بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَنْفَالِ ۖ قُلِ الْأَنْفَالُ لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَصْلِحُوا ذَاتَ بَيْنِكُمْ ۖ وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:1]

The root of anfal  is nafl which means addition or accession-of the property, movable or immovable, for which there is no owner or claimant, particularly the spoils of war, at the end of a battle.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Anfal:

(i) Enemy’s property, movable or immovable, abandoned by the enemy soldiers.

(ii) The movable or immovable property of those who have migrated to another place, leaving behind no owner-known as fayi (Hashr: 6 and 7).

(iii) The inheritance of a person who has left no inheritor.

(iv) The land which is owned by no one.

This verse was revealed when those, who participated in the battle of Badr, claimed the enemy’s property, which they appropriated, as their own. It says that anfalbelongs to Allah and the Holy Prophet, who is authorised to distribute or dispose it as he likes. It is because Allah is the absolute sovereign. He owns everything. He has delegated His authority to the Holy Prophet. In this way the discord, cropped up among the people, has been solved. It is a permanent principle and a guideline for all times to come.

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:2]

The qualities mentioned in these verses are found, in their completeness and perfection, in the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt.

الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:3] (see commentary for verse 2)

أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا ۚ لَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:4] (see commentary for verse 2)

كَمَا أَخْرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَيْتِكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَكَارِهُونَ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:5]

See commentary of Ali Imran: 10 to 13; 123 to 127 for the battle of Badr which has been referred to in these verses. The Holy Prophet learnt that a caravan of the Quraysh laden with merchandise, under Abu Sufyan, was coming from Syria. Abu Sufyan sent a message to Abu Jahl that the Muslims were planning to attack his caravan in order to seize the merchandise he was bringing from Syria. The Holy Prophet, as guided by Allah, decided to leave the caravan and march out boldly against the well-armed and well equipped Quraysh army coming from Makka under the command of Abu Jahl in order to destroy the Muslims in Madina, even though some of the very close companions opposed this policy. There was a party which was not wholeheartedly submissive to the divine order, but Sad bin Ma-adh and Miqdad said: “We will do as the Holy Prophet commands.” The Quraysh army, full of zeal and fury, advanced to annihilate from the face of the earth the meagre band of 313 ill-fed and poorly equipped Muslims. The Holy Prophet met the advancing army of Quraysh at Badr situated at a three day’s journey from Madina.

Those who were averse to fighting were not convinced that it was a wise or prudent decision, therefore, they felt as if they were being driven to death while death was staring them in the face. They were frightened and perturbed. It was the first trial Muslims were put to in order to prove their faith in the truth. It was also a clear proof that the Holy Prophet was the true messenger of Allah, because unless it was so he would have not risked total annihilation of the handful of Muslims, certain to take place if Allah had not assured him that they would win the battle. By Allah’s help they won a splendid victory and the standard of truth was established, never to be lowered again.

Hamza, Ubaydah and Ali were sent by the Holy Prophet to fight against Utbah, Shaybah and Walid in single combat. Ali and Hamza killed all the three combatants but Ubaydah was seriously wounded and succumbed to his injuries. He is the first martyr. Then the general combat began. Ali and Hamza destroyed the army of Quraysh beyond recovery. They ran away to Makka. See commentary of Ali Imran 123 to 127. While Ali and Hamza were in the battlefield, a large number of the Holy Prophet’s companions, acclaimed as the heroes of Islam, after his departure from this world, watched the fighting from a safe distance as unconcerned spectators.

In addition to the decision the Holy Prophet took (not to attack the caravan and take possession of the rich booty but to fight against the Quraysh army), the other facts which clearly show that it was the pagans of Makka who took the initiative to attack the Muslims are: the 13 days distance between Makka and Madina-the Muslim travelled 3 days to meet the pagans of Makka at Badr, who had already left Makka 10 days before with full readiness to destroy the Muslims; and the material as well as the mental condition of the Muslims who were so unprepared for such an encounter that they saw nothing but death waiting for them.

يُجَادِلُونَكَ فِي الْحَقِّ بَعْدَمَا تَبَيَّنَ كَأَنَّمَا يُسَاقُونَ إِلَى الْمَوْتِ وَهُمْ يَنْظُرُونَ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:6] (see commentary for verse 5)

وَإِذْ يَعِدُكُمُ اللَّهُ إِحْدَى الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ أَنَّهَا لَكُمْ وَتَوَدُّونَ أَنَّ غَيْرَ ذَاتِ الشَّوْكَةِ تَكُونُ لَكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُحِقَّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَيَقْطَعَ دَابِرَ الْكَافِرِينَ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:7]

These verses refer to the two alternatives mentioned in the commentary of verse 5 and 6-the merchandise of the caravan or to face the Makkan army in self-defence. Some of the companions desired to capture the caravan with merchandise guarded by only 40 unarmed men, instead of confronting the strong army of 1000 fully equipped warriors, but the Lord willed otherwise. He desired to put to test their faith and cut off the roots of the infidels.

