AL-BAQARAH
The Cow
البقرة
Medinan (surah 2 • 286 ayahs)
»The surah that mentions the story of THE COW designated by God for sacrificial offering, whereby He tested the sincerity of faith of the Children of Israel after their deliverance from Pharaoh. Its name is taken from the story of the cow (baqarah) mentioned in verse 67 ff. The surah comprises five principal sections, where the addressee shifts as the surah progresses. The first section (verse 1 ff.) mentions the revelation; the dynamics of belief and unbelief; and the story of Adam. The next section (verse 40 ff.) is an address to the Children of Israel, which highlights there shortcomings in the time of Moses and in Muḥammad’s own day. They are urged to serve God who has been so gracious to them (they are reminded that God created Adam and favoured him over the angels), the Children of Israel. This is followed (verse 122 ff.) by a final appeal to the Children of Israel to agree with the Muslims on the basis of the religion of Abraham, which predate the covenant with Moses. Verse 135 ff. marks the beginning of the fourth section, which consists mainly of legal provisions for the newly-established community. The fifth and final section (verse 243 ff.) also contains some legislation, but the primary emphasis is on striving for God with your life and property. The last tree ayahs (verse 284 ff.), draw together a number of themes encountered earlier in the surah.«
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,
THE ALL-BENEFICENT, THE ALL-MERCIFUL.
1
القرآن:
الم
TRANSLATION:
Alif, Lām, Mīm.
2
القرآن:
ذلك الكتاب لا ريب ۛ فيه ۛ هدى للمتقين
TRANSLATION:
This is the Book,1 there is no doubt in it, a guidance to the Godwary,2
The term ‘the Book’ in the Qurʾān, in such contexts, means a Divine scripture.
Or ‘This Book, in which there is no doubt, is guidance to the Godwary.’ Or ‘This Book is no doubt a guidance to the Godwary.’
3
القرآن:
الذين يؤمنون بالغيب ويقيمون الصلاة ومما رزقناهم ينفقون
TRANSLATION:
who believe in the Unseen, and maintain the prayer, and spend1 out of what We have provided for them;
The expression ‘to spend’ is used in the Qurʾān elliptically to mean spending in the way of Allah and for the sake of His pleasure. Cf. 2:195, 261-262, 272; 8:60; 9:34; 47:38; 57:10.
4
القرآن:
والذين يؤمنون بما أنزل إليك وما أنزل من قبلك وبالآخرة هم يوقنون
TRANSLATION:
and who believe in what has been sent down to you1 and what was sent down before you, and are certain of the Hereafter.
That is, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household. Throughout this translation whenever the pronoun ‘you’ refers to the second person singular in the Arabic and is meant as an address to the Prophet, it has been italicized (for similar reasons, also the related verbs) in order to distinguish it from cases where it stands for the second person plural. This is to avoid the use of ‘thee’ and ‘thou,’ which are, unfortunately, archaic in contemporary English.
5
القرآن:
أولئك على هدى من ربهم ۖ وأولئك هم المفلحون
TRANSLATION:
Those follow their Lord’s guidance, and it is they who are the felicitous.
6
القرآن:
إن الذين كفروا سواء عليهم أأنذرتهم أم لم تنذرهم لا يؤمنون
TRANSLATION:
As for the faithless, it is the same to them whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not have faith.
7
القرآن:
ختم الله على قلوبهم وعلى سمعهم ۖ وعلى أبصارهم غشاوة ۖ ولهم عذاب عظيم
TRANSLATION:
Allah has set a seal on their hearts and their hearing, and there is a blindfold on their sight,1 and there is a great punishment for them.
The hearing and sight, often mentioned in the Qurʾān, refer to the inner spiritual hearing and vision by the means of which someone possessing faith apprehends the reality lying beyond the physical realm. Cf. 2:17, 20; 3:13; 6:46, 50, 104, 110; 7:179, 198; 10:43; 11:20, 24; 13:16; 16:108; 19:38; 22:46; 24:44; 32:12; 35:19; 36:66; 40:58; 45:23; 46:26; 47:23; 50:22; 59:2.
8
القرآن:
ومن الناس من يقول آمنا بالله وباليوم الآخر وما هم بمؤمنين
TRANSLATION:
And among the people are those who say, ‘We have faith in Allah and the Last Day,’ but they have no faith.
9
القرآن:
يخادعون الله والذين آمنوا وما يخدعون إلا أنفسهم وما يشعرون
TRANSLATION:
They seek to deceive Allah and those who have faith, yet they deceive no one but themselves, but they are not aware.
10
القرآن:
في قلوبهم مرض فزادهم الله مرضا ۖ ولهم عذاب أليم بما كانوا يكذبون
TRANSLATION:
There is a sickness in their hearts; then Allah increased their sickness, and there is a painful punishment for them because of the lies they used to tell.
11
القرآن:
وإذا قيل لهم لا تفسدوا في الأرض قالوا إنما نحن مصلحون
TRANSLATION:
When they are told, ‘Do not cause corruption on the earth,’ they say, ‘We are only reformers!’
12
القرآن:
ألا إنهم هم المفسدون ولكن لا يشعرون
TRANSLATION:
Look! They are themselves the agents of corruption, but they are not aware.
13
القرآن:
وإذا قيل لهم آمنوا كما آمن الناس قالوا أنؤمن كما آمن السفهاء ۗ ألا إنهم هم السفهاء ولكن لا يعلمون
TRANSLATION:
And when they are told, ‘Believe like the people who have believed,’ they say, ‘Shall we believe like the fools who have believed?’ Look! They are themselves the fools, but they do not know.
14
القرآن:
وإذا لقوا الذين آمنوا قالوا آمنا وإذا خلوا إلى شياطينهم قالوا إنا معكم إنما نحن مستهزئون
TRANSLATION:
When they meet the faithful, they say, ‘We believe,’ but when they are alone with their devils, they say, ‘We are with you; we were only deriding [them].’
15
القرآن:
الله يستهزئ بهم ويمدهم في طغيانهم يعمهون
TRANSLATION:
It is Allah who derides them,1 and leaves them bewildered in their rebellion.
That is, by letting them imagine that they are mocking the faithful.
16
القرآن:
أولئك الذين اشتروا الضلالة بالهدى فما ربحت تجارتهم وما كانوا مهتدين
TRANSLATION:
They are the ones who bought error for guidance, so their trade did not profit them, nor were they guided.
17
القرآن:
مثلهم كمثل الذي استوقد نارا فلما أضاءت ما حوله ذهب الله بنورهم وتركهم في ظلمات لا يبصرون
TRANSLATION:
Their parable is that of one who lighted a torch, and when it had lit up all around him, Allah took away their light, and left them sightless in a manifold darkness.1
The one who lights the torch in the parable is the Prophet (ṣ), who illuminated the spiritual horizons of the Arabia of those days with the message of Islam. But the hypocrites, with their inward blindness, did not benefit from its light and continued to remain in the darkness of their faithlessness.
18
القرآن:
صم بكم عمي فهم لا يرجعون
TRANSLATION:
Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will not come back.
19
القرآن:
أو كصيب من السماء فيه ظلمات ورعد وبرق يجعلون أصابعهم في آذانهم من الصواعق حذر الموت ۚ والله محيط بالكافرين
TRANSLATION:
Or that of a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning: they put their fingers in their ears due to the thunderclaps, apprehensive of death; and Allah besieges the faithless.1
This is another parable for the condition of the hypocrites. In it the Prophet’s mission, with its downpour of Divine knowledge, the accompanying light of guidance, along with the hardships of struggle against polytheism and injustice, is likened to a rainstorm.
20
القرآن:
يكاد البرق يخطف أبصارهم ۖ كلما أضاء لهم مشوا فيه وإذا أظلم عليهم قاموا ۚ ولو شاء الله لذهب بسمعهم وأبصارهم ۚ إن الله على كل شيء قدير
TRANSLATION:
The lightning almost snatches away their sight: whenever it shines for them, they walk in it, and when the darkness falls upon them, they stand. Had Allah willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed Allah has power over all things.
21
القرآن:
يا أيها الناس اعبدوا ربكم الذي خلقكم والذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون
TRANSLATION:
O mankind! Worship your Lord, who created you and those who were before you, so that you may be Godwary.
22
القرآن:
الذي جعل لكم الأرض فراشا والسماء بناء وأنزل من السماء ماء فأخرج به من الثمرات رزقا لكم ۖ فلا تجعلوا لله أندادا وأنتم تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
He who made the earth a place of repose for you, and the sky a canopy, and He sends down water from the sky, and with it He brings forth crops for your sustenance. So do not set up equals to Allah, while you know.
23
القرآن:
وإن كنتم في ريب مما نزلنا على عبدنا فأتوا بسورة من مثله وادعوا شهداءكم من دون الله إن كنتم صادقين
TRANSLATION:
And if you are in doubt concerning what We have sent down to Our servant, then bring a sūrah like it, and invoke your helpers besides Allah, should you be truthful.
24
القرآن:
فإن لم تفعلوا ولن تفعلوا فاتقوا النار التي وقودها الناس والحجارة ۖ أعدت للكافرين
TRANSLATION:
And if you do not—and you will not— then beware the Fire whose fuel will be humans and stones, prepared for the faithless.
25
القرآن:
وبشر الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات أن لهم جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار ۖ كلما رزقوا منها من ثمرة رزقا ۙ قالوا هذا الذي رزقنا من قبل ۖ وأتوا به متشابها ۖ ولهم فيها أزواج مطهرة ۖ وهم فيها خالدون
TRANSLATION:
And give good news to those who have faith and do righteous deeds, that for them shall be gardens with streams running in them: whenever they are provided with their fruit for nourishment, they will say, ‘This is what we were provided before,’ and they were given something resembling it. In it there will be chaste mates for them, and they will remain in it [forever].
26
القرآن:
۞ إن الله لا يستحيي أن يضرب مثلا ما بعوضة فما فوقها ۚ فأما الذين آمنوا فيعلمون أنه الحق من ربهم ۖ وأما الذين كفروا فيقولون ماذا أراد الله بهذا مثلا ۘ يضل به كثيرا ويهدي به كثيرا ۚ وما يضل به إلا الفاسقين
TRANSLATION:
Indeed Allah is not ashamed to draw a parable whether it is that of a gnat or something above it. As for those who have faith, they know it is the truth from their Lord; and as for the faithless, they say, ‘What did Allah mean by this parable?’ Thereby He leads many astray, and thereby He guides many; and He leads no one astray thereby except the transgressors
27
القرآن:
الذين ينقضون عهد الله من بعد ميثاقه ويقطعون ما أمر الله به أن يوصل ويفسدون في الأرض ۚ أولئك هم الخاسرون
TRANSLATION:
—those who break the covenant made with Allah after having pledged it solemnly, and sever what Allah has commanded to be joined, and cause corruption on the earth— it is they who are the losers.
28
القرآن:
كيف تكفرون بالله وكنتم أمواتا فأحياكم ۖ ثم يميتكم ثم يحييكم ثم إليه ترجعون
TRANSLATION:
How can you be unfaithful to Allah, [seeing that] you were lifeless and He gave you life, then He will make you die, and then He shall bring you to life, and then you will be brought back to Him?
29
القرآن:
هو الذي خلق لكم ما في الأرض جميعا ثم استوى إلى السماء فسواهن سبع سماوات ۚ وهو بكل شيء عليم
TRANSLATION:
It is He who created for you all that is in the earth, then He turned to the heaven, and fashioned it into seven heavens, and He has knowledge of all things.
30
القرآن:
وإذ قال ربك للملائكة إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة ۖ قالوا أتجعل فيها من يفسد فيها ويسفك الدماء ونحن نسبح بحمدك ونقدس لك ۖ قال إني أعلم ما لا تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
When your Lord said to the angels, ‘Indeed I am going to set a viceroy on the earth,’ they said, ‘Will You set in it someone who will cause corruption in it, and shed blood, while we celebrate Your praise and proclaim Your sanctity?’ He said, ‘Indeed I know what you do not know.’
31
القرآن:
وعلم آدم الأسماء كلها ثم عرضهم على الملائكة فقال أنبئوني بأسماء هؤلاء إن كنتم صادقين
TRANSLATION:
And He taught Adam the Names, all of them;1 then presented them2 to the angels and said, ‘Tell me the names of these, if you are truthful.’
It is to be noted that the pronoun in ‘all of them’ [kullahā] is feminine.
The pronoun in the phrase ‘He presented them’ [ʿaraḍahum] is masculine, indicating that it does not refer to the ‘Names’ but to their referents.
32
القرآن:
قالوا سبحانك لا علم لنا إلا ما علمتنا ۖ إنك أنت العليم الحكيم
TRANSLATION:
They said, ‘Immaculate are You! We have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed You are the All-knowing, the All-wise.’
33
القرآن:
قال يا آدم أنبئهم بأسمائهم ۖ فلما أنبأهم بأسمائهم قال ألم أقل لكم إني أعلم غيب السماوات والأرض وأعلم ما تبدون وما كنتم تكتمون
TRANSLATION:
He said, ‘O Adam, inform them1 of their names,’ and when he had informed them of their names, He said, ‘Did I not tell you that I indeed know the Unseen in the heavens and the earth, and that I know whatever you disclose and whatever you were concealing?’
