ بِهَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْمًا لَيْسُوا بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ {89}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:89] (see commentary for verse 88)

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۖ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ ۗ قُلْ لَا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا ۖ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَالَمِينَ {90}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:90] (see commentary for verse 88)

وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٍ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۗ قُلْ مَنْ أَنْزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ نُورًا وَهُدًى لِلنَّاسِ ۖ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا ۖ وَعُلِّمْتُمْ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنْتُمْ وَلَا آبَاؤُكُمْ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ {91}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:91]

The infidels in general and the Jews in particular went so far in their perversity as to deny the gift of revelation altogether.

The Tawrat was a light and guidance. It was one book. The present Old Testament is a collection of “sheets” of various kinds: see “The Tawrat” in the commentary of al Ma-idah : 116 to 120. The Jews disclose that which suits their purpose and conceal much of its contents particularly the prophecies about the advent of the Holy Prophet (see al Baqarah : 40).

The Muslims have been taught that which neither they nor their ancestors knew (they were not left at the mercy of the Jews). It is Allah who has sent down the law. If people do not believe, then let them plunge into vain discourse.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Man, more often, fails to have a clear view of Allah’s attributes and the scope and the effects of His will. Some men accept His authority in the sphere of creation, but leave out legislation and deny revelation and prophethood. This and the next verses confirm that He has manifested His legislative authority through revelations revealed to His chosen prophets. The Tawrat revealed to Musa, has been cited as an example. It was a light and a guidance, containing knowledge and wisdom, taught to his followers, which neither they nor their ancestors knew. The Quran not only bears witness to its own truth but also testifies the previous scriptures revealed to Musa, Isa and other prophets (refer to the commentary of An-am : 19). In many verses of the Quran Allah Himself bears witness to His prophets and their divinely commissioned missions; and His testimony is based upon the light and the miracles referred to in the heavenly scriptures.

 

وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ مُصَدِّقُ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلِتُنْذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَىٰ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ۚ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ۖ وَهُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ {92}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:92]

Mubarak means abounding in good and blessed – bringing more blessings of knowledge and wisdom than the previously revealed books.

Ummul Qura – mother of cities refers to Makka the qibla and centre of Islam, also asserted to be in the middle of the earth; and before it was made the qibla of Islam, Makka was associated with Ibrahim and Ismail, the ancestors of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt.

“All around” would mean “the whole world” if we look upon Makka as the centre. Also see commentary of al Baqarah : 125 and Ali Imran : 96.

 

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ قَالَ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ وَلَمْ يُوحَ إِلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ وَمَنْ قَالَ سَأُنْزِلُ مِثْلَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ۗ وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ بَاسِطُو أَيْدِيهِمْ أَخْرِجُوا أَنْفُسَكُمُ ۖ الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَكُنْتُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ {93}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:93]

This verse was revealed to condemn the half brother of Uthman, Abdullah bin abi Sarah (and men like him). He was a Jew but joined the group of pagans after renouncing his faith. After becoming Muslim he was sometimes asked to write down the revealed verses but he used to change the words of the revealed verses while writing them, and then claimed that whatever he had composed should have also been accepted as revelation.

“Surrender your souls” indicates that soul is an entity which is separated from the body at the time of death.

To know about the human soul, please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 30.

 

وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَىٰ كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُمْ مَا خَوَّلْنَاكُمْ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِكُمْ ۖ وَمَا نَرَىٰ مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَاءُ ۚ لَقَدْ تَقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْكُمْ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ {94}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:94]

In this verse “intercessors” are the false religious leaders, demi-gods and gods, whom the polytheists, out of ignorance regard as their saviours. Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 48 and 123 to know about the divinely approved intercessors.

When this verse was revealed and the Holy Prophet explained to Fatimah binti Asad the mother of Ali ibn abi Talib, the meaning of furada (bare or naked), she burst into tears. The Holy Prophet called upon Allah to raise her duly clothed on the day of resurrection; and when she dies he used his mantle to shroud her body.

 

إِنَّ اللَّهَ فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَىٰ ۖ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ {95}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:95]

The seed-grain and the date-stone are selected as types in the vegetable kingdom, showing the dependence of our physical life on it.

“Split and sprout”: both ideas are included in the root falaqa, and third is expressed by the word “cleave”, in verse 96, for the action of evolving daybreak from the dark. For vegetables, “split and sprout” represent a double process: (i) the seeds divide, and (ii) one part shoots up. seeking the light and forming leaves and the visible parts of the future tree, and the other part digs down, forming the roots and seeking sustenance from the inside depth. This is just one small instance of the measure or disposition (judgement and decree) of the almighty and all-knowing Lord. For taqdir refer to the commentary of al Fatihah : 2 under “rububiyat”. For “He brings forth the living from the dead” refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 258 to 260.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In verse 91 and 92 it has been said that only divine revelations, not conditioned by trial and error, give knowledge and guidance. In the same manner it is stated here that the process of nature cannot be fully explained by the empirical method. Therefore existence of the divine factor has to be acknowledged .

The term life and death are not absolute or independent. The elemental matter of a body-cell may be described as a living being, but, in view of the properties manifested in the cell, it is non-living.

The Quranic explanation is based upon the actual phenomena active in nature.