لِيُحِقَّ الْحَقَّ وَيُبْطِلَ الْبَاطِلَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:8] (see commentary for verse 7)

إِذْ تَسْتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمْ فَاسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ أَنِّي مُمِدُّكُمْ بِأَلْفٍ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ مُرْدِفِينَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:9]

Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 123 to 127 for the fulfilment of Allah’s promise of victory and the help with a thousand angels. Whatever the means all help comes ultimately from Allah. It may take special forms to give heart and confidence to the believers.

وَمَا جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بُشْرَىٰ وَلِتَطْمَئِنَّ بِهِ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۚ وَمَا النَّصْرُ إِلَّا مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:10] (see commentary for verse 9)

إِذْ يُغَشِّيكُمُ النُّعَاسَ أَمَنَةً مِنْهُ وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ بِهِ وَيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمْ رِجْزَ الشَّيْطَانِ وَلِيَرْبِطَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتَ بِهِ الْأَقْدَامَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:11]

The Muslim army, wearied with its long march needed a refreshing rest, therefore the Lord arranged it for them. It rained during the night, rendering the hard soil on which the pagans were moving heavy and fatiguing, and making the soft sand which the Muslims had to cross hard and more firm to walk upon. The “pollution of Shaytan” refers to his evil suggestions that had Allah willed to assist them they would not face such distress and hardship. The rain which fell in the night formed a little pool of water to be used for necessary purification.

إِذْ يُوحِي رَبُّكَ إِلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ أَنِّي مَعَكُمْ فَثَبِّتُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۚ سَأُلْقِي فِي قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الرُّعْبَ فَاضْرِبُوا فَوْقَ الْأَعْنَاقِ وَاضْرِبُوا مِنْهُمْ كُلَّ بَنَانٍ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:12]

To help the Muslims Allah instilled terror into the hearts of the infidels in order to destroy their morale and sent angels to fight the foe along side the believers, so that the power base of the polytheism could be destroyed, otherwise, as always, they would oppose the religion of Allah and His Prophet. Thereafter whosoever opposes Allah and His Prophet shall be severely punished. This rule also applies to those who opposed the declaration of the Holy Prophet at Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Al Maidah: 67), persecuted and deprived Ali and Fatimah of their rights, killed and tortured their children, the progeny of the Holy Prophet, particularly Imam Husayn, the grandson of the messenger of Allah, in Karbala, and held captive his family after Karbala. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 84, 97 and 98. Please refer to the punishment that will be inflicted on those who harassed and persecuted Bibi Fatimah and his children on page 51 and 105. Also refer to an Nisa: 93 and 115; Ahzab: 57 and Shura: 23.

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ شَاقُّوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ وَمَنْ يُشَاقِقِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:13] (see commentary for verse 12)

ذَٰلِكُمْ فَذُوقُوهُ وَأَنَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابَ النَّارِ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:14] (see commentary for verse 12)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا زَحْفًا فَلَا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الْأَدْبَارَ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:15]

To turn one’s back to the enemy in the battlefield is a shameful sin. Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 121, 122, 128, 140 to 142, 144, 151 to 156 and 166 to 168 and Bara-at: 25 to 27 to know about those who either used to watch the fighting from a safe distance or run away from the scene of battle when defeat appeared to them as a certainty.

وَمَنْ يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلَّا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَىٰ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:16] (see commentary for verse 15)

فَلَمْ تَقْتُلُوهُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ قَتَلَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا رَمَيْتَ إِذْ رَمَيْتَ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ رَمَىٰ ۚ وَلِيُبْلِيَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْهُ بَلَاءً حَسَنًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:17]

This verse clearly states that it was (the hand of) Allah who in fact always destroyed the enemies of Allah and his prophet in the battles the Holy Prophet fought. The unexpected victory over the enemy was a gift of Allah. Although Allah takes for Himself the full credit for the defeat of the enemy but does not exclude the agency of His loyal and faithful agents whose every action is ascribed to Allah Himself. The throwing of the dust by the Holy Prophet was a reaction to His will. It is a historical fact that in all the battles it was Ali, known as yadullah (hand of Allah), who always played the decisive role in inflicting crushing defeat on the enemy-Badr, Uhad, Khandaq, Khaybar, Hunayn etcetera. Those companions of the Holy Prophet who became the “heroes of Islam” after him had nothing to do with the victories the Holy Prophet won for the glory of Islam. Through the agency of His chosen representatives He rendered the crafty plans of the infidels ineffective.

ذَٰلِكُمْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مُوهِنُ كَيْدِ الْكَافِرِينَ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:18] (see commentary for verse 17)

إِنْ تَسْتَفْتِحُوا فَقَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الْفَتْحُ ۖ وَإِنْ تَنْتَهُوا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تَعُودُوا نَعُدْ وَلَنْ تُغْنِيَ عَنْكُمْ فِئَتُكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَوْ كَثُرَتْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:19]

It is reported that the Quraysh of Makka and Abu Jahl had prayed for victory for those who were on the side of justice. They were confident that their superior numbers, equipment and experience would be decisive at Badr, but they were completely routed. It was the judgement of Allah. The infidels have been reminded to desist from mischief making and accept the true faith. Their superiority in men and material would be of no avail to them because Allah is with the believers. To know that it was the advance planning of the pagans of Makka to destroy the handful of Muslims in Madina which forced the Holy Prophet to encounter them at Badr, see commentary of verses 5 and 6 of this surah.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَا تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَأَنْتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:20]

It is a warning to those who participated in the battle of Badr that the promise made in the preceding verse (Allah is with the believers) will not save them from punishment if they ever turn away from the Holy Prophet and his commands, because as soon as any one turns away from the Holy Prophet he becomes a disbeliever or a hypocrite. (Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 8 to 20 and 93).

Whenever the Holy Prophet made known Ali’s special relationship with Allah and himself, all his notable companions were present, particularly in Ghadir Khum where he declared: “Of whomsoever I am mawla Ali is his mawla ” (see commentary of al Ma-idah 67), yet they paid no attention to his last and final call which completed and perfected the religion of Allah, although verse 24 again ordains that the call of Muhammad is the call of Allah. The call of the Holy Prophet invited the people to follow the divinely commissioned Imams among his Ahl ul Bayt who alone were chosen to guide the people unto the right path. It is the duty of every believer to answer the call of the Holy Prophet or any of the Imams of his Ahl ul Bayt to strive in the way of Allah to defend the faith (Jihad).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Every person responds to the call of his desires, but when he submits to the call of Allah or the Holy Prophet his act of submission is due to “the coming of Allah in between a man and his desires”, and thus he is prevented from going astray on account of the dictates of his vain desires.

In verse 25 it is made clear that the consequences of social, political and religious deviation will not only harm those who have done injustice to themselves but also equally jeopardise the well-being of those who have done no wrong, therefore all the believers should safeguard themselves against evil by observing the laws made by Allah.

On several occasions the Muslims were put to test and trial (Ahzab: 11). Abu Ayyub Ansari narrates that once the Holy Prophet said to Ammar: “After me you will encounter many troubles. My followers will kill each other. They will sow the seeds of discord among themselves. In such events adhere to Ali, even if all of my followers form an alliance against him. Follow Ali and leave the people to follow whichsoever way they desire. Ali will not turn you away from the right path shown by me. To obey Ali is to obey me, and to obey me is to obey Allah.”

Hakim Abul Qasim Asqani says, when this verse was revealed, the Holy Prophet said:

To oppose Ali’s successorship after me is to deny my prophethood and the prophethood of all the prophets before me.

According to Imam Hasan bin Ali al Mujtaba verse 25 gives report of the battle of Jaml engineered by Talha, Zubayr and A-isha against Ali. Tafsir al Khashshaf says that once Zubayr asked the Holy Prophet as to how much he loved Ali. The Holy Prophet said:

I love him as no man has ever loved any other man, not even his own son. How evil it will be when you will go to fight against him?

وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:21] (see commentary for verse 20)

إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:22] (see commentary for verse 20)

وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لَأَسْمَعَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّوْا وَهُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:23] (see commentary for verse 20)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اسْتَجِيبُوا لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ ۖ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَحُولُ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَأَنَّهُ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:24] (see commentary for verse 20)

وَاتَّقُوا فِتْنَةً لَا تُصِيبَنَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْكُمْ خَاصَّةً ۖ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:25] (see commentary for verse 20)

وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ أَنْتُمْ قَلِيلٌ مُسْتَضْعَفُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ تَخَافُونَ أَنْ يَتَخَطَّفَكُمُ النَّاسُ فَآوَاكُمْ وَأَيَّدَكُمْ بِنَصْرِهِ وَرَزَقَكُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:26]

This verse refers to the times in Makka before hijrat. See commentary of al Baqarah: 207.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَخُونُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُوا أَمَانَاتِكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:27]

“Nor be unfaithful to the trusts” refers to the book of Allah (the Quran) and the Ahl ul Bayt. See hadith al thaqalayn on page 6. Do not forsake either of them for the sake of worldly possessions and gains.

OCCASION OF REVELATION:

It is reported that after 21 days siege of Bani Qurayza they agreed to make a settlement. They would leave Madina and go to Syria. The Holy Prophet appointed Sad bin Ma-adh as an arbitrator, but the Jews wanted to consult Abu Lababa who was their old friend and relative, before accepting the arbitration of Sad bin Ma-adh. When they sought Abu Lababa’s advice, he pointed his finger to his throat, to indicate that it would be as if cutting their own throats. The Holy Prophet came to know about the treachery of Abu Lababa through Jibra-il. Abu Lababa at once realised what he had done-he had knowingly defrauded Allah and His prophet. Then he tied himself to a pillar of the masjid al nabawiyy and avowed that he would neither drink nor eat until he was forgiven by Allah and His prophet. The Holy Prophet went to him and told him that he had been forgiven.