That is, the angels, about the names of those referents.
34
القرآن:
وإذ قلنا للملائكة اسجدوا لآدم فسجدوا إلا إبليس أبى واستكبر وكان من الكافرين
TRANSLATION:
And when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate before Adam,’ they prostrated, but not Iblis: he refused and acted arrogantly, and he was one of the faithless.
35
القرآن:
وقلنا يا آدم اسكن أنت وزوجك الجنة وكلا منها رغدا حيث شئتما ولا تقربا هذه الشجرة فتكونا من الظالمين
TRANSLATION:
We said, ‘O Adam, dwell with your mate in paradise, and eat thereof freely whencesoever you wish; but do not approach this tree, lest you should be among the wrongdoers.’
36
القرآن:
فأزلهما الشيطان عنها فأخرجهما مما كانا فيه ۖ وقلنا اهبطوا بعضكم لبعض عدو ۖ ولكم في الأرض مستقر ومتاع إلى حين
TRANSLATION:
Then Satan caused them to stumble from it, and he dislodged them from what they were in; and We said, ‘Get down, being enemies of one another! On the earth shall be your abode and sustenance for a time.’
37
القرآن:
فتلقى آدم من ربه كلمات فتاب عليه ۚ إنه هو التواب الرحيم
TRANSLATION:
Then Adam received certain words from his Lord, and He turned to him clemently. Indeed He is the All-clement, the All-merciful.
38
القرآن:
قلنا اهبطوا منها جميعا ۖ فإما يأتينكم مني هدى فمن تبع هداي فلا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون
TRANSLATION:
We said, ‘Get down from it, all together! Yet, should any guidance come to you from Me, those who follow My guidance shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.
39
القرآن:
والذين كفروا وكذبوا بآياتنا أولئك أصحاب النار ۖ هم فيها خالدون
TRANSLATION:
But those who are faithless and deny Our signs, they shall be the inmates of the Fire and they shall remain in it [forever].
40
القرآن:
يا بني إسرائيل اذكروا نعمتي التي أنعمت عليكم وأوفوا بعهدي أوف بعهدكم وإياي فارهبون
TRANSLATION:
O Children of Israel, remember My blessing which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill My covenant that I may fulfill your covenant, and be in awe of Me [alone].
41
القرآن:
وآمنوا بما أنزلت مصدقا لما معكم ولا تكونوا أول كافر به ۖ ولا تشتروا بآياتي ثمنا قليلا وإياي فاتقون
TRANSLATION:
And believe in that which I have sent down confirming that which is with you, and do not be the first ones to defy it, and do not sell My signs for a paltry gain, and be wary of Me [alone].
42
القرآن:
ولا تلبسوا الحق بالباطل وتكتموا الحق وأنتم تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
And do not mix the truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know.
43
القرآن:
وأقيموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة واركعوا مع الراكعين
TRANSLATION:
And maintain the prayer, and give the zakāt, and bow along with those who bow [in prayer].
44
القرآن:
۞ أتأمرون الناس بالبر وتنسون أنفسكم وأنتم تتلون الكتاب ۚ أفلا تعقلون
TRANSLATION:
Will you bid others to piety and forget yourselves, while you recite the Book? Do you not apply reason?
45
القرآن:
واستعينوا بالصبر والصلاة ۚ وإنها لكبيرة إلا على الخاشعين
TRANSLATION:
And take recourse in patience and prayer, and it1 is indeed hard except for the humble
The pronoun, being feminine, refers to prayer, rather than to patience or to the seeking of recourse.
46
القرآن:
الذين يظنون أنهم ملاقو ربهم وأنهم إليه راجعون
TRANSLATION:
—those who are certain that they will encounter their Lord, and that they will return to Him.
47
القرآن:
يا بني إسرائيل اذكروا نعمتي التي أنعمت عليكم وأني فضلتكم على العالمين
TRANSLATION:
O Children of Israel, remember My blessing which I bestowed upon you, and that I gave you an advantage over all the nations.
48
القرآن:
واتقوا يوما لا تجزي نفس عن نفس شيئا ولا يقبل منها شفاعة ولا يؤخذ منها عدل ولا هم ينصرون
TRANSLATION:
Beware of the day when no soul shall compensate for another, neither any intercession shall be accepted from it, nor any ransom shall be received from it, nor will they be helped.
49
القرآن:
وإذ نجيناكم من آل فرعون يسومونكم سوء العذاب يذبحون أبناءكم ويستحيون نساءكم ۚ وفي ذلكم بلاء من ربكم عظيم
TRANSLATION:
And when We delivered you from Pharaoh’s clan who inflicted a terrible torment on you, and slaughtered your sons and spared your women, and in that there was a great test from your Lord.
50
القرآن:
وإذ فرقنا بكم البحر فأنجيناكم وأغرقنا آل فرعون وأنتم تنظرون
TRANSLATION:
And when We parted the sea with you,1 and We delivered you and drowned Pharaoh’s clan as you looked on.
That is, through your entering it.
51
القرآن:
وإذ واعدنا موسى أربعين ليلة ثم اتخذتم العجل من بعده وأنتم ظالمون
TRANSLATION:
And when We made an appointment with Moses for forty nights, you took up the Calf [for worship] in his absence, and you were wrongdoers.
52
القرآن:
ثم عفونا عنكم من بعد ذلك لعلكم تشكرون
TRANSLATION:
Then We excused you after that so that you might give thanks.
53
القرآن:
وإذ آتينا موسى الكتاب والفرقان لعلكم تهتدون
TRANSLATION:
And when We gave Moses the Book and the Criterion1 so that you might be guided.
That is, that by means of which truth and falsehood are distinguished from each other (cf. 21:48). Elsewhere (3:4; 25:1) the Qurʾān is also called al-Furqān.
54
القرآن:
وإذ قال موسى لقومه يا قوم إنكم ظلمتم أنفسكم باتخاذكم العجل فتوبوا إلى بارئكم فاقتلوا أنفسكم ذلكم خير لكم عند بارئكم فتاب عليكم ۚ إنه هو التواب الرحيم
TRANSLATION:
And [recall] when Moses said to his people, ‘O my people! You have indeed wronged yourselves by taking up the Calf [for worship]. Now turn penitently to your Maker, and slay [the guilty among] your folks. That will be better for you with your Maker.’ Then He turned to you clemently. Indeed He is the All-clement, the All-merciful.
55
القرآن:
وإذ قلتم يا موسى لن نؤمن لك حتى نرى الله جهرة فأخذتكم الصاعقة وأنتم تنظرون
TRANSLATION:
And when you said, ‘O Moses, we will not believe you until we see Allah visibly.’ Thereupon a thunderbolt seized you as you looked on.
56
القرآن:
ثم بعثناكم من بعد موتكم لعلكم تشكرون
TRANSLATION:
Then We raised you up after your death so that you might give thanks.
57
القرآن:
وظللنا عليكم الغمام وأنزلنا عليكم المن والسلوى ۖ كلوا من طيبات ما رزقناكم ۖ وما ظلمونا ولكن كانوا أنفسهم يظلمون
TRANSLATION:
And We shaded you with clouds, and We sent down to you manna and quails: ‘Eat of the good things We have provided for you.’ And they did not wrong Us, but they used to wrong [only] themselves.
58
القرآن:
وإذ قلنا ادخلوا هذه القرية فكلوا منها حيث شئتم رغدا وادخلوا الباب سجدا وقولوا حطة نغفر لكم خطاياكم ۚ وسنزيد المحسنين
TRANSLATION:
And when We said, ‘Enter this town,1 and eat thereof freely whencesoever you wish, and enter prostrating at the gate, and say, “Relieve [us of the burden of our sins],”2 that We may forgive your iniquities, and soon We will enhance the virtuous.’
This city, according to tradition (see Tafsīr al-Imām al-ʿAskarī), was Arīḥāʾ or Jericho (or Jerusalem, according to some commentators), an ancient city of Palestine near the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. A stronghold commanding the valley of the lower Jordan River, it was captured and destroyed by Joshua forty years later.
Or ‘[We beseech] forgiveness [for our sins].’
59
القرآن:
فبدل الذين ظلموا قولا غير الذي قيل لهم فأنزلنا على الذين ظلموا رجزا من السماء بما كانوا يفسقون
TRANSLATION:
But the wrongdoers changed the saying with other than what they were told. So We sent down on those who were wrongdoers a plague from the sky because of the transgressions they used to commit.
60
القرآن:
۞ وإذ استسقى موسى لقومه فقلنا اضرب بعصاك الحجر ۖ فانفجرت منه اثنتا عشرة عينا ۖ قد علم كل أناس مشربهم ۖ كلوا واشربوا من رزق الله ولا تعثوا في الأرض مفسدين
TRANSLATION:
And when Moses prayed for water for his people, We said, ‘Strike the rock with your staff.’ Thereat twelve fountains gushed forth from it; every tribe came to know its drinking-place. ‘Eat and drink of Allah’s provision, and do not act wickedly on the earth, causing corruption.’
61
القرآن:
وإذ قلتم يا موسى لن نصبر على طعام واحد فادع لنا ربك يخرج لنا مما تنبت الأرض من بقلها وقثائها وفومها وعدسها وبصلها ۖ قال أتستبدلون الذي هو أدنى بالذي هو خير ۚ اهبطوا مصرا فإن لكم ما سألتم ۗ وضربت عليهم الذلة والمسكنة وباءوا بغضب من الله ۗ ذلك بأنهم كانوا يكفرون بآيات الله ويقتلون النبيين بغير الحق ۗ ذلك بما عصوا وكانوا يعتدون
TRANSLATION:
And when you said, ‘O Moses, ‘We will not put up with one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us, that He may bring forth for us of that which the earth grows —its greens and its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, and its onions.’ He said, ‘Do you seek to replace what is superior with that which is inferior? Go down to any town and you will indeed get what you ask for!’ So they were struck with abasement and poverty, and they earned Allah’s wrath. That, because they would defy the signs of Allah and kill the prophets unjustly. That, because they would disobey and used to commit transgression.
62
القرآن:
إن الذين آمنوا والذين هادوا والنصارى والصابئين من آمن بالله واليوم الآخر وعمل صالحا فلهم أجرهم عند ربهم ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون
TRANSLATION:
Indeed the faithful, the Jews, the Christians, and the Sabaeans —those of them who have faith in Allah and the Last Day and act righteously— they shall have their reward near their Lord, and they will have no fear, nor will they grieve.
63
القرآن:
وإذ أخذنا ميثاقكم ورفعنا فوقكم الطور خذوا ما آتيناكم بقوة واذكروا ما فيه لعلكم تتقون
TRANSLATION:
And when We took a pledge from you, and raised the Mount above you [declaring], ‘Hold on with power to what We have given you, and remember that which is in it, so that you may be Godwary.’
64
القرآن:
ثم توليتم من بعد ذلك ۖ فلولا فضل الله عليكم ورحمته لكنتم من الخاسرين
TRANSLATION:
Then after that you turned away; and were it not for Allah’s grace on you and His mercy, you would surely have been among the losers.
65
القرآن:
ولقد علمتم الذين اعتدوا منكم في السبت فقلنا لهم كونوا قردة خاسئين
TRANSLATION:
And certainly you know those of you who violated the Sabbath, whereupon We said to them, ‘Be you spurned apes.’
66
القرآن:
فجعلناها نكالا لما بين يديها وما خلفها وموعظة للمتقين
TRANSLATION:
So We made it an exemplary punishment for the present and the succeeding [generations], and an advice to the Godwary.
67
القرآن:
وإذ قال موسى لقومه إن الله يأمركم أن تذبحوا بقرة ۖ قالوا أتتخذنا هزوا ۖ قال أعوذ بالله أن أكون من الجاهلين
TRANSLATION:
And when Moses said to his people, ‘Indeed Allah commands you to slaughter a cow,’ they said, ‘Do you take us in derision?’ He said, ‘I seek Allah’s protection lest I should be one of the senseless!’
68
القرآن:
قالوا ادع لنا ربك يبين لنا ما هي ۚ قال إنه يقول إنها بقرة لا فارض ولا بكر عوان بين ذلك ۖ فافعلوا ما تؤمرون
TRANSLATION:
They said, ‘Invoke your Lord for us, that He may clarify for us what she may be.’ He said, ‘He says, She is a cow, neither old nor young, of a middle age. Now do what you are commanded.’
69
القرآن:
قالوا ادع لنا ربك يبين لنا ما لونها ۚ قال إنه يقول إنها بقرة صفراء فاقع لونها تسر الناظرين
TRANSLATION:
They said, ‘Invoke your Lord for us, that He may clarify for us what her colour may be.’ He said, ‘He says, She is a cow that is yellow, of a bright hue, pleasing to the onlookers.’
70
القرآن:
قالوا ادع لنا ربك يبين لنا ما هي إن البقر تشابه علينا وإنا إن شاء الله لمهتدون
TRANSLATION:
They said, ‘Invoke your Lord for us, that He may clarify for us what she may be. Indeed all cows are much alike to us, and, if Allah wishes, we will surely be guided.’
71
القرآن:
قال إنه يقول إنها بقرة لا ذلول تثير الأرض ولا تسقي الحرث مسلمة لا شية فيها ۚ قالوا الآن جئت بالحق ۚ فذبحوها وما كادوا يفعلون
TRANSLATION:
He said, ‘He says, She is a cow not broken to till the earth or to water the tillage, sound and without blemish.’ They said, ‘Now have you come up with the truth!’ And they slaughtered it, though they were about not to do it.