 

فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَانًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ {96}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:96] (see commentary for verse 95)

وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ النُّجُومَ لِتَهْتَدُوا بِهَا فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ {97}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:97]

At sea, on lands, or over mountains, whenever we sweep over wide spaces, it is the stars that act as our guides, just as the sun and moon have already been mentioned as our measure of time in the preceding verse.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

It is true that Allah has provided guiding stars to man for his material benefit. It is also true that He has not left man to bewilder in spiritual darkness, therefore, He has sent down His chosen representatives to guide mankind to the right path. According to Ali ibn Ibrahim’s Tafsir nujum means the holy Imams among the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet.

 

وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْشَأَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ {98}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:98]

It is one of the wonders of Allah’s creation, that from one person (Adam) we have grown to be so many, and each individual has so many faculties and capacities, different from one another, yet we are all one. Refer to commentary of al Nisa : 1.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Allah has produced two sexes from a single soul. The male is termed as the depository and the female as the repository. In al Hajj : 5, al Mursalat : 21 and in many other verses, the mother has been described as the resting place.

 

وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ نَبَاتَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهُ خَضِرًا نُخْرِجُ مِنْهُ حَبًّا مُتَرَاكِبًا وَمِنَ النَّخْلِ مِنْ طَلْعِهَا قِنْوَانٌ دَانِيَةٌ وَجَنَّاتٍ مِنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُشْتَبِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ ۗ انْظُرُوا إِلَىٰ ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَيَنْعِهِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكُمْ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ {99}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:99]

Although the source (rain) is single, but the produce is of diverse varieties. See commentary of verses 95 and 96 of this surah.

In these things there are signs for people who believe in the real fruits of spiritual life. Understanding is a higher faculty than knowledge, and is necessary for knowing the meaning and purpose of this life.

 

وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ ۖ وَخَرَقُوا لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ {100}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:100]

According to al Rahman : 14 and 15 man is stated to have been created from clay, while Jinn from fire. See commentary of al Baqarah : 30 under “Jinn”.

Some people believe that God is the creator of good and Shaytan (Jinn) is the creator of evil. They also believe that Shaytan is the cause of loss and sorrow. Surah al Falaq refutes this assumption. It is stated in this verse that such people are polytheists because it is Allah who created the jinn.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The pagans worship the wonders of nature, because they can not understand them as hidden spiritual forces, so they commit shirk by associating them with Allah.

 

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ صَاحِبَةٌ ۖ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ {101}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:101]

See commentary of al Baqarah : 163 and 255.

 

ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ {102}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:102]

لَا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ ۖ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ {103}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:103]

Allah is neither matter nor spirit. He is the creator of matter and spirit. He is invisible to the eye and imperceptible to the senses, because human eyes can only see and human senses can only perceive material phenomena. He is the incomprehensible. By His knowledge as well as His power He is all-pervading. See Aqa Mahdi Puya’s notes on al Fatihah under “Allah” particularly the opinions of Imam Ali ibn abi Talib, Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir and Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq.

 

قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بَصَائِرُ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنْ أَبْصَرَ فَلِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَمِيَ فَعَلَيْهَا ۚ وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُمْ بِحَفِيظٍ {104}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:104]

There is no compulsion in religion (al Baqarah : 156). Islam has given complete freedom of thought and action to man so that he may use his intellect and reason and follow the right course, shown by the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. If he wanders in the wilderness of ignorance and superstition he shall surely come to a sad end.

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِيَقُولُوا دَرَسْتَ وَلِنُبَيِّنَهُ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ {105}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:105]

For nusarriful ayati see commentary of al Baqarah : 7 with reference to verse 46 of this surah.

The Quran explains things by displaying signs through symbols, parables, narratives, and appeals to reason.

Those who are in search of knowledge and have thus acquired some knowledge of spiritual things are greatly helped to understand more clearly the things of which they had only one-sided knowledge.

 

اتَّبِعْ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ {106}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:106]

Mankind has been asked to follow the commandments of the Quran revealed to the Holy Prophet. “There is no god save He” is the sum total of the divine message on which the whole structure of the religion of Allah is built and preserved. The polytheists are the outcasts. Some commentators say that through this verse Allah commanded the Holy Prophet to leave Makka and migrate to Madina.

 

وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكُوا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا ۖ وَمَا أَنْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِوَكِيلٍ {107}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:107]

Allah’s plan is to let man use his will and reason to find out the truth, follow it, and preserve it. Allah can destroy evil, but He has given complete freedom to man to distinguish between right and wrong. The Holy Prophet was sent only to preach, to guide and show the right path.

 

وَلَا تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ مَرْجِعُهُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {108}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:108]

In the early years of preaching some of the believers, while arguing with the infidels, did not use discreteness and the skill of spiritual teachers like the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, and in the heat of disputation resorted to harsh language. When the idolaters of Makka went to Abu Talib and sought his mediation to stop the show of disrespect to their idols, this verse was revealed.

Islam combats against what is wrong and unpardonable (Luqman : 13 and Nisa : 116) through spiritual light so as to dispel darkness and show the right path.

Although idolatry has been condemned, yet vilification of the weakness of the opponents has been discouraged in order that the infidels may not, as a reaction, persist in their self-obsession, and obstinately refuse to see the light of guidance. Kind words and show of compassion has brought many an adversary to the fold of Islam. Moreover Allah does not want that through the uncivilised behaviour of the believers His most glorious name is drawn into mud-slinging.