Another narration of treachery had been reported by Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari that when Jibra-il informed the Holy Prophet that Abu Sufyan is secretly planning to attack very soon, the Holy Prophet asked his close companions to make urgent preparation for the expected confrontation. One of the hypocrites wrote a secret letter to Abu Sufyan, informing him about the defensive readiness of the Muslims.

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:28] (see commentary for verse 27)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ تَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ فُرْقَانًا وَيُكَفِّرْ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:29]

Those who safeguard themselves against evil with full awareness of divine laws receive guidance from Allah to distinguish between good and evil, so that they may follow the right path-the path of deliverance. Then, even if they have sinned but turn repentant unto Allah sincerely, Allah forgives them their sins.

وَإِذْ يَمْكُرُ بِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِيُثْبِتُوكَ أَوْ يَقْتُلُوكَ أَوْ يُخْرِجُوكَ ۚ وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:30]

This verse refers to the event of hijrat. See commentary of al-Baqarah: 207.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا قَالُوا قَدْ سَمِعْنَا لَوْ نَشَاءُ لَقُلْنَا مِثْلَ هَٰذَا ۙ إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:31]

Please refer to the commentary of Anam: 25 and 26, for “the tales of the ancients”; and al Baqarah 23 and 24-the challenge of the Quran to the infidels (who said: “We have heard this before, and we could say words like these which are the tales of the ancients”) to “produce a chapter like it, and you will never do it.”

All attempts have failed. History is the witness. Verse 32 refers to the utter disappointment and frustration the opponents of Islam feel at their failure, and as a last resort asked for a punishment in a miraculous “super” natural way, but Allah said that so far as the “mercy unto the worlds” was among them no such punishment would be inflicted.

In Sawa-iq al Muhriqah, chap. 11, in the commentary of verse 33, Ibn Hajar al Makki says that this verse refers to the merits and excellence of the Ahl ul Bayt.

OCCASION OF REVELATION OF VERSE 32:

When Numan bin Harith returned from his business trip to Iran, he brought with him the stories of Suhrab and Rustam he had translated in Arabic, and told the people that he had also written, like the Quran, stories of some well-known persons. Uthman bin Madh told him that the Holy Prophet was a true prophet of Allah and whatever he said was from Allah. Numan replied: “I also say: There is no god save Allah, but the angels are His daughters.” When the Holy Prophet tried to exhort him, he said: “If what Muhammad says is true then let Allah rain down on me a shower of stones.” Numan was killed in the battle of Badr.

وَإِذْ قَالُوا اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كَانَ هَٰذَا هُوَ الْحَقَّ مِنْ عِنْدِكَ فَأَمْطِرْ عَلَيْنَا حِجَارَةً مِنَ السَّمَاءِ أَوِ ائْتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:32] (see commentary for verse 31)

وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمْ وَأَنْتَ فِيهِمْ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ مُعَذِّبَهُمْ وَهُمْ يَسْتَغْفِرُونَ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:33] (see commentary for verse 31)

وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:34]

The true custodians of the masjid al haram are the divinely commissioned guardians of faith- the Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt. After the Holy Prophet there is no one equal to them in taqwa (piety) (see commentary of al Baqarah: 2).

وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُهُمْ عِنْدَ الْبَيْتِ إِلَّا مُكَاءً وَتَصْدِيَةً ۚ فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:35]

The infidels used to go round the Kabah naked, both men and women, whistling through their fingers and clapping their hands. Use of musical instruments for sama (ecstasy occasioned by hearing song or music, or a circular dance performed by devotees in ecstasy) has no sanction in Islam in day-to-day life, leave alone at the time of worship. It is a paganish institution.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ لِيَصُدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَسَيُنْفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسْرَةً ثُمَّ يُغْلَبُونَ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ يُحْشَرُونَ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:36]

لِيَمِيزَ اللَّهُ الْخَبِيثَ مِنَ الطَّيِّبِ وَيَجْعَلَ الْخَبِيثَ بَعْضَهُ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فَيَرْكُمَهُ جَمِيعًا فَيَجْعَلَهُ فِي جَهَنَّمَ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ{37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:37]

Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 179.

قُلْ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ يَنْتَهُوا يُغْفَرْ لَهُمْ مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ وَإِنْ يَعُودُوا فَقَدْ مَضَتْ سُنَّتُ الْأَوَّلِينَ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:38]

Allah is oft-forgiving and merciful, and the Holy Prophet is “the mercy unto the worlds”, therefore, this verse says that even those who persecuted and opposed the Holy Prophet tooth and nail may receive Allah’s pardon if they sincerely accept Islam, forsake polytheism and hostility against the Holy Prophet and his mission.