72
القرآن:
وإذ قتلتم نفسا فادارأتم فيها ۖ والله مخرج ما كنتم تكتمون
TRANSLATION:
And when you killed a soul, and accused one another about it —and Allah was to expose whatever you were concealing—
73
القرآن:
فقلنا اضربوه ببعضها ۚ كذلك يحيي الله الموتى ويريكم آياته لعلكم تعقلون
TRANSLATION:
We said, ‘Strike him with a piece of it:’ thus does Allah revive the dead, and He shows you His signs so that you may apply reason.
74
القرآن:
ثم قست قلوبكم من بعد ذلك فهي كالحجارة أو أشد قسوة ۚ وإن من الحجارة لما يتفجر منه الأنهار ۚ وإن منها لما يشقق فيخرج منه الماء ۚ وإن منها لما يهبط من خشية الله ۗ وما الله بغافل عما تعملون
TRANSLATION:
Then your hearts hardened after that; so they are like stones, or even harder. For indeed there are some stones from which streams gush forth, and indeed there are some of them that split, and water issues from them, and indeed there are some of them that fall for the fear of Allah. And Allah is not oblivious of what you do.
75
القرآن:
۞ أفتطمعون أن يؤمنوا لكم وقد كان فريق منهم يسمعون كلام الله ثم يحرفونه من بعد ما عقلوه وهم يعلمون
TRANSLATION:
Are you then eager that they should believe you,1 though a part of them would hear the word of Allah and then they would distort it2 after they had understood it, and they knew [what they were doing]?
This is an address to the muslims who were eager that the Jews should embrace Islam and follow the Prophet’s teachings.
Cf. 4:46; 5:13, 41, for this characteristic of the Jews.
76
القرآن:
وإذا لقوا الذين آمنوا قالوا آمنا وإذا خلا بعضهم إلى بعض قالوا أتحدثونهم بما فتح الله عليكم ليحاجوكم به عند ربكم ۚ أفلا تعقلون
TRANSLATION:
When they meet the faithful, they say, ‘We believe,’ and when they are alone with one another, they say, ‘Do you recount to them what Allah has revealed to you, so that they may argue with you therewith before your Lord? Do you not apply reason?’
77
القرآن:
أولا يعلمون أن الله يعلم ما يسرون وما يعلنون
TRANSLATION:
Do they not know that Allah knows whatever they hide and whatever they disclose?
78
القرآن:
ومنهم أميون لا يعلمون الكتاب إلا أماني وإن هم إلا يظنون
TRANSLATION:
And among them are the illiterate who know nothing of the Book except hearsay,1 and they only make conjectures.
That is, what they learnt through word of mouth from their scribes and priests, rather than from a direct knowledge of the scriptures. Or ‘hopes,’ or ‘lies.’
79
القرآن:
فويل للذين يكتبون الكتاب بأيديهم ثم يقولون هذا من عند الله ليشتروا به ثمنا قليلا ۖ فويل لهم مما كتبت أيديهم وويل لهم مما يكسبون
TRANSLATION:
So woe to those who write the Book with their hands and then say, ‘This is from Allah,’ that they may sell it for a paltry gain. So woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for what they earn!
80
القرآن:
وقالوا لن تمسنا النار إلا أياما معدودة ۚ قل أتخذتم عند الله عهدا فلن يخلف الله عهده ۖ أم تقولون على الله ما لا تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
And they say, ‘The Fire shall not touch us except for a number of days.’ Say, ‘Have you taken a promise from Allah? If so, Allah shall never break His promise. Or do you ascribe to Allah what you do not know?’
81
القرآن:
بلى من كسب سيئة وأحاطت به خطيئته فأولئك أصحاب النار ۖ هم فيها خالدون
TRANSLATION:
Certainly whoever commits misdeeds and is besieged by his iniquity —such shall be the inmates of the Fire, and they shall remain in it [forever].
82
القرآن:
والذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات أولئك أصحاب الجنة ۖ هم فيها خالدون
TRANSLATION:
And those who have faith and do righteous deeds, —they shall be the inhabitants of paradise; they shall remain in it [forever].
83
القرآن:
وإذ أخذنا ميثاق بني إسرائيل لا تعبدون إلا الله وبالوالدين إحسانا وذي القربى واليتامى والمساكين وقولوا للناس حسنا وأقيموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة ثم توليتم إلا قليلا منكم وأنتم معرضون
TRANSLATION:
And when We took a pledge from the Children of Israel: ‘Worship no one but Allah, do good to parents, relatives, orphans, and the needy, and speak kindly to people, and maintain the prayer, and give the zakāt,’ you turned away, except a few of you, and you were disregardful.
84
القرآن:
وإذ أخذنا ميثاقكم لا تسفكون دماءكم ولا تخرجون أنفسكم من دياركم ثم أقررتم وأنتم تشهدون
TRANSLATION:
And when We took a pledge from you: ‘You shall not shed your [own people’s] blood, and you shall not expel your folks from your homes,’ you pledged, and you testify1 [to this pledge of your ancestors].
Or ‘and you testified.’
85
القرآن:
ثم أنتم هؤلاء تقتلون أنفسكم وتخرجون فريقا منكم من ديارهم تظاهرون عليهم بالإثم والعدوان وإن يأتوكم أسارى تفادوهم وهو محرم عليكم إخراجهم ۚ أفتؤمنون ببعض الكتاب وتكفرون ببعض ۚ فما جزاء من يفعل ذلك منكم إلا خزي في الحياة الدنيا ۖ ويوم القيامة يردون إلى أشد العذاب ۗ وما الله بغافل عما تعملون
TRANSLATION:
Then there you were, killing your folks and expelling a part of your folks from their homes, backing one another against them in sin and aggression! And if they came to you as captives, you would ransom them, though their expulsion itself was forbidden you. What! Do you believe in part of the Book and defy another part? So what is the requital of those of you who do that except disgrace in the life of this world? And on the Day of Resurrection, they shall be consigned to the severest punishment. And Allah is not oblivious of what you do.
86
القرآن:
أولئك الذين اشتروا الحياة الدنيا بالآخرة ۖ فلا يخفف عنهم العذاب ولا هم ينصرون
TRANSLATION:
They are the ones who bought the life of this world for the Hereafter; so their punishment shall not be lightened, nor will they be helped.
87
القرآن:
ولقد آتينا موسى الكتاب وقفينا من بعده بالرسل ۖ وآتينا عيسى ابن مريم البينات وأيدناه بروح القدس ۗ أفكلما جاءكم رسول بما لا تهوى أنفسكم استكبرتم ففريقا كذبتم وفريقا تقتلون
TRANSLATION:
Certainly We gave Moses the Book, and followed him with the apostles, and We gave Jesus, the son of Mary, manifest proofs, and confirmed him with the Holy Spirit. Is it not that whenever an apostle brought you1 that which was not to your liking, you would act arrogantly; so you would impugn a part [of them], and slay a[nother] part?
That is, the Jews.
88
القرآن:
وقالوا قلوبنا غلف ۚ بل لعنهم الله بكفرهم فقليلا ما يؤمنون
TRANSLATION:
And they say, ‘Our hearts are uncircumcised.’1 Rather Allah has cursed them for their unfaith, so few of them have faith.
Uncircumcised: unconverted, heathen, faithless; cf. 4:155. In Leviticus 26.41, it is said of the Israelites, ‘Then when their uncircumcised hearts are humbled and they pay for their sin, I will remember my covenant with Jacob … ,’ and in Jeremiah 9.26: ‘Even the whole house of Israel is uncircumcised in heart … .’ There are other similar expressions and phrases in the Bible: “uncircumcised lips” (Exodus 6.12 and 6.30); “their ear is uncircumcised and they cannot hearken” (Jeremiah 6.10); “uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in flesh” (Ezekiel 44.7, 9); “uncircumcised in heart and ears” (Acts 7.51), “putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ” (Colossians 2.11).
89
القرآن:
ولما جاءهم كتاب من عند الله مصدق لما معهم وكانوا من قبل يستفتحون على الذين كفروا فلما جاءهم ما عرفوا كفروا به ۚ فلعنة الله على الكافرين
TRANSLATION:
And when there came to them a Book from Allah, confirming that which is with them —and earlier they would pray for victory over the pagans— so when there came to them what they recognized, they defied it. So may the curse of Allah be on the faithless!
90
القرآن:
بئسما اشتروا به أنفسهم أن يكفروا بما أنزل الله بغيا أن ينزل الله من فضله على من يشاء من عباده ۖ فباءوا بغضب على غضب ۚ وللكافرين عذاب مهين
TRANSLATION:
Evil is that for which they have sold their souls, by defying what Allah has sent down, out of envy, that Allah should bestow His grace on any of His servants that He wishes. Thus they earned wrath upon wrath, and there is a humiliating punishment for the faithless.
91
القرآن:
وإذا قيل لهم آمنوا بما أنزل الله قالوا نؤمن بما أنزل علينا ويكفرون بما وراءه وهو الحق مصدقا لما معهم ۗ قل فلم تقتلون أنبياء الله من قبل إن كنتم مؤمنين
TRANSLATION:
And when they are told, ‘Believe in what Allah has sent down,’ they say, ‘We believe in what was sent down to us,’ and they disbelieve what is besides it, though it is the truth confirming what is with them. Say, ‘Then why would you kill the prophets of Allah formerly, should you be faithful?’
92
القرآن:
۞ ولقد جاءكم موسى بالبينات ثم اتخذتم العجل من بعده وأنتم ظالمون
TRANSLATION:
Certainly Moses brought you manifest proofs, but then you took up the Calf in his absence, and you were wrongdoers.
93
القرآن:
وإذ أخذنا ميثاقكم ورفعنا فوقكم الطور خذوا ما آتيناكم بقوة واسمعوا ۖ قالوا سمعنا وعصينا وأشربوا في قلوبهم العجل بكفرهم ۚ قل بئسما يأمركم به إيمانكم إن كنتم مؤمنين
TRANSLATION:
And when We took covenant with you and raised the Mount above you [declaring], ‘Hold on with power to what We have given you, and listen!’ They said, ‘We hear, and disobey,’ and their hearts had been imbued with [the love of] the Calf, due to their faithlessness. Say, ‘Evil is that to which your faith prompts you, should you be faithful!’
94
القرآن:
قل إن كانت لكم الدار الآخرة عند الله خالصة من دون الناس فتمنوا الموت إن كنتم صادقين
TRANSLATION:
Say, ‘If the abode of the Hereafter with Allah were exclusively for you, and not for other people, then long for death, should you be truthful.’
95
القرآن:
ولن يتمنوه أبدا بما قدمت أيديهم ۗ والله عليم بالظالمين
TRANSLATION:
But they will not long for it ever because of what their hands have sent ahead,1 and Allah knows best the wrongdoers.
That is, to the scene of judgement and retribution on the Day of Resurrection. Or ‘prepared,’ ‘made ready,’ or ‘committed,’ ‘perpetrated.’
96
القرآن:
ولتجدنهم أحرص الناس على حياة ومن الذين أشركوا ۚ يود أحدهم لو يعمر ألف سنة وما هو بمزحزحه من العذاب أن يعمر ۗ والله بصير بما يعملون
TRANSLATION:
Surely, you will find them the greediest for life, of all people ⎯even the idolaters. Each of them is eager to live a thousand years, though it would not deliver him from the punishment, were he to live [that long]. And Allah sees best what they do.
97
القرآن:
قل من كان عدوا لجبريل فإنه نزله على قلبك بإذن الله مصدقا لما بين يديه وهدى وبشرى للمؤمنين
TRANSLATION:
Say, ‘Whoever is an enemy of Gabriel [should know that] it is he who has brought it down on your heart with the will of Allah, confirming what has been [revealed] before it, and as a guidance and good news to the faithful.’
98
القرآن:
من كان عدوا لله وملائكته ورسله وجبريل وميكال فإن الله عدو للكافرين
TRANSLATION:
[Say,] ‘Whoever is an enemy of Allah, His angels and His apostles, and Gabriel and Michael, [let him know that] Allah is indeed the enemy of the faithless.’
99
القرآن:
ولقد أنزلنا إليك آيات بينات ۖ وما يكفر بها إلا الفاسقون
TRANSLATION:
We have certainly sent down manifest signs to you, and no one defies them except transgressors.
100
القرآن:
أوكلما عاهدوا عهدا نبذه فريق منهم ۚ بل أكثرهم لا يؤمنون
TRANSLATION:
Is it not that whenever they made a covenant, a part of them would cast it away? Rather the majority of them do not have faith.
101
القرآن:
ولما جاءهم رسول من عند الله مصدق لما معهم نبذ فريق من الذين أوتوا الكتاب كتاب الله وراء ظهورهم كأنهم لا يعلمون
TRANSLATION:
And when there came to them an apostle from Allah, confirming that which is with them, a part of those who were given the Book cast the Book of Allah behind their back, as if they did not know [that it is Allah’s Book].