 

وَأَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ لَئِنْ جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَةٌ لَيُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهَا ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا الْآيَاتُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا يُشْعِرُكُمْ أَنَّهَا إِذَا جَاءَتْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {109}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:109]

Some of the disbelievers assured the Holy Prophet that if he could, like Musa and Isa, display a miracle they would believe in Allah and him. As some of the Muslims imagined that the infidels might yet be won over if a miracle of their choice did really occur, it was made plain to them that no miracle would bring them to the right path.

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 118, according to which the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt had the authority, given by Allah, to work miracles but as Islam is a religion based upon reason, intelligence and knowledge of the laws of creation, miracles displayed in the days of ignorance of earlier prophets had been discontinued.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Imam Ali mentions in Nahj al Balagha that once some infidels assured the Holy Prophet that if he commanded a tree to come to him they would believe in him and his God. The Holy Prophet did as they wished. They asked him to order the tree to go back to its original place. He again did as they desired. Then they asked him to divide the tree in two equal portions and bring one portion only to him and then send it back to join the stationary portion. He again did exactly what they wanted .

The infidels said: “You are a sorcerer.”

 

وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفْئِدَتَهُمْ وَأَبْصَارَهُمْ كَمَا لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِهِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَنَذَرُهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ {110}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:110]

Where there is obstinate hostile attitude to ridicule the truth, the result will be that such a sinner’s heart will be hardened and his eyes will be sealed, so that he rushes towards evil and wickedness. There is no hope or refuge for him.

 

وَلَوْ أَنَّنَا نَزَّلْنَا إِلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ وَكَلَّمَهُمُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَحَشَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ قُبُلًا مَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَجْهَلُونَ {111}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:111]

This is a continuation of verse 110.

If the whole pageant of the spiritual world were brought before them, the infidels would not have believed, because they – of their own choice and will – refuse knowledge, reason and faith.

“They would not believe unless Allah so pleases” means they will believe only when compulsion is applied which is contrary to Allah’s plan. There is no compulsion in religion (Baqarah : 256).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In yajhaluna “ignorance” refers to the false assumption that man is not free to act according to his will, therefore, he is not responsible for his deeds.

Man has been given full freedom to choose belief or disbelief. He is responsible for what he does. Please refer to the commentary of al Fatihah : 2 and 5.

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنْسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ {112}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:112]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The spirit of evil is ever active and leads man astray by false theories of compulsion and predestination, and prevents him from making the right choice. As said in the preceding verse Allah neither prevents the instigators nor the followers through His creative will.

 

وَلِتَصْغَىٰ إِلَيْهِ أَفْئِدَةُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَلِيَرْضَوْهُ وَلِيَقْتَرِفُوا مَا هُمْ مُقْتَرِفُونَ {113}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:113]

People who have no faith in the hereafter listen to and are taken in by the deceit of evil (devilish suggestions). The end of evil must be evil.

 

أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلًا ۚ وَالَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ مُنَزَّلٌ مِنْ رَبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ {114}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:114]

The Holy Prophet seeks no other standard of judgement save Allah’s will. He knows that Allah, in His grace, has explained His will in the Quran. The people are warned not to be among those who doubt.

 

وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا وَعَدْلًا ۚ لَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ {115}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:115]

Tammat – fulfilment or perfection – refers to the following conclusions.

1. Perfection of the religion of Allah after the announcement of the wilayah of Imam Ali at Ghadir Khum – refer to verses 67 and 3 of al Ma-idah .

2. The fulfilment of the promise of sending the comforter, the spirit of truth (the Holy Prophet). Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 40.

3. The fulfilment of the promise of help given to the Holy Prophet on several occasions – Badr, Uhad, Khaybar etcetera – when the Holy Prophet and Islam were saved through Imam Ali, the hand of Allah (Yadullah).

“There is none who can change His words” is a challenge that the Quran, the revealed word of Allah, will never, like the earlier heavenly scriptures, be tampered with or made to lose its originality and genuineness, as has been explained by Aqa Mahdi Puya in his essay “The originality of the Holy Quran”. To save the Quran from tahrif (change), under the command of Allah, the Holy Prophet left the Quran in the safe hands of his Ahl ul Bayt. Refer to hadith al thaqalayn in the introduction under “Essentials: For the readers of the Holy Quran”.

 

وَإِنْ تُطِعْ أَكْثَرَ مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ يُضِلُّوكَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنْ يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ {116}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:116]

The followers of the Holy Prophet are warned that the majority of the people are weak, therefore, liable to be misled by false theories. Allah knows those who follow the right guidance and also those who go astray.

 

إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ مَنْ يَضِلُّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ {117}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:117] (see commentary for verse 116)

فَكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ {118}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:118]

In al Baqarah : 173 and al Ma-idah : 3 the description of unlawful food has been given. Only (the meat of) those halal (lawful) animals are allowed to be eaten who are slaughtered in the name of Allah. What has been forbidden has been made known unless one is compelled to eat such forbidden animals by sheer necessity.

(This sanction indirectly proves the necessity of taqiyah).

Those animals, even though lawful, become haram (unlawful) over which the name of Allah has not been pronounced at the time of slaughter.

The sin, actually committed by any of the part of the body, can be described as “open sin”; and the evil which lurks in the mind, though not carried out, can be named as “secret sin”.

In Minhaj us Sadiqin it is said that to a true lover of Allah it is an “open sin” if he is mentally engrossed all the time in the bounties of Allah available in this world, and it is a “secret sin”‘ if he spends much time in visualizing the blessings he will get in the hereafter, because in both situations he detaches himself from the remembrance of Allah. In both cases “sin” has not been used in the sense of transgressing the limits of shariah.