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:39]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 193.

وَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:40]

In spite of the amnesty offered to the infidels in verse 38 if they turn away from the true religion and persist in their idolatry, Allah shall go on helping and protecting the believers against them.

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:41]

KHUMS MEANS ONE FIFTH.

Ghanayam means the property, movable and immovable, surrendered by the enemy in any battle. Verse 1 of this surah has already stated that it belongs to Allah and the Holy Prophet. Although the Sunni jurists have restricted its meaning to the spoils of war, but actually, according to Shia scholars, on every profit obtained by trade and labour, or from mines, or from sea or by means mentioned in the books of fiqh, payment of khums is obligatory, because as per the rules of lexicography the word ghanimat applies to all these things. Well-known commentators like Razi and Qartabi admit that the real meaning of ghanimat does not justify its restriction to the spoils of war only. See Tafsir Razi vol. 15, p.164 and Tafsir Qartabi vol. 4, p. 2840. Tafsir al Manar also gives the same verdict.

According to this verse out of every profit, from wherever it comes, including the spoils of wars, khums has to be paid, because both ma (a relative pronoun-mawsulah) and shay are of a general nature and carry no restrictions.

The amount of khums payable is divided into six equal parts to be disbursed as under:

(1) Allah’s share.

(2) The Holy Prophet’s share.

(3) The Holy Prophet’s relatives’ share.

(The Holy Prophet used to receive all these three shares).

(4) Share of the orphans of Bani Hashim.

(5) Share of the poor.

(6) Share of the wayfarers.

As sadqa has been forbidden for the relatives of the Holy Prophet, Allah has decreed khums for them.

In the present age the total amount of khums is divided into two equal parts and disbursed as under:

(1) Sahm al Sadat-the share of the descendants of the Holy Prophet.

(2) Sahm al Imam-the share of the Imam, which is given to the mujtahid the payer of khums follows, or can be distributed or utilised by his permission. The mujtahid uses it for the good of the faithful and for the propagation of the faith. For details refer to fiqh.

Verse 26 of Bani Israil says: “Give the kinsman his due”. They are Fatimah and her children, the Ahl ul Bayt, according to Tafsir Durr al Manthur, vol. 4, p. 177. Unless and until a Muslim sets aside the khums he cannot be deemed to have paid his dues. Tafsir Ruh al Ma-ani, vol.3, p.637; Tafsir Naysaburi, vol. 3, p . 215, and other commentaries mention that khums is for Allah and for the messenger and for his kinsmen. They are the people to whom the abandoned wealth belongs, about which Allah has revealed in the Quran:

That which Allah gives as wealth unto His messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and His messenger and for the near of kin, (Hashr: 7)

The Holy Prophet said:

“Recognise the rights of my pious and upright relatives for the sake of Allah, and as for those among my kinsmen who are less careful in the matters of religion, pay their dues for my sake, because sadqa has been forbidden to them.”

The day of distinction is the day of the battle of Badr.

إِذْ أَنْتُمْ بِالْعُدْوَةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ بِالْعُدْوَةِ الْقُصْوَىٰ وَالرَّكْبُ أَسْفَلَ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدْتُمْ لَاخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي الْمِيعَادِ ۙ وَلَٰكِنْ لِيَقْضِيَ اللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا لِيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَنْ بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَىٰ مَنْ حَيَّ عَنْ بَيِّنَةٍ ۗ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:42]

These verses refer to the battle of Badr. Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 123 to 127 and verses 5 to 14 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Quraysh wanted to save their caravan and then annihilate the Muslims; and the Muslims decided to let the caravan alone and defend against Quraysh army coming from Makka-and they confronted each other at Badr, an appointment made possible by the legislative, not creative, will of Allah, because the last portion of verse 42 makes it clear that by distinguishing between right and wrong, relying upon Allah’s help, a correct decision was made by the Holy Prophet, which was the legislative will of Allah so that what Allah wanted to accomplish through this battle could become a criterion-those who had gone astray even after witnessing the clear sign did so by their own choice, and those who decided to follow the right path did so after seeing and understanding the evident proof.

Allah showed the Makkans to be few in the eyes of the Muslims, because if their real number and strength in equipment were made known to the Muslims they would have never agreed to go with the Holy Prophet for the decisive battle of Badr; and the Muslims were made to appear fewer in the eyes of the Makkan so that they might not lose courage and run away. It was done so because Allah had decided to make the battle of Badr a landmark and a criterion for the believers as well as the disbelievers. The pagans of Makka came to know after the battle of Badr that Allah was on the side of the truth, the believers, otherwise a handful of poorly equipped men could never overpower a large army of formidable strength.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Holy Prophet and his successors (the Imams among his Ahl ul Bayt) were free from hallucination in dream or wakefulness, but Allah had communicated His decisions to His chosen representatives in their dreams-In verse 102 of Saffat Ibrahim said to Ismail: “O my son I saw in a dream that I was sacrificing you”, to which Ismail replied: “Father, do as you are commanded.” The interpretation of Ibrahim was indicative whereas the interpretation of Ismail was imperative. Similarly the qualitative weakness of the enemy was shown to the Holy Prophet in terms of numerical weakness. Figurative expression of a fact to achieve success for a just cause is called tawriyah.