102
القرآن:
واتبعوا ما تتلو الشياطين على ملك سليمان ۖ وما كفر سليمان ولكن الشياطين كفروا يعلمون الناس السحر وما أنزل على الملكين ببابل هاروت وماروت ۚ وما يعلمان من أحد حتى يقولا إنما نحن فتنة فلا تكفر ۖ فيتعلمون منهما ما يفرقون به بين المرء وزوجه ۚ وما هم بضارين به من أحد إلا بإذن الله ۚ ويتعلمون ما يضرهم ولا ينفعهم ۚ ولقد علموا لمن اشتراه ما له في الآخرة من خلاق ۚ ولبئس ما شروا به أنفسهم ۚ لو كانوا يعلمون
TRANSLATION:
And they followed what the devils pursued during Solomon’s reign1 —and Solomon did not turn faithless, but it was the devils who were faithless— teaching the people magic, and what was sent down to the two angels at Babylon, Hārūt and Mārūt, and they would not teach anyone without telling [him], ‘We are only a test,2 so do not be faithless.’ But they would learn from those two that with which they would cause a split between man and his wife —though they could not harm anyone with it except with Allah’s leave. And they would learn that which would harm them and bring them no benefit; though they certainly knew that anyone who buys it has no share in the Hereafter. Surely, evil is that for which they sold their souls; had they known!
Or ‘they followed what the devils recited during Solomon’s reign.’ Or ‘they followed the lies the devils uttered against Solomon’s reign.’
Or ‘temptation.’
103
القرآن:
ولو أنهم آمنوا واتقوا لمثوبة من عند الله خير ۖ لو كانوا يعلمون
TRANSLATION:
Had they been faithful and Godwary, the reward from Allah would have been better; had they known!
104
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تقولوا راعنا وقولوا انظرنا واسمعوا ۗ وللكافرين عذاب أليم
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Do not say Raʿinā, but say Unzurnā, and listen!1 And there is a painful punishment for the faithless.
The Jews in ridiculing the Prophet would say rāʿinā [meaning, ‘have regard for us’] with a change of accent turning it into another word which made it a term of reproach. The muslims are told to say unzurnā [meaning, ‘give us a little respite’] instead while addressing the Prophet (ṣ), as there is no room in this term for such a distortion.
105
القرآن:
ما يود الذين كفروا من أهل الكتاب ولا المشركين أن ينزل عليكم من خير من ربكم ۗ والله يختص برحمته من يشاء ۚ والله ذو الفضل العظيم
TRANSLATION:
Neither the faithless from among the People of the Book, nor the idolaters, like that any good be showered on you from your Lord; but Allah singles out for His mercy whomever He wishes, and Allah is dispenser of a mighty grace.
106
القرآن:
۞ ما ننسخ من آية أو ننسها نأت بخير منها أو مثلها ۗ ألم تعلم أن الله على كل شيء قدير
TRANSLATION:
For any verse that We abrogate or remove from memories, We bring another which is better than it, or similar to it. Do you not know that Allah has power over all things?
107
القرآن:
ألم تعلم أن الله له ملك السماوات والأرض ۗ وما لكم من دون الله من ولي ولا نصير
TRANSLATION:
Do you not know that to Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth? And besides Allah you do not have any guardian or any helper.
108
القرآن:
أم تريدون أن تسألوا رسولكم كما سئل موسى من قبل ۗ ومن يتبدل الكفر بالإيمان فقد ضل سواء السبيل
TRANSLATION:
Would you question your Apostle as Moses was questioned formerly? Whoever changes faith for unfaith certainly strays from the right way.
109
القرآن:
ود كثير من أهل الكتاب لو يردونكم من بعد إيمانكم كفارا حسدا من عند أنفسهم من بعد ما تبين لهم الحق ۖ فاعفوا واصفحوا حتى يأتي الله بأمره ۗ إن الله على كل شيء قدير
TRANSLATION:
Many of the People of the Book are eager to turn you into unbelievers after your faith, out of their inner envy, [and] after the truth had become manifest to them. Yet excuse [them] and forbear until Allah issues His edict. Indeed Allah has power over all things.
110
القرآن:
وأقيموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة ۚ وما تقدموا لأنفسكم من خير تجدوه عند الله ۗ إن الله بما تعملون بصير
TRANSLATION:
And maintain the prayer and give the zakāt. Any good that you send ahead for your souls, you shall find it with Allah. Indeed Allah sees best what you do.
111
القرآن:
وقالوا لن يدخل الجنة إلا من كان هودا أو نصارى ۗ تلك أمانيهم ۗ قل هاتوا برهانكم إن كنتم صادقين
TRANSLATION:
And they say, ‘No one shall enter paradise except one who is a Jew or a Christian.’ Those are their [false] hopes! Say, ‘Produce your evidence, should you be truthful.’
112
القرآن:
بلى من أسلم وجهه لله وهو محسن فله أجره عند ربه ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون
TRANSLATION:
Certainly whoever submits his will to Allah and is virtuous, he shall have his reward near his Lord, and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.
113
القرآن:
وقالت اليهود ليست النصارى على شيء وقالت النصارى ليست اليهود على شيء وهم يتلون الكتاب ۗ كذلك قال الذين لا يعلمون مثل قولهم ۚ فالله يحكم بينهم يوم القيامة فيما كانوا فيه يختلفون
TRANSLATION:
The Jews say, ‘The Christians stand on nothing,’ and the Christians say, ‘The Jews stand on nothing,’ though they follow the [same] Book. So said those who had no knowledge, [words] similar to what they say. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that about which they used to differ.
114
القرآن:
ومن أظلم ممن منع مساجد الله أن يذكر فيها اسمه وسعى في خرابها ۚ أولئك ما كان لهم أن يدخلوها إلا خائفين ۚ لهم في الدنيا خزي ولهم في الآخرة عذاب عظيم
TRANSLATION:
Who is a greater wrongdoer than him who denies access to the mosques of Allah lest His Name be celebrated therein, and tries to ruin them? Such ones may not enter them, except in fear. There is disgrace for them in this world, and there is for them a great punishment in the Hereafter.
115
القرآن:
ولله المشرق والمغرب ۚ فأينما تولوا فثم وجه الله ۚ إن الله واسع عليم
TRANSLATION:
To Allah belong the east and the west: so whichever way you turn, there is the face of Allah! Allah is indeed all-bounteous, all-knowing.
116
القرآن:
وقالوا اتخذ الله ولدا ۗ سبحانه ۖ بل له ما في السماوات والأرض ۖ كل له قانتون
TRANSLATION:
And they say, ‘Allah has taken a son.’ Immaculate is He! Rather to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient to Him,
117
القرآن:
بديع السماوات والأرض ۖ وإذا قضى أمرا فإنما يقول له كن فيكون
TRANSLATION:
the Originator of the heavens and the earth; and when He decides on a matter, He just says to it, ‘Be!’ and it is.
118
القرآن:
وقال الذين لا يعلمون لولا يكلمنا الله أو تأتينا آية ۗ كذلك قال الذين من قبلهم مثل قولهم ۘ تشابهت قلوبهم ۗ قد بينا الآيات لقوم يوقنون
TRANSLATION:
Those who have no knowledge say, ‘Why does not Allah speak to us, or come to us a sign?’ So said those who were before them, [words] similar to what they say. Alike are their hearts. We have certainly made the signs clear for a people who have certainty.
119
القرآن:
إنا أرسلناك بالحق بشيرا ونذيرا ۖ ولا تسأل عن أصحاب الجحيم
TRANSLATION:
Indeed We have sent you with the truth, as a bearer of good news and as a warner, and you will not be questioned concerning the inmates of hell.
120
القرآن:
ولن ترضى عنك اليهود ولا النصارى حتى تتبع ملتهم ۗ قل إن هدى الله هو الهدى ۗ ولئن اتبعت أهواءهم بعد الذي جاءك من العلم ۙ ما لك من الله من ولي ولا نصير
TRANSLATION:
Never will the Jews be pleased with you, nor the Christians, unless you followed their creed. Say, ‘Indeed it is the guidance of Allah which is the [true] guidance.’ And should you follow their desires after the knowledge that has come to you, you will not have against Allah any guardian nor any helper.
121
القرآن:
الذين آتيناهم الكتاب يتلونه حق تلاوته أولئك يؤمنون به ۗ ومن يكفر به فأولئك هم الخاسرون
TRANSLATION:
Those to whom We have given the Book follow it as it ought to be followed: they have faith in it. As for those who defy it —it is they who are the losers.
122
القرآن:
يا بني إسرائيل اذكروا نعمتي التي أنعمت عليكم وأني فضلتكم على العالمين
TRANSLATION:
O Children of Israel, remember My blessing which I bestowed upon you, and that I gave you an advantage over all the nations.
123
القرآن:
واتقوا يوما لا تجزي نفس عن نفس شيئا ولا يقبل منها عدل ولا تنفعها شفاعة ولا هم ينصرون
TRANSLATION:
And beware of the Day when no soul shall compensate for another, neither shall any ransom be accepted from it, nor shall any intercession benefit it, nor will they be helped.
124
القرآن:
۞ وإذ ابتلى إبراهيم ربه بكلمات فأتمهن ۖ قال إني جاعلك للناس إماما ۖ قال ومن ذريتي ۖ قال لا ينال عهدي الظالمين
TRANSLATION:
And when his Lord tested Abraham with certain words, and he fulfilled them, He said, ‘I am making you the Imam1 of mankind.’ Said he, ‘And from among my descendants?’ He said, ‘My pledge does not extend to the unjust.’
That is, the spiritual and temporal guide and leader of mankind. For other Qurʾānic occurrences of this term, see 17:71; 25:74; 28:5; 32:24; 36:12.
125
القرآن:
وإذ جعلنا البيت مثابة للناس وأمنا واتخذوا من مقام إبراهيم مصلى ۖ وعهدنا إلى إبراهيم وإسماعيل أن طهرا بيتي للطائفين والعاكفين والركع السجود
TRANSLATION:
And [remember] when We made the House a place of reward1 for mankind and a sanctuary, [declaring], ‘Take the venue of prayer from Abraham’s Station.’2 We charged Abraham and Ishmael [with its upkeep, saying], ‘Purify My House for those who go around it, [for] those who make it a retreat and [for] those who bow and prostrate.’
Or ‘confluence,’ or ‘resort,’ depending on whether the term mathābah is taken to mean a place of spiritual reward, a place of gathering, or a place to which one frequently returns.
Abraham’s Station (maqām Ibrāhīm) is a spot at a few meters’ distance from the Kaʿbah where a stone relic is kept that bears the footprint of Abraham, behind which the pilgrims offer the prayer of the ṭawāf.
126
القرآن:
وإذ قال إبراهيم رب اجعل هذا بلدا آمنا وارزق أهله من الثمرات من آمن منهم بالله واليوم الآخر ۖ قال ومن كفر فأمتعه قليلا ثم أضطره إلى عذاب النار ۖ وبئس المصير
TRANSLATION:
And when Abraham said, ‘My Lord, make this a secure town, and provide its people with fruits —such of them as have faith in Allah and the Last Day,’ He said, ‘As for him who is faithless, I will provide for him [too] for a short time, then I will shove him toward the punishment of the Fire, and it is an evil destination.’
127
القرآن:
وإذ يرفع إبراهيم القواعد من البيت وإسماعيل ربنا تقبل منا ۖ إنك أنت السميع العليم
TRANSLATION:
As Abraham raised the foundations of the House with Ishmael, [they prayed]: ‘Our Lord, accept it from us! Indeed You are the All-hearing, the All-knowing.
128
القرآن:
ربنا واجعلنا مسلمين لك ومن ذريتنا أمة مسلمة لك وأرنا مناسكنا وتب علينا ۖ إنك أنت التواب الرحيم
TRANSLATION:
‘Our Lord, make us submissive to You, and [raise] from our progeny a nation submissive to You, and show us our rites [of worship], and turn to us clemently. Indeed You are the All-clement, the All-merciful.
129
القرآن:
ربنا وابعث فيهم رسولا منهم يتلو عليهم آياتك ويعلمهم الكتاب والحكمة ويزكيهم ۚ إنك أنت العزيز الحكيم
TRANSLATION:
‘Our Lord, raise amongst them an apostle from among them, who should recite to them Your signs, and teach them the Book and wisdom, and purify them. Indeed You are the All-mighty, the All-wise.’
130
القرآن:
ومن يرغب عن ملة إبراهيم إلا من سفه نفسه ۚ ولقد اصطفيناه في الدنيا ۖ وإنه في الآخرة لمن الصالحين
TRANSLATION:
And who will [ever] renounce Abraham’s creed except one who fools himself? We certainly chose him in the [present] world, and in the Hereafter he will indeed be among the Righteous.1
The station of ‘the Righteous’ referred to in this verse is one which even Abraham will attain in the Hereafter. Cf. 16:122. Otherwise all prophets are, of course, righteous; see 3:39, 46; 6:85; 21:75, 86; 37:112.
131
القرآن:
إذ قال له ربه أسلم ۖ قال أسلمت لرب العالمين
TRANSLATION:
When his Lord said to him, ‘Submit,’ he said, ‘I submit to the Lord of all the worlds.’
132
القرآن:
ووصى بها إبراهيم بنيه ويعقوب يا بني إن الله اصطفى لكم الدين فلا تموتن إلا وأنتم مسلمون
TRANSLATION:
Abraham enjoined this [creed] upon his children, and [so did] Jacob, [saying], ‘My children! Allah has indeed chosen this religion for you; so never die except as muslims.’