The term wahi has been used for the inspiration Shaytan creates in his friends, who follow his suggestions and eat forbidden food.

It is reported that the infidels, who used to eat carrion, told the Holy Prophet that it was Allah who killed the animals which they ate, so what was wrong in eating animals killed by Allah when the Muslims ate the animals killed by man. This argument created doubts in the minds of some of the Muslims. So it has been clarified that those who listen to the satanic suggestions are indeed polytheists.

 

وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُمْ مَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا لَيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهْوَائِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُعْتَدِينَ {119}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:119] (see commentary for verse 118)

وَذَرُوا ظَاهِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَبَاطِنَهُ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْسِبُونَ الْإِثْمَ سَيُجْزَوْنَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَقْتَرِفُونَ {120}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:120] (see commentary for verse 118)

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ ۗ وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ {121}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:121] (see commentary for verse 118)

أَوَمَنْ كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَاهُ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِي النَّاسِ كَمَنْ مَثَلُهُ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ لَيْسَ بِخَارِجٍ مِنْهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {122}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:122]

Ignorance is death. Knowledge (light) is life. Ignorance puts the conscience to sleep. Knowledge directs the inner self to the right path.

According to Minhaj us Sadiqin Abu Jahal’s infidelity has been compared with Ammar bin Yasir’s faith.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The terms of death and life are relative. Their application varies from the simplest form of matter to the most sophisticated form of human beings, among whom there are further grades according to inherent intellect and power of execution, the highest example is of the prophets and the chosen representatives of Allah. Death has been used in this verse in the sense of the absence of the light of faith, and life in the sense of a fully aware conscience guiding the soul to the right path; but wherever the “bringing of the dead to life” is mentioned in the Quran this interpretation (an ignorant disbeliever is shown light to make him a believer) does not apply.

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا فِي كُلِّ قَرْيَةٍ أَكَابِرَ مُجْرِمِيهَا لِيَمْكُرُوا فِيهَا ۖ وَمَا يَمْكُرُونَ إِلَّا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ {123}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:123]

The tribal chiefs of Makka devised intrigues against the life and mission of the Holy Prophet. Such influential leaders always opposed the messengers of Allah right from the beginning in every community; and even today their followers work against Allah’s religion, but they cause their own ruin. It is the divine plan to show the people that the might of the powerful chiefs and leaders becomes ineffective and worthless before the ever-prevalent omnipotence of Allah.

 

وَإِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَةٌ قَالُوا لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ حَتَّىٰ نُؤْتَىٰ مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ رُسُلُ اللَّهِ ۘ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ ۗ سَيُصِيبُ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا صَغَارٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَعَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَمْكُرُونَ {124}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:124]

It was Walid bin Mugirah who told the Holy Prophet that as he had more wealth and power the prophethood should have been given to him. This verse is a reply to him, and men like him, that Allah alone, in His infinite wisdom, knows who is fit to carry out His commission as a prophet or as a vicegerent (Imam or Khalifa).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Verses 12 to 15 of as Saffat and verse 7 of al Ahqaf also confirm that the Holy Prophet showed some signs (miracles) to the people when it was absolutely necessary but disbelieving infidels said: “This is only magic” or “This is pure sorcery”, because their repulsive nature would not allow them to believe in the clear evidences of the Holy Prophet’s singular powers Allah had bestowed on him.

 

فَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ ۖ وَمَنْ يُرِدْ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {125}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:125]

Allah’s universal plan is unalterable. In the spiritual world, as in the physical world, there are laws which are operating according to His will. If a man refuses faith, he becomes a rebel and to take spiritual breath is as difficult as if he has to climb up to the sky. On the other hand, the godly will find, with each step, the next step easier. Therefore, it is not Allah who renders the disbelievers incapable of believing in the truth, but according to the divine plan they are given full freedom to go astray if they desire to do so.

According to the Holy Prophet an enlightened heart dislikes the allurements of this world and make full preparation to go to the next world through the medium of death.

 

وَهَٰذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّكَ مُسْتَقِيمًا ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَذَّكَّرُونَ {126}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:126]

The religion of Islam, the only right path shown by the Quran, is followed by those whose hearts and minds have been enlightened. They understand the signs of Allah and receive guidance. Their abode, in the hereafter, is the eternal land of peace and happiness (darussalam).

 

لَهُمْ دَارُ السَّلَامِ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {127}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:127] (see commentary for verse 126)

وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ قَدِ اسْتَكْثَرْتُمْ مِنَ الْإِنْسِ ۖ وَقَالَ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمْ مِنَ الْإِنْسِ رَبَّنَا اسْتَمْتَعَ بَعْضُنَا بِبَعْضٍ وَبَلَغْنَا أَجَلَنَا الَّذِي أَجَّلْتَ لَنَا ۚ قَالَ النَّارُ مَثْوَاكُمْ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ {128}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:128]

According to the root meaning of jinn (to be covered or hidden) they are invisible beings. Jinn are stated to have been created from fire. In many verses jinn and men (created from clay) are spoken of together. The angels are the spirit of goodness and jinn are the spirit of evil. For further information, see commentary of al Baqarah : 30 under “Jinn”. As an illustration the word jinn is also used for the mischief-makers among the disbelievers (for whom the word shayatin, the devils, has also been used). Ibn Abbas says that in this verse jinn means “the leaders of the infidels”, because they used to plan their wicked intrigues in secret meetings, and in times of turmoil and defeat used to hide themselves behind their worldly positions.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse asserts the existence of invisible beings who establish communication with the human beings and influence the weak-minded among them so as to lead them astray from the right path. Evil consorts with evil because of their mutual bargains, bound as they are to each other in the planning and execution of evil.