إِذْ يُرِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي مَنَامِكَ قَلِيلًا ۖ وَلَوْ أَرَاكَهُمْ كَثِيرًا لَفَشِلْتُمْ وَلَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ سَلَّمَ ۗ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:43] (see commentary for verse 42)

وَإِذْ يُرِيكُمُوهُمْ إِذِ الْتَقَيْتُمْ فِي أَعْيُنِكُمْ قَلِيلًا وَيُقَلِّلُكُمْ فِي أَعْيُنِهِمْ لِيَقْضِيَ اللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا ۗ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ{44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:44] (see commentary for verse 42)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ فِئَةً فَاثْبُتُوا وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:45]

These verses describe the virtues the believers must cultivate and own. If they disobey Allah and His prophet there will be humiliation and failure.

وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَا تَنَازَعُوا فَتَفْشَلُوا وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ ۖ وَاصْبِرُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:46] (see commentary for verse 45)

وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بَطَرًا وَرِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطٌ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:47]

The Muslims have been warned not to show off in vainglory and ostentation, not to be arrogant and above all not to be hypocritical.

The Holy Prophet said:

Ri-a (hidden polytheism-doing good for show off and not for Allah) among my followers is more harmful to the religion of Allah than the declared polytheism, because the concealed infidelity is more deceptive than the progress of a black ant on a coal-like stone in a dark night.”

وَإِذْ زَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ وَقَالَ لَا غَالِبَ لَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَإِنِّي جَارٌ لَكُمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا تَرَاءَتِ الْفِئَتَانِ نَكَصَ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ وَقَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْكُمْ إِنِّي أَرَىٰ مَا لَا تَرَوْنَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:48]

The leaders of evil, like Shaytan, wash their hands off their followers and leave them to face destruction when they find their plans have failed.

See commentary of al Baqarah: 8 to 20 for the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease.

إِذْ يَقُولُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ غَرَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ دِينُهُمْ ۗ وَمَنْ يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:49] (see commentary for verse 48)

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۙ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:50]

There is a terrible punishment, after death, for those who have rejected the true faith and have corrupted the people with their infidelity and evil deeds. They will be punished on account of their own evil deeds because they themselves chose to be wicked and unjust, otherwise Allah is never unjust to His creatures.

The disbelievers of Makka have been compared to the people of Firawn to indicate the likeness of the Holy Prophet to Musa, and the destruction of the infidels in the same manner as Firawn and his hosts were wiped out.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In ali Firawn, al means, in this verse, the followers and associates of Firawn, but in verse 33 of Ali Imran, al means dhurriyyat (progeny), one of the other, as made clear in verse 34 of Ali Imran.

ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِظَلَّامٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:51] (see commentary for verse 50)

كَدَأْبِ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ ۙ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِيٌّ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:52] (see commentary for verse 50)

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَكُ مُغَيِّرًا نِعْمَةً أَنْعَمَهَا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۙ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:53]

The choice and the resultant deeds of a people bring about their inevitable misfortune and punishment.

كَدَأْبِ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ ۙ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ فَأَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ ۚ وَكُلٌّ كَانُوا ظَالِمِينَ{54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:54]

Allah had been destroying the beliers of His signs from Nuh to Musa (see commentary of Araf: 59 to 177) and likewise the beliers of His last prophet also had likewise to suffer punishment.

إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:55]

The disbelievers are the vilest animals. They are not human beings.

الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتَ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَهُمْ فِي كُلِّ مَرَّةٍ وَهُمْ لَا يَتَّقُونَ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:56]

The immediate occasion was the repeated treachery of the Banu Qurayza after their treaties with the Holy Prophet.

Violation of a covenant has been described as a treacherous crime. The Muslims also broke the covenant they made with the Holy Prophet, after his departure from this world. See commentary of al Ma-idah: 67.

فَإِمَّا تَثْقَفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْحَرْبِ فَشَرِّدْ بِهِمْ مَنْ خَلْفَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:57]

If you apprehend treachery from a people with whom you have a treaty break off relations with them; and to put an end to treachery it is essential to inflict an exemplary punishment on those enemies who attack you by breaking treaties made with you so that no one from among them or after them may dare harass you again.

وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِنْ قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَانْبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَىٰ سَوَاءٍ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْخَائِنِينَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:58] (see commentary for verse 57)

وَلَا يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَبَقُوا ۚ إِنَّهُمْ لَا يُعْجِزُونَ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:59] (see commentary for verse 57)

وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُمْ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ قُوَّةٍ وَمِنْ رِبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدُوَّ اللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَآخَرِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ شَيْءٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:60]

Every infidel community was a prospective enemy of Islam.