133
القرآن:
أم كنتم شهداء إذ حضر يعقوب الموت إذ قال لبنيه ما تعبدون من بعدي قالوا نعبد إلهك وإله آبائك إبراهيم وإسماعيل وإسحاق إلها واحدا ونحن له مسلمون
TRANSLATION:
Were you witnesses when death approached Jacob, when he said to his children, ‘What will you worship after me?’ They said, ‘We will worship your God, and the God of your fathers, Abraham, Ishmael, and Isaac, the One God, and to Him do we submit.’
134
القرآن:
تلك أمة قد خلت ۖ لها ما كسبت ولكم ما كسبتم ۖ ولا تسألون عما كانوا يعملون
TRANSLATION:
That was a nation that has passed: for it there will be what it has earned, and for you there will be what you have earned, and you will not be questioned about what they used to do.
135
القرآن:
وقالوا كونوا هودا أو نصارى تهتدوا ۗ قل بل ملة إبراهيم حنيفا ۖ وما كان من المشركين
TRANSLATION:
And they say, ‘Be either Jews or Christians, that you may be [rightly] guided.’ Say, ‘Rather [we will follow] the creed of Abraham, a ḥanīf, and he was not one of the polytheists.’
136
القرآن:
قولوا آمنا بالله وما أنزل إلينا وما أنزل إلى إبراهيم وإسماعيل وإسحاق ويعقوب والأسباط وما أوتي موسى وعيسى وما أوتي النبيون من ربهم لا نفرق بين أحد منهم ونحن له مسلمون
TRANSLATION:
Say, ‘We have faith in Allah, and that which has been sent down to us, and that which was sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes,1 and that which Moses and Jesus were given, and that which the prophets were given from their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him do we submit.’
That is, the twelve tribes of the Israelites, who received the revelations through the prophets that were sent to them. Cf. 2:140; 3:84; 4:163.
137
القرآن:
فإن آمنوا بمثل ما آمنتم به فقد اهتدوا ۖ وإن تولوا فإنما هم في شقاق ۖ فسيكفيكهم الله ۚ وهو السميع العليم
TRANSLATION:
So if they believe in the like of what you believe in, then they are certainly guided; and if they turn away, then they are only [steeped] in defiance. Allah shall suffice you against them, and He is the All-hearing, the All-knowing.
138
القرآن:
صبغة الله ۖ ومن أحسن من الله صبغة ۖ ونحن له عابدون
TRANSLATION:
The baptism of Allah, and who baptizes better than Allah? And Him do we worship.’
139
القرآن:
قل أتحاجوننا في الله وهو ربنا وربكم ولنا أعمالنا ولكم أعمالكم ونحن له مخلصون
TRANSLATION:
Say, ‘Will you argue with us concerning Allah, while He is our Lord and your Lord, and our deeds belong to us, and your deeds belong to you, and we worship Him dedicatedly?’
140
القرآن:
أم تقولون إن إبراهيم وإسماعيل وإسحاق ويعقوب والأسباط كانوا هودا أو نصارى ۗ قل أأنتم أعلم أم الله ۗ ومن أظلم ممن كتم شهادة عنده من الله ۗ وما الله بغافل عما تعملون
TRANSLATION:
Do you say that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes were Jews or Christians? Say, ‘Is it you who know better, or Allah?’ And who is a greater wrongdoer than him who conceals a testimony that is with him from Allah? And Allah is not oblivious of what you do.
141
القرآن:
تلك أمة قد خلت ۖ لها ما كسبت ولكم ما كسبتم ۖ ولا تسألون عما كانوا يعملون
TRANSLATION:
That was a nation that has passed: for it there will be what it has earned, and for you there will be what you have earned, and you will not be questioned about what they used to do.
142
القرآن:
۞ سيقول السفهاء من الناس ما ولاهم عن قبلتهم التي كانوا عليها ۚ قل لله المشرق والمغرب ۚ يهدي من يشاء إلى صراط مستقيم
TRANSLATION:
The foolish among the people1 will say, ‘What has turned them away from the qiblah they were following?’2 Say, ‘To Allah belong the east and the west. He guides whomever He wishes to a straight path.’
That is, the Jews or the hypocrites amongst muslims, or both.
The muslims first used to pray facing in the direction of Bayt al-Maqdis. This and the verses that follow pertain to the change of the qiblah, or the direction faced during prayer, from Quds to the Kaʿbah, in Makkah.
143
القرآن:
وكذلك جعلناكم أمة وسطا لتكونوا شهداء على الناس ويكون الرسول عليكم شهيدا ۗ وما جعلنا القبلة التي كنت عليها إلا لنعلم من يتبع الرسول ممن ينقلب على عقبيه ۚ وإن كانت لكبيرة إلا على الذين هدى الله ۗ وما كان الله ليضيع إيمانكم ۚ إن الله بالناس لرءوف رحيم
TRANSLATION:
Thus We have made you a middle nation that you may be witnesses to the people, and that the Apostle may be a witness to you.
And We did not appoint the qiblah you were following but that We may ascertain those who follow the Apostle from those who turn back on their heels. It was indeed a hard thing except for those whom Allah has guided. And Allah would not let your prayers go to waste.1 Indeed Allah is most kind and merciful to mankind.
‘Īmān’ here means prayers. Allah reassures the faithful that the prayers they have offered earlier facing towards Quds will not be wasted by the change of qiblah.
144
القرآن:
قد نرى تقلب وجهك في السماء ۖ فلنولينك قبلة ترضاها ۚ فول وجهك شطر المسجد الحرام ۚ وحيث ما كنتم فولوا وجوهكم شطره ۗ وإن الذين أوتوا الكتاب ليعلمون أنه الحق من ربهم ۗ وما الله بغافل عما يعملون
TRANSLATION:
We certainly see you turning your face about in the sky. We will surely turn you to a qiblah of your liking: so turn your face towards the Holy Mosque, and wherever you may be, turn your faces towards it! Indeed those who were given the Book surely know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not oblivious of what they do.
145
القرآن:
ولئن أتيت الذين أوتوا الكتاب بكل آية ما تبعوا قبلتك ۚ وما أنت بتابع قبلتهم ۚ وما بعضهم بتابع قبلة بعض ۚ ولئن اتبعت أهواءهم من بعد ما جاءك من العلم ۙ إنك إذا لمن الظالمين
TRANSLATION:
Even if you bring those who were given the Book every [kind of] sign,1 they will not follow your qiblah. Nor shall you follow their qiblah, nor will any of them follow the qiblah of the other. And if you follow their desires, after the knowledge that has come to you, you will indeed be one of the wrongdoers.
That is, every kind of miracle.
146
القرآن:
الذين آتيناهم الكتاب يعرفونه كما يعرفون أبناءهم ۖ وإن فريقا منهم ليكتمون الحق وهم يعلمون
TRANSLATION:
Those whom We have given the Book recognize him just as they recognize their sons,1 but a part of them indeed conceal the truth while they know.
Cf. 6:20.
147
القرآن:
الحق من ربك ۖ فلا تكونن من الممترين
TRANSLATION:
This is the truth from your Lord; so do not be among the skeptics.
148
القرآن:
ولكل وجهة هو موليها ۖ فاستبقوا الخيرات ۚ أين ما تكونوا يأت بكم الله جميعا ۚ إن الله على كل شيء قدير
TRANSLATION:
Everyone has a cynosure to which he turns; so take the lead in all good works. Wherever you may be, Allah will bring you all together. Indeed Allah has power over all things.
149
القرآن:
ومن حيث خرجت فول وجهك شطر المسجد الحرام ۖ وإنه للحق من ربك ۗ وما الله بغافل عما تعملون
TRANSLATION:
Whencesoever you may go out, turn your face towards the Holy Mosque. Indeed it is the truth from your Lord, and Allah is not oblivious of what you do.
150
القرآن:
ومن حيث خرجت فول وجهك شطر المسجد الحرام ۚ وحيث ما كنتم فولوا وجوهكم شطره لئلا يكون للناس عليكم حجة إلا الذين ظلموا منهم فلا تخشوهم واخشوني ولأتم نعمتي عليكم ولعلكم تهتدون
TRANSLATION:
And whencesoever you may go out, turn your face towards the Holy Mosque, and wherever you may be, turn your faces towards it, so that the people may have no argument against you, neither those of them who are wrongdoers.1 So do not fear them, but fear Me, that I may complete My blessing on you and so that you may be guided.
As suggested by the Tafsīr al-Qummī, illā here stands for wa lā, and does not imply exclusion.
151
القرآن:
كما أرسلنا فيكم رسولا منكم يتلو عليكم آياتنا ويزكيكم ويعلمكم الكتاب والحكمة ويعلمكم ما لم تكونوا تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
As We sent to you an Apostle from among yourselves, who recites to you Our signs, and purifies you, and teaches you the Book and wisdom, and teaches you what you did not know.
152
القرآن:
فاذكروني أذكركم واشكروا لي ولا تكفرون
TRANSLATION:
Remember Me, and I will remember you, and thank Me, and do not be ungrateful to Me.
153
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا استعينوا بالصبر والصلاة ۚ إن الله مع الصابرين
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Take recourse in patience and prayer; indeed Allah is with the patient.
154
القرآن:
ولا تقولوا لمن يقتل في سبيل الله أموات ۚ بل أحياء ولكن لا تشعرون
TRANSLATION:
And do not call those who were slain in Allah’s way ‘dead.’ Rather they are living, but you are not aware.
155
القرآن:
ولنبلونكم بشيء من الخوف والجوع ونقص من الأموال والأنفس والثمرات ۗ وبشر الصابرين
TRANSLATION:
We will surely test you with a measure of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth, lives, and fruits; and give good news to the patient
156
القرآن:
الذين إذا أصابتهم مصيبة قالوا إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون
TRANSLATION:
—those who, when an affliction visits them, say, ‘Indeed we belong to Allah, and to Him do we indeed return.’
157
القرآن:
أولئك عليهم صلوات من ربهم ورحمة ۖ وأولئك هم المهتدون
TRANSLATION:
It is they who receive the blessings of their Lord and [His] mercy, and it is they who are the [rightly] guided.
158
القرآن:
۞ إن الصفا والمروة من شعائر الله ۖ فمن حج البيت أو اعتمر فلا جناح عليه أن يطوف بهما ۚ ومن تطوع خيرا فإن الله شاكر عليم
TRANSLATION:
Indeed Safa and Marwah are among Allah’s sacraments. So whoever makes ḥajj to the House, or performs the ʿumrah, there is no sin upon him to circuit between them. Should anyone do good of his own accord, then Allah is indeed appreciative, all-knowing.
159
القرآن:
إن الذين يكتمون ما أنزلنا من البينات والهدى من بعد ما بيناه للناس في الكتاب ۙ أولئك يلعنهم الله ويلعنهم اللاعنون
TRANSLATION:
Indeed those who conceal what We have sent down of manifest proofs and guidance, after We have clarified it in the Book for mankind, —they shall be cursed by Allah and cursed by the cursers,
160
القرآن:
إلا الذين تابوا وأصلحوا وبينوا فأولئك أتوب عليهم ۚ وأنا التواب الرحيم
TRANSLATION:
except such as repent, make amends, and clarify, —those I shall pardon, and I am the All-clement, the All-merciful.
161
القرآن:
إن الذين كفروا وماتوا وهم كفار أولئك عليهم لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين
TRANSLATION:
Indeed those who turn faithless and die while they are faithless, —it is they on whom shall be the curse of Allah, the angels and all mankind.
162
القرآن:
خالدين فيها ۖ لا يخفف عنهم العذاب ولا هم ينظرون
TRANSLATION:
They will remain in it [forever], and their punishment shall not be lightened, nor will they be granted any respite.
163
القرآن:
وإلهكم إله واحد ۖ لا إله إلا هو الرحمن الرحيم
TRANSLATION:
Your god is the One God, there is no god except Him, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.
164
القرآن:
إن في خلق السماوات والأرض واختلاف الليل والنهار والفلك التي تجري في البحر بما ينفع الناس وما أنزل الله من السماء من ماء فأحيا به الأرض بعد موتها وبث فيها من كل دابة وتصريف الرياح والسحاب المسخر بين السماء والأرض لآيات لقوم يعقلون
TRANSLATION:
Indeed in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, and the ships that sail at sea with profit to men, and the water that Allah sends down from the sky —with which He revives the earth after its death, and scatters therein every kind of animal— and the changing of the winds, and the clouds disposed between the sky and the earth, are surely signs for a people who apply reason.
165
القرآن:
ومن الناس من يتخذ من دون الله أندادا يحبونهم كحب الله ۖ والذين آمنوا أشد حبا لله ۗ ولو يرى الذين ظلموا إذ يرون العذاب أن القوة لله جميعا وأن الله شديد العذاب
TRANSLATION:
Among the people are those who set up compeers besides Allah, loving them as if loving Allah —but the faithful have a more ardent love for Allah— though the wrongdoers will see, when they sight the punishment, that power, altogether, belongs to Allah, and that Allah is severe in punishment.