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُوَلِّي بَعْضَ الظَّالِمِينَ بَعْضًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ {129}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:129] (see commentary for verse 128)

يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنْسِ أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ رُسُلٌ مِنْكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِي وَيُنْذِرُونَكُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَٰذَا ۚ قَالُوا شَهِدْنَا عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِنَا ۖ وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَشَهِدُوا عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ {130}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:130]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Minkum (from among you) indicates that messengers of Allah had also been sent to the jinn (a separate people) because the Quran says: “We have sent a guide to every people.” As man is superior to all the created beings the messengers sent to the jinn must have worked under the human-prophets, but the Holy Prophet was the sole guide for all the created beings, men, jinn and angels, and for this reason the jinn have been addressed in the Quran – Ahqaf : 29; Rahman : 33; Jinn : 1.

 

ذَٰلِكَ أَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَىٰ بِظُلْمٍ وَأَهْلُهَا غَافِلُونَ {131}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:131]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

As a principle no one is punished unless the divine guidance is made available to him.

 

وَلِكُلٍّ دَرَجَاتٌ مِمَّا عَمِلُوا ۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ {132}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:132]

There will be degrees in our spiritual position according to the degrees of good and evil in our deeds and motives.

 

وَرَبُّكَ الْغَنِيُّ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ ۚ إِنْ يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِنْ بَعْدِكُمْ مَا يَشَاءُ كَمَا أَنْشَأَكُمْ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ {133}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:133]

Allah is self-sufficient, independent, standing in no need of our worship of Him or our good, nor does our evil affect Him in the least. It is out of His mercy that for our good He sent His messengers. Any race or people whom He gives opportunities to follow the right path should know that in the event of their deviation and disobedience He may create others in their place, as He did in the past.

 

إِنَّ مَا تُوعَدُونَ لَآتٍ ۖ وَمَا أَنْتُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ {134}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:134]

Tu-aduna literally means “promised”, but here it implies the warning of punishment to be inflicted upon the disbelievers on the day of judgement.

 

قُلْ يَا قَوْمِ اعْمَلُوا عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِكُمْ إِنِّي عَامِلٌ ۖ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ ۗ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ {135}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:135]

“Do your utmost. Nothing will deter me (the Holy Prophet) from my duty. We shall see who wins in the end” is a challenge and a warning to the disbelievers. This declaration is true for all time. The evil ones do their worst. Those who follow the right path do what they are told by Allah and His Prophet. In the end Allah will judge, and His judgement is always true and just.

 

وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ مِمَّا ذَرَأَ مِنَ الْحَرْثِ وَالْأَنْعَامِ نَصِيبًا فَقَالُوا هَٰذَا لِلَّهِ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَهَٰذَا لِشُرَكَائِنَا ۖ فَمَا كَانَ لِشُرَكَائِهِمْ فَلَا يَصِلُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فَهُوَ يَصِلُ إِلَىٰ شُرَكَائِهِمْ ۗ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ {136}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:136]

The pagans of Arabia had generally a big pantheon, though, above it, they had a vague idea of a supreme God. They used to set apart a certain portion of the produce of their fields and flocks and assign a share to Allah and a share to their idols, which the priests took as the representatives of the idols. The share assigned to Allah was meant to relieve the poor and the wayfarer but usually the priests appropriated it for their use. It is said that when heaps were thus laid out, if any portion of God’s heap fell into the heaps of the idols, the priests greedily and promptly appropriated it, while in the contrary case they were careful to reclaim any such portion from what they called “God’s heap”. The absurdity of the whole ritual is ridiculed. Allah created everything. Everything in the heavens and the earth and in between them belongs to Him. He is the absolute owner of all that which has been created.

 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلَادِهِمْ شُرَكَاؤُهُمْ لِيُرْدُوهُمْ وَلِيَلْبِسُوا عَلَيْهِمْ دِينَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ {137}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:137]

The custodians of the temples had convinced their followers that the killing of their children was desirable in order to ruin them and falsify their faith; so their religion was a confused bundle of revolting superstitions.

If Allah had so willed He would have stopped them but as man has been given freedom of choice and action it would have been contrary to the divine universal plan. Man must understand the law made by Allah and follow the right course in order to find peace, harmony and happiness.

 

وَقَالُوا هَٰذِهِ أَنْعَامٌ وَحَرْثٌ حِجْرٌ لَا يَطْعَمُهَا إِلَّا مَنْ نَشَاءُ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَأَنْعَامٌ حُرِّمَتْ ظُهُورُهَا وَأَنْعَامٌ لَا يَذْكُرُونَ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا افْتِرَاءً عَلَيْهِ ۚ سَيَجْزِيهِمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ {138}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:138]

To dedicate cattle and produce to idols and declare them as taboo was a device of the priests to get special things for themselves. They never pronounced the name of Allah at any time, either when milching them, or riding them, or slaughtering them. They took all these superstitious customs as acts of devotion and service to Him. It was a lie against Him. Most superstitions are.