Quwwat literally means “force or strength”. It implies: Be always on the alert, fully prepared for defence and offence, and keep yourselves well armed and quipped with the best weapons, fully trained in the art of war, so that the enemy may not think that you are weak and surprise you with a sudden attack as was done by the Makkans at Badr.

The preparation is to maintain peace by preventing the enemy to commit aggression against you. If you are fully ready to counter their attack they will think twice before launching an offensive adventure.

If the enemy offers peace, rely on Allah and accept it. In case of deception on their part have faith in Allah. He will help and protect you through His chosen friend, Ali ibn abi Talib.

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 190 to 193 and 217.

In Tafsir Durr al Manthur, Jalal al Din al Suyuti quotes Ibn Asakir for reporting the following sentences, written on the arsh, on the authority of the Holy Prophet:

Allah! I am alone. There is no partner with Me. Muhammad is My servant and messenger. I help him with Ali.

The history of Islam fully confirms this declaration.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Ali played a decisive role in Badr, Khandaq, Uhad, Khaybar, Hunayn and other battles, but Allah attributes the actions of the Holy Prophet and Ali to Himself because both of them were the hands of Allah, and through them He made effective His will. On this basis the Holy Prophet declared before the conquest of the fort of Khaybar:

Ali will not come back until Allah wins victory for us through his hands.

وَإِنْ جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:61] (see commentary for verse 60)

وَإِنْ يُرِيدُوا أَنْ يَخْدَعُوكَ فَإِنَّ حَسْبَكَ اللَّهُ ۚ هُوَ الَّذِي أَيَّدَكَ بِنَصْرِهِ وَبِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:62] (see commentary for verse 60)

وَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ لَوْ أَنْفَقْتَ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا مَا أَلَّفْتَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ أَلَّفَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:63]

Through the grace of Allah the erstwhile disorganised, prone to rivalries and jealousies, and addicted to internecine warfare Arabs were united under the gentle, firm and wise guidance of the Holy Prophet.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:64]

Refer to that which the Holy Prophet said about Ali, quoted in the commentary of verses 60 to 62.

Mulla Abdur Razzaq Muhaddith Hanbali says that this verse was particularly revealed about Ali.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى الْقِتَالِ ۚ إِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ عِشْرُونَ صَابِرُونَ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ مِائَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا أَلْفًا مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:65]

In any battle, odds of ten to one are surely disheartening, but they do not discourage the men of faith. Whether they personally win or die, their cause prevails. They are sure to win because they have divine support, and those who take up arms against truth are misled dupes, unaware of the forces assisting those who are on the right path.

الْآنَ خَفَّفَ اللَّهُ عَنْكُمْ وَعَلِمَ أَنَّ فِيكُمْ ضَعْفًا ۚ فَإِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ مِائَةٌ صَابِرَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أَلْفٌ يَغْلِبُوا أَلْفَيْنِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:66] (see commentary for verse 65)

مَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ أَسْرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يُثْخِنَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ تُرِيدُونَ عَرَضَ الدُّنْيَا وَاللَّهُ يُرِيدُ الْآخِرَةَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ{67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:67]

A jihad is fought under strict conditions, under a righteous leader, purely for the sake of faith and Allah’s laws. All baser motives (territory, trade, revenge or military glory-“temporal goods of this world”) are strictly excluded. The greed of gain in the form of ransom from captives has no place in such warfare.

It is reported that once some people asked Ali as to why he always went in the battlefield astride a mule when all the great warriors used thorough bred horses, Ali said: “A thorough bred horse is needed either to run away from the battle when odds against the warrior are very heavy or to pursue the escaping enemy to collect their possessions-neither of which I do, therefore I do not need a thorough bred horse.”

Although some companions (Abu Bakr, Sad bin Ma-adh and others) advised the Holy Prophet either to take ransom from the captives of Badr or kill them but the Holy Prophet decided to set those free who could not pay ransom, yet the companions collected ransom from every captive in contravention of the directions of the Holy Prophet. The next day the Holy Prophet told Abu Bakr that due to the greed of the Muslims the chastisement of Allah was as near as the tree standing close to them. Then this verse was revealed.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

For the first portion of the verse refer to verse 4 of Muhammad-the enemy soldiers should be killed while the battle is in progress but as soon as they are thoroughly subdued, killing should be stopped. After that they can be held as captives, either to be set free after taking ransom or letting those go free who cannot pay ransom. In both the verses yuthkhina does not mean slaughtered but thoroughly subdued. It is the command of Allah to fight with unyielding courage until the enemy is thoroughly subdued.

In verse 7 it is stated that the Muslims desired to capture the caravan carrying merchandise instead of going to fight the Makkan army.