166
القرآن:
إذ تبرأ الذين اتبعوا من الذين اتبعوا ورأوا العذاب وتقطعت بهم الأسباب
TRANSLATION:
When those who were followed will disown the followers, and they will sight the punishment while all their means of recourse will be cut off,
167
القرآن:
وقال الذين اتبعوا لو أن لنا كرة فنتبرأ منهم كما تبرءوا منا ۗ كذلك يريهم الله أعمالهم حسرات عليهم ۖ وما هم بخارجين من النار
TRANSLATION:
and when the followers will say, ‘Had there been another turn for us, we would disown them as they disown us [now]!’ Thus shall Allah show them their deeds as regrets for themselves, and they shall not leave the Fire.
168
القرآن:
يا أيها الناس كلوا مما في الأرض حلالا طيبا ولا تتبعوا خطوات الشيطان ۚ إنه لكم عدو مبين
TRANSLATION:
O mankind! Eat of what is lawful and pure in the earth, and do not follow in Satan’s steps. Indeed he is your manifest enemy.
169
القرآن:
إنما يأمركم بالسوء والفحشاء وأن تقولوا على الله ما لا تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
He only prompts you to [commit] evil and indecent acts, and that you attribute to Allah what you do not know.
170
القرآن:
وإذا قيل لهم اتبعوا ما أنزل الله قالوا بل نتبع ما ألفينا عليه آباءنا ۗ أولو كان آباؤهم لا يعقلون شيئا ولا يهتدون
TRANSLATION:
When they are told, ‘Follow what Allah has sent down,’ they say, ‘We will rather follow what we have found our fathers following.’ What, even if their fathers neither applied any reason nor were guided?!
171
القرآن:
ومثل الذين كفروا كمثل الذي ينعق بما لا يسمع إلا دعاء ونداء ۚ صم بكم عمي فهم لا يعقلون
TRANSLATION:
The parable of the faithless is that of someone who shouts after that which does not hear [anything] except a call and cry: deaf, dumb, and blind, they do not apply reason.
172
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا كلوا من طيبات ما رزقناكم واشكروا لله إن كنتم إياه تعبدون
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Eat of the good things We have provided you, and thank Allah, if it is Him that you worship.
173
القرآن:
إنما حرم عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير وما أهل به لغير الله ۖ فمن اضطر غير باغ ولا عاد فلا إثم عليه ۚ إن الله غفور رحيم
TRANSLATION:
He has forbidden you only carrion, blood, the flesh of the swine, and that which has been offered to other than Allah. But should someone be compelled, without being rebellious or aggressive,1 there shall be no sin upon him. Indeed Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful.
According to some exegetical traditions, bāghī refers to one who rebels against a just ruler (according to another interpretation, to a hunter), and ʿādī refers to a thief or highwayman (see Ṭabarī, Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-Burhān). Cf. 6:145; 16:115.
174
القرآن:
إن الذين يكتمون ما أنزل الله من الكتاب ويشترون به ثمنا قليلا ۙ أولئك ما يأكلون في بطونهم إلا النار ولا يكلمهم الله يوم القيامة ولا يزكيهم ولهم عذاب أليم
TRANSLATION:
Indeed those who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book and sell it for a paltry gain —they do not take in, into their bellies, [anything] except fire, and Allah shall not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor shall He purify them, and there is a painful punishment for them.
175
القرآن:
أولئك الذين اشتروا الضلالة بالهدى والعذاب بالمغفرة ۚ فما أصبرهم على النار
TRANSLATION:
They are the ones who bought error for guidance, and punishment for pardon: how patient of them to face the Fire!1
Or ‘what has made them tolerant of the Fire?’
176
القرآن:
ذلك بأن الله نزل الكتاب بالحق ۗ وإن الذين اختلفوا في الكتاب لفي شقاق بعيد
TRANSLATION:
That is so because Allah has sent down the Book with the truth, and those who differ about the Book are surely in extreme defiance.
177
القرآن:
۞ ليس البر أن تولوا وجوهكم قبل المشرق والمغرب ولكن البر من آمن بالله واليوم الآخر والملائكة والكتاب والنبيين وآتى المال على حبه ذوي القربى واليتامى والمساكين وابن السبيل والسائلين وفي الرقاب وأقام الصلاة وآتى الزكاة والموفون بعهدهم إذا عاهدوا ۖ والصابرين في البأساء والضراء وحين البأس ۗ أولئك الذين صدقوا ۖ وأولئك هم المتقون
TRANSLATION:
Piety is not to turn your faces to the east or the west; rather, piety is [personified by] those who have faith in Allah and the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets, and who give their wealth, for the love of Him,1 to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveller and the beggar, and for [the freeing of] the slaves, and maintain the prayer and give the zakāt, and those who fulfill their covenants, when they pledge themselves, and those who are patient in stress and distress,2 and in the heat of battle. They are the ones who are true [to their covenant], and it is they who are the Godwary.
Or ‘despite their love of it.’ Cf. 76:8.
That is, in poverty and sickness.
178
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا كتب عليكم القصاص في القتلى ۖ الحر بالحر والعبد بالعبد والأنثى بالأنثى ۚ فمن عفي له من أخيه شيء فاتباع بالمعروف وأداء إليه بإحسان ۗ ذلك تخفيف من ربكم ورحمة ۗ فمن اعتدى بعد ذلك فله عذاب أليم
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Retribution is prescribed for you regarding the slain: freeman for freeman, slave for slave, and female for female. But if one is granted any extenuation by his brother,1 let the follow up [for the blood-money] be honourable, and let the payment to him be with kindness. That is a remission from your Lord and a mercy; and should anyone transgress after that, there shall be a painful punishment for him.
That is, by the heir of the victim.
179
القرآن:
ولكم في القصاص حياة يا أولي الألباب لعلكم تتقون
TRANSLATION:
There is life for you in retribution, O you who possess intellects! Maybe you will be Godwary!
180
القرآن:
كتب عليكم إذا حضر أحدكم الموت إن ترك خيرا الوصية للوالدين والأقربين بالمعروف ۖ حقا على المتقين
TRANSLATION:
Prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you and he leaves behind any property, is that he make a bequest for his parents and relatives, in an honourable manner, —an obligation on the Godwary.
181
القرآن:
فمن بدله بعدما سمعه فإنما إثمه على الذين يبدلونه ۚ إن الله سميع عليم
TRANSLATION:
And should anyone alter it after hearing it, its sin shall indeed lie on those who alter it. Indeed Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing
182
القرآن:
فمن خاف من موص جنفا أو إثما فأصلح بينهم فلا إثم عليه ۚ إن الله غفور رحيم
TRANSLATION:
But should someone, fearing deviance or sin on the testator’s behalf, set things right between them, there is no sin upon him. Indeed Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful.
183
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا كتب عليكم الصيام كما كتب على الذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Prescribed for you is fasting as it was prescribed for those who were before you, so that you may be Godwary.
184
القرآن:
أياما معدودات ۚ فمن كان منكم مريضا أو على سفر فعدة من أيام أخر ۚ وعلى الذين يطيقونه فدية طعام مسكين ۖ فمن تطوع خيرا فهو خير له ۚ وأن تصوموا خير لكم ۖ إن كنتم تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
That for known days. But should any of you be sick or on a journey, let it be a [similar] number of other days. Those who find it straining shall be liable to atonement by feeding a needy person. Should anyone do good of his own accord, that is better for him, and to fast is better for you, should you know.
185
القرآن:
شهر رمضان الذي أنزل فيه القرآن هدى للناس وبينات من الهدى والفرقان ۚ فمن شهد منكم الشهر فليصمه ۖ ومن كان مريضا أو على سفر فعدة من أيام أخر ۗ يريد الله بكم اليسر ولا يريد بكم العسر ولتكملوا العدة ولتكبروا الله على ما هداكم ولعلكم تشكرون
TRANSLATION:
The month of Ramaḍān is one in which the Qurʾān was sent down as guidance to mankind, with manifest proofs of guidance and the Criterion.1 So let those of you who witness it fast [in] it, and as for someone who is sick or on a journey, let it be a [similar] number of other days. Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire hardship for you, and so that you may complete the number, and magnify Allah for guiding you, and that you may give thanks.
See footnote at 2:53.
186
القرآن:
وإذا سألك عبادي عني فإني قريب ۖ أجيب دعوة الداع إذا دعان ۖ فليستجيبوا لي وليؤمنوا بي لعلهم يرشدون
TRANSLATION:
When My servants ask you about Me, [tell them that] I am indeed nearmost. I answer the supplicant’s call when he calls Me. So let them respond to Me, and let them have faith in Me, so that they may fare rightly.
187
القرآن:
أحل لكم ليلة الصيام الرفث إلى نسائكم ۚ هن لباس لكم وأنتم لباس لهن ۗ علم الله أنكم كنتم تختانون أنفسكم فتاب عليكم وعفا عنكم ۖ فالآن باشروهن وابتغوا ما كتب الله لكم ۚ وكلوا واشربوا حتى يتبين لكم الخيط الأبيض من الخيط الأسود من الفجر ۖ ثم أتموا الصيام إلى الليل ۚ ولا تباشروهن وأنتم عاكفون في المساجد ۗ تلك حدود الله فلا تقربوها ۗ كذلك يبين الله آياته للناس لعلهم يتقون
TRANSLATION:
You are permitted, on the night of the fast, to go into your wives: they are a garment for you, and you are a garment for them. Allah knew that you used to betray yourselves, so He pardoned you and excused you. So now consort with them, and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white streak becomes manifest to you from the dark streak at the crack of dawn.1 Then complete the fast until nightfall, and do not consort with them while you dwell in confinement in the mosques. These are Allah’s bounds, so do not approach them. Thus does Allah clarify His signs for mankind so that they may be Godwary.
That is, until the first appearance of the dawn.
188
القرآن:
ولا تأكلوا أموالكم بينكم بالباطل وتدلوا بها إلى الحكام لتأكلوا فريقا من أموال الناس بالإثم وأنتم تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
Do not eat up your wealth among yourselves wrongfully, nor proffer it to the judges in order to eat up a part of the people’s wealth sinfully, while you know [that it is immoral to do so].
189
القرآن:
۞ يسألونك عن الأهلة ۖ قل هي مواقيت للناس والحج ۗ وليس البر بأن تأتوا البيوت من ظهورها ولكن البر من اتقى ۗ وأتوا البيوت من أبوابها ۚ واتقوا الله لعلكم تفلحون
TRANSLATION:
They question you concerning the new moons. Say, ‘They are timekeeping signs for the people and [for the sake of] ḥajj.’ It is not piety that you come into houses from their rear; rather piety is [personified by] one who is Godwary, and come into houses from their doors, and be wary of Allah, so that you may be felicitous.
190
القرآن:
وقاتلوا في سبيل الله الذين يقاتلونكم ولا تعتدوا ۚ إن الله لا يحب المعتدين
TRANSLATION:
Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress. Indeed Allah does not like transgressors.
191
القرآن:
واقتلوهم حيث ثقفتموهم وأخرجوهم من حيث أخرجوكم ۚ والفتنة أشد من القتل ۚ ولا تقاتلوهم عند المسجد الحرام حتى يقاتلوكم فيه ۖ فإن قاتلوكم فاقتلوهم ۗ كذلك جزاء الكافرين
TRANSLATION:
And kill them wherever you confront them, and expel them from where they expelled you, for faithlessness1 is graver than killing. But do not fight them near the Holy Mosque unless they fight you therein; but if they fight you, kill them; such is the requital of the faithless.
Or ‘polytheism.’
192
القرآن:
فإن انتهوا فإن الله غفور رحيم
TRANSLATION:
But if they relinquish,1 then Allah is indeed all-forgiving, all-merciful.
That is, if they give up idolatry.
193
القرآن:
وقاتلوهم حتى لا تكون فتنة ويكون الدين لله ۖ فإن انتهوا فلا عدوان إلا على الظالمين
TRANSLATION:
Fight them until faithlessness1 is no more, and religion becomes [exclusively] for Allah. Then if they relinquish, there shall be no reprisal except against the wrongdoers.
Or ‘polytheism,’ as narrated from Imam Muḥammad al-Bāqir (Ṭabrisī), Mujāhid, Qatādah, Rabīʿ, and Ḍaḥḥāk (Ṭabarī).
194
القرآن:
الشهر الحرام بالشهر الحرام والحرمات قصاص ۚ فمن اعتدى عليكم فاعتدوا عليه بمثل ما اعتدى عليكم ۚ واتقوا الله واعلموا أن الله مع المتقين
TRANSLATION:
A sacred month for a sacred month, and all sanctities require retribution. So should anyone aggress against you, assail him in the manner he assailed you,1 and be wary of Allah, and know that Allah is with the Godwary.
Cf. 16:126.
195
القرآن:
وأنفقوا في سبيل الله ولا تلقوا بأيديكم إلى التهلكة ۛ وأحسنوا ۛ إن الله يحب المحسنين
TRANSLATION:
Spend in the way of Allah, and do not cast yourselves with your own hands into destruction; and be virtuous. Indeed Allah loves the virtuous.