 

وَقَالُوا مَا فِي بُطُونِ هَٰذِهِ الْأَنْعَامِ خَالِصَةٌ لِذُكُورِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلَىٰ أَزْوَاجِنَا ۖ وَإِنْ يَكُنْ مَيْتَةً فَهُمْ فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ ۚ سَيَجْزِيهِمْ وَصْفَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ {139}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:139]

These are some more pagan superstitions about cattle.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The superstitious rites and rituals of the pagans, mentioned in verses 137 to 140, were deliberately introduced by the priests to exploit the ignorant people in the name of God. The laws and ordinances decreed by Allah are based upon reason and wisdom. Those who attribute such stupid superstitions to Him will be severely punished.

 

قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ قَتَلُوا أَوْلَادَهُمْ سَفَهًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَحَرَّمُوا مَا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ افْتِرَاءً عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ قَدْ ضَلُّوا وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ{140}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:140]

Refer to verse 138 of this surah.

The practice of infanticide was almost universal. The reform effected by Islam is a world reform. The Arab pagans used to bury alive their daughters because, as the females were neither allowed to earn their livelihood nor to own property, they were considered a burden. Moreover the more powerful among them usually took away the females by force and in this way the relatives of the female were put to shame.

 

وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْشَأَ جَنَّاتٍ مَعْرُوشَاتٍ وَغَيْرَ مَعْرُوشَاتٍ وَالنَّخْلَ وَالزَّرْعَ مُخْتَلِفًا أُكُلُهُ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَابِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ ۚ كُلُوا مِنْ ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَآتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ ۖ وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ {141}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:141]

The beneficent Lord (rahman) has provided enough natural resources on the earth for human beings. All can have necessary provisions if man follows the rules and regulations the religion of Allah, Islam, has laid down for the common good of all humanity. “Give His share and do not be extravagant” is the guidance for the overall welfare of the human society.

For giving Allah’s share (zakat, khums, sadqa etcetera) please refer to fiqh.

 

وَمِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ حَمُولَةً وَفَرْشًا ۚ كُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ {142}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:142]

Farsh implies those animals (goats, sheep etcetera) which are thrown down on the ground for slaughter. Farasha means to spread on the floor. Also beds and mats are made from their skins and wool.

 

ثَمَانِيَةَ أَزْوَاجٍ ۖ مِنَ الضَّأْنِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنَ الْمَعْزِ اثْنَيْنِ ۗ قُلْ آلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ ۖ نَبِّئُونِي بِعِلْمٍ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ {143}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:143]

The superstition referred to in verses 137 to 140 of this surah have been further ridiculed and condemned in these verses.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“Who then is more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah to lead mankind astray without knowledge” is applicable to all kinds of conjectures in the matters of religion.

 

وَمِنَ الْإِبِلِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ اثْنَيْنِ ۗ قُلْ آلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ ۖ أَمْ كُنْتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ وَصَّاكُمُ اللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا ۚ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا لِيُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ{144}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:144] (see commentary for verse 143)

قُلْ لَا أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنْزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ ۚ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {145}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:145]

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah :173.

 

وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا كُلَّ ذِي ظُفُرٍ ۖ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ شُحُومَهُمَا إِلَّا مَا حَمَلَتْ ظُهُورُهُمَا أَوِ الْحَوَايَا أَوْ مَا اخْتَلَطَ بِعَظْمٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَيْنَاهُمْ بِبَغْيِهِمْ ۖ وَإِنَّا لَصَادِقُونَ {146}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:146]

Zufur means claw or hoof. Zu Zufurin means the animals or the birds who have undivided hoofs – camel, ostrich, goose and duck.

The camel, the coney and the hare were made unlawful to the Jews as a punishment.

 

فَإِنْ كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُلْ رَبُّكُمْ ذُو رَحْمَةٍ وَاسِعَةٍ وَلَا يُرَدُّ بَأْسُهُ عَنِ الْقَوْمِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ {147}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:147]

The Lord of the worlds is full of all-embracing mercy, so He is not hasty in His judgement, but His wrath will not be turned back from the guilty beliers and slayers of the prophets.

 

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا ۗ قُلْ هَلْ عِنْدَكُمْ مِنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا ۖ إِنْ تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنْتُمْ إِلَّا تَخْرُصُونَ {148}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:148]

The arguments that man has no personal responsibility, that he is the victim of a determinism against which he is helpless. and that he may therefore go on doing what he is doing, have been attributed to the polytheists in this verse. Therefore those who believe in determinism and reject freedom of action and the responsibilities thereof, unwittingly join the camp of the polytheists who will be the fuel of the hell-fire. Allah is omnipotent. He does what He wills. But He, in His universal plan, has given man the freedom of choice and action. He has helped man to find the right path by sending His messenger – guides. It is His mercy and grace. Man can thankfully accept Allah’s guidance or ungratefully deny it to go astray.

 

قُلْ فَلِلَّهِ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَالِغَةُ ۖ فَلَوْ شَاءَ لَهَدَاكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ {149}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:149] (see commentary for verse 148)

قُلْ هَلُمَّ شُهَدَاءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ هَٰذَا ۖ فَإِنْ شَهِدُوا فَلَا تَشْهَدْ مَعَهُمْ ۚ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَهُمْ بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ {150}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:150]

The pagan superstitions were baseless, harmful and debasing. If Allah’s name was pronounced to support their falsehood, no true believer in Allah could be deceived.