Taking ransom from those who can pay it is allowed, but to say that yuthkhina means “killing” is to forge a lie against Allah. Some of the companions who were always afraid to fight the enemy in the battlefield wanted to kill them when they were held as helpless captives.

لَوْلَا كِتَابٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ سَبَقَ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِيمَا أَخَذْتُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:68]

Any motive of worldly gains is condemned as worthy of a severe penalty. If taking of ransom had not already been legalised those who had taken the ransom would have been punished. This verse condemns the selfish desire for obtaining worldly gains. It does not give permission to kill the captives.

Among those taken prisoners were the Holy Prophet’s uncle Abbas and Ali’s brother Aqil, who afterwards became Muslims.

فَكُلُوا مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:69]

Since taking of ransom has been described as love of the worldly gains, some of the believers refused to take any share from the ransom money. For such faithfuls this verse was revealed.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِمَنْ فِي أَيْدِيكُمْ مِنَ الْأَسْرَىٰ إِنْ يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ خَيْرًا يُؤْتِكُمْ خَيْرًا مِمَّا أُخِذَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:70]

This verse confirms that which has been said in the commentary of verse 67. The good in the hearts of Abbas and Aqil led them to embrace Islam and the ransom they paid was given back to them by the Holy Prophet on many occasions, much more than what they paid. The leniency and tolerance shown to the captives indicate that Allah never wanted to put an end to their lives, but intended to give them respite.

وَإِنْ يُرِيدُوا خِيَانَتَكَ فَقَدْ خَانُوا اللَّهَ مِنْ قَبْلُ فَأَمْكَنَ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:71]

Even if the pardoned prisoners of war carry out treacherous plans after their release Allah promises to give the believers power over them, but “killing of captives” has not been approved.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَوْا وَنَصَرُوا أُولَٰئِكَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يُهَاجِرُوا مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ وَلَايَتِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا ۚ وَإِنِ اسْتَنْصَرُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ فَعَلَيْكُمُ النَّصْرُ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَاقٌ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:72]

Hijrat is not escape or flight, but to leave home, property and possessions and strive hard in the cause of Allah with a religious motive. See commentary of al Baqarah: 207.

After reaching Madina the Holy Prophet united the muhajirs (the people who forsook their homes and possessions and adopted voluntary exile from Makka) and ansars (the residents of Madina who gave the mahajirs asylum and every kind of assistance, moral and material) as brothers, like blood-brothers, and they were so treated in matters of inheritance during the period when they were cut off from their kith and kin and birth place. After the battle of Badr when verse 75 of this surah was revealed this arrangement became inoperative.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Announcements in verse 75 of this surah and verse 6 of al Ahzab do not abrogate this verse but contain a substitute ordinance corresponding to the changed circumstances. For details see fiqh.

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ إِلَّا تَفْعَلُوهُ تَكُنْ فِتْنَةٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِيرٌ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:73]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The brotherhood formed between the mahajirs and ansars for the purpose mentioned in the preceding verse, was also used to encounter the brotherhood of the infidels, who supported each other like brothers, therefore those Muslims who stayed in Makka needed help from the mahajirs and ansars to face the persecution of the infidels, which was to be extended to them if they had not entered into any agreement with the infidels, because if the believers had not taken into consideration the sorry plight of those believers who did not migrate, there would have been trouble and sedition.

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَوْا وَنَصَرُوا أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا ۚ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ{74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:74]

Those who believed and migrated in the sense mentioned in the commentary of verse 72 and strived hard in the cause of Allah and those who gave them shelter and assistance are the believers of better quality than those who came into the fold of Islam afterwards, after the hijrat-because hijrat was a voluntary rejection of the social order of the infidels and a willing acceptance of the laws and purpose of a society based upon the laws of the true faith, therefore the application of these verses remains valid for ever.

In al Nusus, al Saduq quotes Imam Husayn bin Ali who said that when Allah sent down the verse-the blood relations are nearer one to another in the book of Allah-the Imam requested the Holy Prophet to explain it. The Holy Prophet said: “When I die, your father, Ali, who is nearest to me, has a better title than anybody else for succeeding me. When your father passes away then your brother Hasan has a better title than others, and when Hasan passes away you have a better title for succeeding him.”

There were men among the companions of the Holy Prophet who deserted him in the midst of many battles, and did not carry out his orders, after his death, given by him concerning his Ahl ul Bayt although the Quran (verse 24 of this surah) says that the call of the prophet is the call of Allah, so obey Allah and His messenger (verse 46 of this surah). Leave alone following the teachings of the Ahl ul Bayt and the Quran (hadith al thaqalayn-see page 6) they not only deprived them of their divinely bestowed rights but also persecuted and killed them.

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْ بَعْدُ وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا مَعَكُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَأُولُو الْأَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَىٰ بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 8:75] (see commentary for verse 74)
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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