196
القرآن:
وأتموا الحج والعمرة لله ۚ فإن أحصرتم فما استيسر من الهدي ۖ ولا تحلقوا رءوسكم حتى يبلغ الهدي محله ۚ فمن كان منكم مريضا أو به أذى من رأسه ففدية من صيام أو صدقة أو نسك ۚ فإذا أمنتم فمن تمتع بالعمرة إلى الحج فما استيسر من الهدي ۚ فمن لم يجد فصيام ثلاثة أيام في الحج وسبعة إذا رجعتم ۗ تلك عشرة كاملة ۗ ذلك لمن لم يكن أهله حاضري المسجد الحرام ۚ واتقوا الله واعلموا أن الله شديد العقاب
TRANSLATION:
Complete the ḥajj and the ʿumrah for Allah’s sake, and if you are prevented, then [make] such [sacrificial] offering as is feasible. And do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its [assigned] place. But should any of you be sick, or have a hurt in his head,1 let the atonement be by fasting, or charity, or sacrifice. And when you have security —for those who enjoy [release from the restrictions] by virtue of the ʿumrah until the ḥajj— let the offering be such as is feasible. As for someone who cannot afford [the offering], let him fast three days during the ḥajj and seven when you return; that is [a period of] ten complete [days]. That is for someone whose family does not dwell by the Holy Mosque. And be wary of Allah, and know that Allah is severe in retribution.
Such as a wound on the scalp.
197
القرآن:
الحج أشهر معلومات ۚ فمن فرض فيهن الحج فلا رفث ولا فسوق ولا جدال في الحج ۗ وما تفعلوا من خير يعلمه الله ۗ وتزودوا فإن خير الزاد التقوى ۚ واتقون يا أولي الألباب
TRANSLATION:
The ḥajj [season] is in months well-known; so whoever decides on ḥajj [pilgrimage] therein, [should know that] there is to be no sexual contact, vicious talk, or disputing during the ḥajj. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And take provision, for indeed the best provision is Godwariness. So be wary of Me, O you who possess intellects!
198
القرآن:
ليس عليكم جناح أن تبتغوا فضلا من ربكم ۚ فإذا أفضتم من عرفات فاذكروا الله عند المشعر الحرام ۖ واذكروه كما هداكم وإن كنتم من قبله لمن الضالين
TRANSLATION:
There is no sin upon you in seeking your Lord’s grace [during the ḥajj season]. Then when you stream out of ‘Arafāt remember Allah at the Holy Mash‘ar, and remember Him as He has guided you, and earlier you were indeed among the astray.
199
القرآن:
ثم أفيضوا من حيث أفاض الناس واستغفروا الله ۚ إن الله غفور رحيم
TRANSLATION:
Then stream out from where the people stream out, and plead to Allah for forgiveness; indeed Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful.
200
القرآن:
فإذا قضيتم مناسككم فاذكروا الله كذكركم آباءكم أو أشد ذكرا ۗ فمن الناس من يقول ربنا آتنا في الدنيا وما له في الآخرة من خلاق
TRANSLATION:
And when you finish your rites, then remember Allah as you would remember your fathers, or with a more ardent remembrance. Among the people there are those who say, ‘Our Lord, give us in this world,’ but for such there is no share in the Hereafter.
201
القرآن:
ومنهم من يقول ربنا آتنا في الدنيا حسنة وفي الآخرة حسنة وقنا عذاب النار
TRANSLATION:
And among them there are those who say, ‘Our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the Fire.’
202
القرآن:
أولئك لهم نصيب مما كسبوا ۚ والله سريع الحساب
TRANSLATION:
Such shall partake of what they have earned, and Allah is swift at reckoning.
203
القرآن:
۞ واذكروا الله في أيام معدودات ۚ فمن تعجل في يومين فلا إثم عليه ومن تأخر فلا إثم عليه ۚ لمن اتقى ۗ واتقوا الله واعلموا أنكم إليه تحشرون
TRANSLATION:
Remember Allah in the appointed days. Then whoever hastens off in a couple of days, there is no sin upon him, and whoever delays, there is no sin upon him —that for one who has been Godwary— and be wary of Allah, and know that toward Him you will be mustered.
204
القرآن:
ومن الناس من يعجبك قوله في الحياة الدنيا ويشهد الله على ما في قلبه وهو ألد الخصام
TRANSLATION:
Among the people is he whose talk about worldly life impresses you, and he holds Allah witness to what is in his heart, though he is the staunchest of enemies.
205
القرآن:
وإذا تولى سعى في الأرض ليفسد فيها ويهلك الحرث والنسل ۗ والله لا يحب الفساد
TRANSLATION:
And if he were to wield authority, he would try to cause corruption in the land, and to ruin the crop and the stock, and Allah does not like corruption.
206
القرآن:
وإذا قيل له اتق الله أخذته العزة بالإثم ۚ فحسبه جهنم ۚ ولبئس المهاد
TRANSLATION:
And when he is told, ‘Be wary of Allah,’ conceit seizes him sinfully; so let hell suffice him, and it is surely an evil resting place!
207
القرآن:
ومن الناس من يشري نفسه ابتغاء مرضات الله ۗ والله رءوف بالعباد
TRANSLATION:
And among the people is he who sells his soul1 seeking the pleasure of Allah, and Allah is most kind to [His] servants.
Or ‘his life.’
208
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا ادخلوا في السلم كافة ولا تتبعوا خطوات الشيطان ۚ إنه لكم عدو مبين
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Enter into submission, all together, and do not follow in Satan’s steps; he is indeed your manifest enemy.
209
القرآن:
فإن زللتم من بعد ما جاءتكم البينات فاعلموا أن الله عزيز حكيم
TRANSLATION:
And should you stumble after the manifest proofs that have come to you, know that Allah is all-mighty, all-wise.
210
القرآن:
هل ينظرون إلا أن يأتيهم الله في ظلل من الغمام والملائكة وقضي الأمر ۚ وإلى الله ترجع الأمور
TRANSLATION:
Do they await anything but that Allah[’s command] should come to them in the shades of the clouds, with the angels, and the matter be decided [once for all]? And to Allah all matters are returned.
211
القرآن:
سل بني إسرائيل كم آتيناهم من آية بينة ۗ ومن يبدل نعمة الله من بعد ما جاءته فإن الله شديد العقاب
TRANSLATION:
Ask the Children of Israel how many a manifest sign We had given them. And whoever changes Allah’s blessing after it has come to him, indeed Allah is severe in retribution.
212
القرآن:
زين للذين كفروا الحياة الدنيا ويسخرون من الذين آمنوا ۘ والذين اتقوا فوقهم يوم القيامة ۗ والله يرزق من يشاء بغير حساب
TRANSLATION:
Worldly life has been glamorized for the faithless, and they ridicule the faithful. But those who are Godwary shall be above them on the Day of Resurrection, and Allah provides for whomever He wishes without any reckoning.
213
القرآن:
كان الناس أمة واحدة فبعث الله النبيين مبشرين ومنذرين وأنزل معهم الكتاب بالحق ليحكم بين الناس فيما اختلفوا فيه ۚ وما اختلف فيه إلا الذين أوتوه من بعد ما جاءتهم البينات بغيا بينهم ۖ فهدى الله الذين آمنوا لما اختلفوا فيه من الحق بإذنه ۗ والله يهدي من يشاء إلى صراط مستقيم
TRANSLATION:
Mankind were a single community; then Allah sent the prophets as bearers of good news and as warners, and He sent down with them the Book with the truth, that it1 may judge between the people concerning that about which they differed, and none differed in it except those who had been given it, after the manifest proofs had come to them, out of envy among themselves. Then Allah guided those who had faith to the truth of what they differed in, by His will, and Allah guides whomever He wishes to a straight path.
That is the Book.
214
القرآن:
أم حسبتم أن تدخلوا الجنة ولما يأتكم مثل الذين خلوا من قبلكم ۖ مستهم البأساء والضراء وزلزلوا حتى يقول الرسول والذين آمنوا معه متى نصر الله ۗ ألا إن نصر الله قريب
TRANSLATION:
Do you suppose that you shall enter paradise though there has not yet come to you the like of [what befell]those who went before you? Stress and distress befell them and they were convulsed until the apostle and the faithful who were with him said, ‘When will Allah’s help [come]?’ Look! Allah’s help is indeed near!
215
القرآن:
يسألونك ماذا ينفقون ۖ قل ما أنفقتم من خير فللوالدين والأقربين واليتامى والمساكين وابن السبيل ۗ وما تفعلوا من خير فإن الله به عليم
TRANSLATION:
They ask you as to what they should spend. Say, ‘Whatever wealth you spend, let it be for parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, and the traveller.’ And whatever good that you may do, Allah indeed knows it.
216
القرآن:
كتب عليكم القتال وهو كره لكم ۖ وعسى أن تكرهوا شيئا وهو خير لكم ۖ وعسى أن تحبوا شيئا وهو شر لكم ۗ والله يعلم وأنتم لا تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
Warfare has been prescribed for you, though it is repulsive to you. Yet it may be that you dislike something while it is good for you, and it may be that you love something while it is bad for you, and Allah knows and you do not know.
217
القرآن:
يسألونك عن الشهر الحرام قتال فيه ۖ قل قتال فيه كبير ۖ وصد عن سبيل الله وكفر به والمسجد الحرام وإخراج أهله منه أكبر عند الله ۚ والفتنة أكبر من القتل ۗ ولا يزالون يقاتلونكم حتى يردوكم عن دينكم إن استطاعوا ۚ ومن يرتدد منكم عن دينه فيمت وهو كافر فأولئك حبطت أعمالهم في الدنيا والآخرة ۖ وأولئك أصحاب النار ۖ هم فيها خالدون
TRANSLATION:
They ask you concerning warfare in the holy month. Say, ‘It is an outrageous thing to fight in it, but to keep [people] from Allah’s way, and to be unfaithful to Him, and [to keep people from] the Holy Mosque, and to expel its people from it are more outrageous with Allah. And faithlessness is graver than killing. And they will not cease fighting you until they turn you away from your religion, if they can. And whoever of you turns away from his religion and dies faithless —they are the ones whose works have failed in this world and the Hereafter. They shall be the inmates of the Fire, and they shall remain in it [forever].
218
القرآن:
إن الذين آمنوا والذين هاجروا وجاهدوا في سبيل الله أولئك يرجون رحمت الله ۚ والله غفور رحيم
TRANSLATION:
Indeed those who have become faithful and those who have migrated and waged jihād in the way of Allah —it is they who expect Allah’s mercy, and Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful.
219
القرآن:
۞ يسألونك عن الخمر والميسر ۖ قل فيهما إثم كبير ومنافع للناس وإثمهما أكبر من نفعهما ۗ ويسألونك ماذا ينفقون قل العفو ۗ كذلك يبين الله لكم الآيات لعلكم تتفكرون
TRANSLATION:
They ask you concerning wine and gambling. Say, ‘There is a great sin in both of them, and some profits for the people, but their sinfulness outweighs their profit.’ And they ask you as to what they should spend. Say, ‘All that is surplus.’ Thus does Allah clarify His signs for you so that you may reflect
220
القرآن:
في الدنيا والآخرة ۗ ويسألونك عن اليتامى ۖ قل إصلاح لهم خير ۖ وإن تخالطوهم فإخوانكم ۚ والله يعلم المفسد من المصلح ۚ ولو شاء الله لأعنتكم ۚ إن الله عزيز حكيم
TRANSLATION:
about the world and the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning the orphans. Say, ‘It is better to set right their affairs,1 and if you intermingle with them, they are of course your brothers: Allah knows the one who causes corruption from the one who brings about reform, and had Allah wished He would have put you to hardship.’ Indeed Allah is all-mighty, all-wise.
That is, it is better to manage their affairs than to stand aloof due to the fear of mishandling them. Cf. 4:2.
221
القرآن:
ولا تنكحوا المشركات حتى يؤمن ۚ ولأمة مؤمنة خير من مشركة ولو أعجبتكم ۗ ولا تنكحوا المشركين حتى يؤمنوا ۚ ولعبد مؤمن خير من مشرك ولو أعجبكم ۗ أولئك يدعون إلى النار ۖ والله يدعو إلى الجنة والمغفرة بإذنه ۖ ويبين آياته للناس لعلهم يتذكرون
TRANSLATION:
Do not marry idolatresses until they embrace faith. A faithful slave girl is better than an idolatress, though she should impress you. And do not marry [your daughters] to idolaters until they embrace faith. A faithful slave is better than an idolater, though he should impress you. Those invite [others] to the Fire, but Allah invites to paradise and pardon, by His will, and He clarifies His signs for the people so that they may take admonition.
222
القرآن:
ويسألونك عن المحيض ۖ قل هو أذى فاعتزلوا النساء في المحيض ۖ ولا تقربوهن حتى يطهرن ۖ فإذا تطهرن فأتوهن من حيث أمركم الله ۚ إن الله يحب التوابين ويحب المتطهرين
TRANSLATION:
They ask you concerning [intercourse during] menses. Say, ‘It is hurtful.’1 So keep away from wives during the menses,2 and do not approach them till they are clean. And when they become clean, go into them as Allah has commanded you. Indeed Allah loves the penitent and He loves those who keep clean.
Or ‘offensive.’
That is, ‘refrain from sexual intercourse.’
223
القرآن:
نساؤكم حرث لكم فأتوا حرثكم أنى شئتم ۖ وقدموا لأنفسكم ۚ واتقوا الله واعلموا أنكم ملاقوه ۗ وبشر المؤمنين
TRANSLATION:
Your women are a tillage for you, so come to your tillage whenever you like, and send ahead for your souls, and be Godwary, and know that you will encounter Him; and give good news to the faithful.