Those who set up false gods fail to understand Allah’s true authority and their own true destiny.

 

قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ أَلَّا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ مِنْ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ {151}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:151]

Instead of following pagan superstitions, and being in constant terror of imaginary taboos, we should study, understand and follow the laws made by Allah. He is the one and only Lord – cherisher. The mention of goodness to parents immediately after “belief in one Allah” suggests that Allah’s love of us and care for us – in a higher sense – must be understood by reference to the parental love, which is purely unselfish; therefore, our first duty among our fellow creatures is to our father and mother, whose love leads us to the conception of divine love. Arising from our goodness to parents is our duty and love to our children. As said in verse 142 of this surah, the bounties of the Lord are in abundance, so, for fear of poverty, it is ungodly to slay our children. Then comes the moral prohibitions against the lewdness and all unseemly acts, relating to sex or otherwise, open or secret; and the prohibition of killing and fighting. All these injunctions are in our own interest, if we understand the divine plan.

 

وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۖ وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۖ وَإِذَا قُلْتُمْ فَاعْدِلُوا وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَىٰ ۖ وَبِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ أَوْفُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ {152}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:152]

Please refer to the commentary of an Nisa : 6. And for “fulfil Allah’s covenant” refer to the last covenant taken from the people by Allah through His Prophet at Ghadir Khum. Please refer to the commentary of al Ma-idah : 67.

 

وَأَنَّ هَٰذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ {153}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:153]

The religion of Islam, when perfected and completed after the declaration of the wilayah or imamah of Imam Ali ibn abi Talib, at Ghadir Khum, became the only right path for all mankind till eternity (Please refer to the commentary of al Ma-idah : 67 and 3) and according to hadith al thaqalayn (see “Essentials: For the readers of the Holy Quran” in the introduction) and as verified by Ahzab : 33 and Waqi-ah : 77 to 79 the Quran and the Ahl ul Bayt together are the right path, therefore, whoever goes in another direction, other than what has been shown by the Holy Prophet at Ghadir Khum, will deviate from the true path of Allah.

 

ثُمَّ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ تَمَامًا عَلَى الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ وَتَفْصِيلًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَعَلَّهُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ يُؤْمِنُونَ {154}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:154]

The Tawrat was given to Musa for the guidance of the Jews. Isa, with the Injil, was also sent for the guidance of the children of Israil. Isa said: “I was sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israil, and to them alone (Matthew 15 : 24 and 25).”

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 40 to know that both these prophets gave the glad tidings of the advent of the Holy Prophet who finally brought the eternally blessed (mubarak)book of Allah, the Quran (refer to Aqa Mahdi Puya’s essay “The Genuineness of the Holy Quran” and the commentary of al Baqarah : 2). After the revelation of the final word of Allah to the last prophet of Allah, no man of any race, colour or clime can ever say at any time that he has not been guided.

“The signs of Allah”, which the disbelievers belie, include, in addition to the verses of the Quran, the lives and teachings of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. A sign is the manifestation of Allah’s will. There is nothing in the universe which does not point to the eternal and self-subsisting (hayy al qayyum) existence of Allah, therefore, whatever there is in the universe is a sign of Allah, but all signs are not alike in their manifestation of the original cause. Some are direct and clear. Others are vague and unclear. For example, there are many things which a man uses in his day-to-day life. It is very difficult for another man who has not seen the user of these things to positively describe him by looking at his clothes etcetera used by him when they are separated from him, but if one sees his portrait or image he is at once identified. As the attributes and the glory of the Lord are manifested to their possible perfection only in His messengers and His chosen representatives, they are His direct, clear and perfect signs. The foremost among them are the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt.

The verses of the Quran, the miracles displayed by Allah’s chosen representatives and all the divine commandments and decrees are also the signs of Allah.

 

وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ {155}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:155] (see commentary for verse 154)

أَنْ تَقُولُوا إِنَّمَا أُنْزِلَ الْكِتَابُ عَلَىٰ طَائِفَتَيْنِ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا وَإِنْ كُنَّا عَنْ دِرَاسَتِهِمْ لَغَافِلِينَ {156}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:156] (see commentary for verse 154)

أَوْ تَقُولُوا لَوْ أَنَّا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْنَا الْكِتَابُ لَكُنَّا أَهْدَىٰ مِنْهُمْ ۚ فَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بَيِّنَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ ۚ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَصَدَفَ عَنْهَا ۗ سَنَجْزِي الَّذِينَ يَصْدِفُونَ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْدِفُونَ {157}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:157] (see commentary for verse 154)

هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ رَبُّكَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ بَعْضُ آيَاتِ رَبِّكَ ۗ يَوْمَ يَأْتِي بَعْضُ آيَاتِ رَبِّكَ لَا يَنْفَعُ نَفْسًا إِيمَانُهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ آمَنَتْ مِنْ قَبْلُ أَوْ كَسَبَتْ فِي إِيمَانِهَا خَيْرًا ۗ قُلِ انْتَظِرُوا إِنَّا مُنْتَظِرُونَ {158}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:158]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Through the Jews and the Christians the pagans had heard about the coming of the angels, and the Lord and His signs in the times of their prophets. So they pretended that if these types of events would take place they also would believe in the Holy Prophet’s preaching. Through this verse Allah has made clear to them that nothing of this sort would happen, but certainly the angel of death will come and the day of final judgement will come when belief in them will not do any good to the disbelievers, who had not believed in them before. Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 255 to have a clear understanding of the words in the Quran or in the traditions which refer to the movement or visibility of Allah. His absolute unity and infinite existence renders null and void the conjectural idea of His corporeality.

The believer is waiting for the fruits of true belief and righteousness – which, in a higher state of spiritual elevation, is nearness to Allah, a sure thing to happen.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ {159}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:159]

According to Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir this verse is in continuation of verse 154. Those who abandoned the path shown by the Holy Prophet through hadith al thaqalayn and his final announcement at Ghadir Khum, in fact sowed the seeds of discord and sectarianism in Islam, otherwise the directions given by the Holy Prophet, as commanded by Allah, were clear.

“My Ahl ul Bayt are like the ark of Nuh. Whoso gets into it is saved, and whoso stays away is drowned and lost” said the Holy Prophet.

The Holy Prophet also said:

“Out of the seventy-one sects of the followers of Musa, only one was on the right path. The followers of Isa also divided their religion into seventy two sects, out of which only one was on the right path. Likewise there will be seventy three sects among my followers, out of which only one will be on the right path.”

The followers of true Islam hold fast to the Quran and the Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt as had been directed by the Holy Prophet.

 

مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا ۖ وَمَنْ جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلَا يُجْزَىٰ إِلَّا مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ {160}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:160]

Allah is just as well as generous. To the good the reward is multiplied ten times (far above merits) by virtue of His generosity. To the evil, the punishment is no more than commensurate with their sin; and even so the door of mercy is always open to those who sincerely repent and show it by their conduct.

 

قُلْ إِنَّنِي هَدَانِي رَبِّي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۚ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ {161}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:161]

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 124 to 129.

 

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {162}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:162]

The highest achievement of a human being is to understand and follow the laws decreed by Allah, which alone generate good in individual and collective life. All the aspects of living with reference to self, family, relatives and possessions should be employed in the service of Allah, out of His love, if one completely surrenders oneself to the will of Allah. There was no better or greater manifestation of a perfect submission to Allah than the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. They were divinely commissioned to establish themselves as everlasting ideals or models for mankind till the day of judgement. An all-comprehensive manifestation of such a perfect submission was seen in Karbala, where the grandson of the Holy Prophet, Imam Husayn, had sacrificed all that he had in the way of Allah. The Bible informs us that Isa said on the cross: “O my Lord! Why Thou has forsaken me?” Ibrahim covered his eyes before going to slaughter his son.

Imam Husayn, every pour of his body a bleeding wound, slid over the burning sand of Naynawa from his horse at the time of Asr prayers, rested his forehead on the ground in prostration and said:

“O Merciful Lord of the worlds! Husayn, Your servant, has given You everything he had received from You, in Your way.

Accept the humble sacrifice of your servant.

If the grandson of your messenger had more, he would have given it to you willingly.

O my Lord! Be merciful and oft-forgiving to the faithfuls.”

There was no despair,. no remorse, no sense of loss in his last words. He did not ask anything for himself. He only remembered the faithfuls and asked forgiveness for them. He is an ideal who every refined, high-minded and virtuous person follows and glorifies.

 

لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ ۖ وَبِذَٰلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ {163}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:163]

The Holy Prophet was the first ideal and perfect model of a true Muslim.

 

قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِي رَبًّا وَهُوَ رَبُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ۚ وَلَا تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ إِلَّا عَلَيْهَا ۚ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ {164}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:164]

After the emphatic denunciations of idolatry there remains no alternative but to say: “There is no god save Allah, the Lord of the worlds”. The doctrine of personal responsibility is decisive. We ourselves are responsible for our deeds. We cannot transfer the consequences to someone else. Nor can any one vicariously atone for our sins. The idea of redemption renders Allah helpless against the evil done freely in His kingdom. Because of this conception the evil-doers run scot-free, without fear of punishment, and destroy peace, harmony and rule of law in the world .

In Islam every individual is answerable for his faith and deeds when he returns to Allah on the day of reckoning. The faithful who have done good and followed the teachings of Allah and his Prophet shall be rewarded and the disbelievers and the sinners will be punished. Those believers who made mistakes but sincerely repented and amended their conduct shall receive His mercy and forgiveness. This system of accountability creates a viable discipline in the human society.

The tradition attributed to the Holy Prophet that the dead will be punished if his friends and relatives weep and mourn over his death is disapproved by this verse.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Christians have a misconceived idea that the intercessor bears the burden of the sins of the person whom he has saved from punishment. They also say that all the prophets were sinners except Isa who alone will bear the sins of the sinners. But intercession does not mean bearing the burden of the sinner, therefore, all the prophets are able to intercede on behalf of the sinners for obtaining Allah’s forgiveness, because no prophet had ever committed a sin.

 

وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ الْأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {165}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 6:165]

The word khala-if, in this verse, means deputies. Every human being has been created to manifest the divine attributes in his or her life. If one lives in this world, keeping in view this sacred assignment, it will make man reach the glorious heights of divine perfection.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The theory that every believer is a vicegerent of Allah cannot be used to assume that men have the right to select or elect anyone from among themselves to exercise authority on their behalf. The verse clearly says that Allah has raised some of His deputies over others in ranks, on account of their wisdom, piety and total dedication to the cause of Allah (jihad); therefore they should be allowed to exercise the divinely delegated authority, followed and obeyed.
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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