224
القرآن:
ولا تجعلوا الله عرضة لأيمانكم أن تبروا وتتقوا وتصلحوا بين الناس ۗ والله سميع عليم
TRANSLATION:
Do not make Allah an obstacle, through your oaths, to being pious and Godwary, and to bringing about concord between people. And Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing.
225
القرآن:
لا يؤاخذكم الله باللغو في أيمانكم ولكن يؤاخذكم بما كسبت قلوبكم ۗ والله غفور حليم
TRANSLATION:
Allah shall not take you to task for what is unconsidered in your oaths, but He shall take you to task for what your hearts have incurred, and Allah is all-forgiving, all-forbearing.
226
القرآن:
للذين يؤلون من نسائهم تربص أربعة أشهر ۖ فإن فاءوا فإن الله غفور رحيم
TRANSLATION:
For those who forswear their wives1 shall be a waiting for four months. And if they recant, Allah is indeed all-forgiving, all-merciful.
That is, by pronouncing īlā, a pre-Islamic practice which allowed the husband to take an oath to refrain from sexual relations with his wife, which left the wife in a state of uncertainty for an indefinite period. According to this verse, the husband must decide within four months either to restore the marriage or to divorce her.
227
القرآن:
وإن عزموا الطلاق فإن الله سميع عليم
TRANSLATION:
But if they resolve on divorce, Allah is indeed all-hearing, all-knowing.
228
القرآن:
والمطلقات يتربصن بأنفسهن ثلاثة قروء ۚ ولا يحل لهن أن يكتمن ما خلق الله في أرحامهن إن كن يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر ۚ وبعولتهن أحق بردهن في ذلك إن أرادوا إصلاحا ۚ ولهن مثل الذي عليهن بالمعروف ۚ وللرجال عليهن درجة ۗ والله عزيز حكيم
TRANSLATION:
Divorced women shall wait by themselves for three periods of purity [after menses], and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs if they believe in Allah and the Last Day; and their husbands have a greater right to restore them during this [duration], if they desire reconcilement. The wives have rights similar to the obligations upon them, in accordance with honourable norms; and men have a degree above them, and Allah is all-mighty and all-wise.
229
القرآن:
الطلاق مرتان ۖ فإمساك بمعروف أو تسريح بإحسان ۗ ولا يحل لكم أن تأخذوا مما آتيتموهن شيئا إلا أن يخافا ألا يقيما حدود الله ۖ فإن خفتم ألا يقيما حدود الله فلا جناح عليهما فيما افتدت به ۗ تلك حدود الله فلا تعتدوها ۚ ومن يتعد حدود الله فأولئك هم الظالمون
TRANSLATION:
[Revocable] divorce may be only twice; then [let there be] either an honourable retention, or a kindly release. And it is not lawful for you to take back anything from what you have given them,1 unless the couple fear that they may not maintain Allah’s bounds. So if you fear they would not maintain Allah’s bounds, there is no sin upon them2 in what she may give to secure her release. These are Allah’s bounds, so do not transgress them, and whoever transgresses the bounds of Allah —it is they who are the wrongdoers.
That is, to the wives.
That is, the husband and wife.
230
القرآن:
فإن طلقها فلا تحل له من بعد حتى تنكح زوجا غيره ۗ فإن طلقها فلا جناح عليهما أن يتراجعا إن ظنا أن يقيما حدود الله ۗ وتلك حدود الله يبينها لقوم يعلمون
TRANSLATION:
And if he divorces her, she will not be lawful for him until she marries a husband other than him, and if he divorces her,1 there is no sin upon them to remarry if they think that they can maintain Allah’s bounds. These are Allah’s bounds, which He clarifies for a people who have knowledge.
That is, after she has been divorced by the second husband, the two of them may remarry if they think they can maintain a healthy marital relationship.
231
القرآن:
وإذا طلقتم النساء فبلغن أجلهن فأمسكوهن بمعروف أو سرحوهن بمعروف ۚ ولا تمسكوهن ضرارا لتعتدوا ۚ ومن يفعل ذلك فقد ظلم نفسه ۚ ولا تتخذوا آيات الله هزوا ۚ واذكروا نعمت الله عليكم وما أنزل عليكم من الكتاب والحكمة يعظكم به ۚ واتقوا الله واعلموا أن الله بكل شيء عليم
TRANSLATION:
When you divorce women and they complete their term, then either retain them honourably or release them honourably, and do not retain them maliciously in order that you may transgress; and whoever does that certainly wrongs himself. Do not take the signs of Allah in derision, and remember Allah’s blessing upon you, and what He has sent down to you of the Book and wisdom, to advise you therewith. Be wary of Allah, and know that Allah has knowledge of all things.
232
القرآن:
وإذا طلقتم النساء فبلغن أجلهن فلا تعضلوهن أن ينكحن أزواجهن إذا تراضوا بينهم بالمعروف ۗ ذلك يوعظ به من كان منكم يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر ۗ ذلكم أزكى لكم وأطهر ۗ والله يعلم وأنتم لا تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
When you divorce women and they complete their term, do not thwart them lest they should [re]marry their husbands, when they honourably reach mutual consent. Herewith are advised those of you who believe in Allah and the Last Day. That will be more decent and purer for you, and Allah knows and you do not know.
233
القرآن:
۞ والوالدات يرضعن أولادهن حولين كاملين ۖ لمن أراد أن يتم الرضاعة ۚ وعلى المولود له رزقهن وكسوتهن بالمعروف ۚ لا تكلف نفس إلا وسعها ۚ لا تضار والدة بولدها ولا مولود له بولده ۚ وعلى الوارث مثل ذلك ۗ فإن أرادا فصالا عن تراض منهما وتشاور فلا جناح عليهما ۗ وإن أردتم أن تسترضعوا أولادكم فلا جناح عليكم إذا سلمتم ما آتيتم بالمعروف ۗ واتقوا الله واعلموا أن الله بما تعملون بصير
TRANSLATION:
Mothers shall suckle their children for two full years, —that for such as desire to complete the suckling— and on the father shall be their maintenance and clothing, in accordance with honourable norms. No soul is to be tasked except according to its capacity: neither the mother shall be made to suffer harm on her child’s account, nor the father on account of his child, and on the [father’s] heir devolve [duties and rights] similar to that. And if the couple desire to wean, with mutual consent and consultation, there will be no sin upon them. And if you want to have your children wet-nursed, there will be no sin upon you so long as you pay what you give in accordance with honourable norms, and be wary of Allah, and know that Allah sees best what you do.
234
القرآن:
والذين يتوفون منكم ويذرون أزواجا يتربصن بأنفسهن أربعة أشهر وعشرا ۖ فإذا بلغن أجلهن فلا جناح عليكم فيما فعلن في أنفسهن بالمعروف ۗ والله بما تعملون خبير
TRANSLATION:
As for those of you who die leaving wives, they shall wait by themselves four months and ten days, and when they complete their term, there will be no sin upon you in respect of what they may do with themselves in accordance with honourable norms. And Allah is well aware of what you do.
235
القرآن:
ولا جناح عليكم فيما عرضتم به من خطبة النساء أو أكننتم في أنفسكم ۚ علم الله أنكم ستذكرونهن ولكن لا تواعدوهن سرا إلا أن تقولوا قولا معروفا ۚ ولا تعزموا عقدة النكاح حتى يبلغ الكتاب أجله ۚ واعلموا أن الله يعلم ما في أنفسكم فاحذروه ۚ واعلموا أن الله غفور حليم
TRANSLATION:
There is no sin upon you in what you may hint in proposing to [recently widowed] women, or what you may secretly cherish within your hearts. Allah knows that you will be thinking of them, but do not make troth with them secretly, unless you say honourable words, and do not resolve on a marriage tie until the prescribed term is complete.1 Know that Allah knows what is in your hearts, so beware of Him; and know that Allah is all-forgiving, all-forbearing.
That is, until the waiting period of four months and ten days prescribed for the widows is completed.
236
القرآن:
لا جناح عليكم إن طلقتم النساء ما لم تمسوهن أو تفرضوا لهن فريضة ۚ ومتعوهن على الموسع قدره وعلى المقتر قدره متاعا بالمعروف ۖ حقا على المحسنين
TRANSLATION:
There is no sin upon you if you divorce women while you have not yet touched them or settled a dowry for them. Yet provide for them —the well-off according to his capacity, and the poorly-off according to his capacity— with a sustenance that is honourable, an obligation on the virtuous.
237
القرآن:
وإن طلقتموهن من قبل أن تمسوهن وقد فرضتم لهن فريضة فنصف ما فرضتم إلا أن يعفون أو يعفو الذي بيده عقدة النكاح ۚ وأن تعفوا أقرب للتقوى ۚ ولا تنسوا الفضل بينكم ۚ إن الله بما تعملون بصير
TRANSLATION:
And if you divorce them before you touch them, and you have already settled a dowry for them, then [pay them] half of what you have settled, unless they forgo it, or someone in whose hand is the marriage tie forgoes it.1 And to forgo is nearer to Godwariness; so do not forget graciousness among yourselves. Indeed Allah sees best what you do.
That is, the wife’s guardian or the husband. The bride’s guardian may forgo the half of the dowry which is her right to receive, or the husband may refrain from demanding half of the dowry he has already paid.
238
القرآن:
حافظوا على الصلوات والصلاة الوسطى وقوموا لله قانتين
TRANSLATION:
Be watchful of your prayers, and [especially] the middle prayer,1 and stand in obedience2 to Allah;
That is, the ẓuhr (noon) prayer, according to several traditions narrated from the Imams of the Prophet’s Household, as well as many traditions narrated in the Sunnī sources (see al-Tafsīr al-Burhān, al-Ṭabarī’s Jāmi‘ al-Bayān). According to other interpretations, the phrase ‘the middle prayer’ refers to the ʿaṣr (afternoon), maghrib (sunset) or fajr (dawn) prayer.
Or ‘stand humbly’ (or ‘prayerfully,’ ‘devoutly’) before Allah.
239
القرآن:
فإن خفتم فرجالا أو ركبانا ۖ فإذا أمنتم فاذكروا الله كما علمكم ما لم تكونوا تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
and should you fear [a danger], then [pray] on foot or mounted, and when you are safe, remember Allah, as He taught you what you did not know.
240
القرآن:
والذين يتوفون منكم ويذرون أزواجا وصية لأزواجهم متاعا إلى الحول غير إخراج ۚ فإن خرجن فلا جناح عليكم في ما فعلن في أنفسهن من معروف ۗ والله عزيز حكيم
TRANSLATION:
Those of you who die leaving wives shall bequeath for their wives providing for a year, without turning them out; but if they leave, there is no sin upon you in respect of what they may do with themselves observing honourable norms. And Allah is all-mighty, all-wise.
241
القرآن:
وللمطلقات متاع بالمعروف ۖ حقا على المتقين
TRANSLATION:
For the divorced women there shall be a provision, in accordance with honourable norms —an obligation on the Godwary.
242
القرآن:
كذلك يبين الله لكم آياته لعلكم تعقلون
TRANSLATION:
Thus does Allah clarify His signs to you so that you may apply reason.
243
القرآن:
۞ ألم تر إلى الذين خرجوا من ديارهم وهم ألوف حذر الموت فقال لهم الله موتوا ثم أحياهم ۚ إن الله لذو فضل على الناس ولكن أكثر الناس لا يشكرون
TRANSLATION:
Have you not regarded those who left their homes in thousands, apprehensive of death, whereupon Allah said to them, ‘Die,’ then He revived them? Indeed Allah is gracious to mankind, but most people do not give thanks.
244
القرآن:
وقاتلوا في سبيل الله واعلموا أن الله سميع عليم
TRANSLATION:
Fight in the way of Allah, and know that Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing.
245
القرآن:
من ذا الذي يقرض الله قرضا حسنا فيضاعفه له أضعافا كثيرة ۚ والله يقبض ويبسط وإليه ترجعون
TRANSLATION:
Who is it that will lend Allah a good loan that He may multiply it for him severalfold? And Allah tightens and expands [the means of life], and to Him you shall be brought back.
246
القرآن:
ألم تر إلى الملإ من بني إسرائيل من بعد موسى إذ قالوا لنبي لهم ابعث لنا ملكا نقاتل في سبيل الله ۖ قال هل عسيتم إن كتب عليكم القتال ألا تقاتلوا ۖ قالوا وما لنا ألا نقاتل في سبيل الله وقد أخرجنا من ديارنا وأبنائنا ۖ فلما كتب عليهم القتال تولوا إلا قليلا منهم ۗ والله عليم بالظالمين
TRANSLATION:
Have you not regarded the elite of the Israelites after Moses, when they said to their prophet, ‘Appoint for us a king, that we may fight in the way of Allah.’ He said, ‘May it not be that you will not fight if fighting were prescribed for you?’ They said, ‘Why should we not fight in the way of Allah, when we have been expelled from our homes and [separated from] our children?’ So when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned back except a few of them, and Allah knows best the wrongdoers.
247
القرآن:
وقال لهم نبيهم إن الله قد بعث لكم طالوت ملكا ۚ قالوا أنى يكون له الملك علينا ونحن أحق بالملك منه ولم يؤت سعة من المال ۚ قال إن الله اصطفاه عليكم وزاده بسطة في العلم والجسم ۖ والله يؤتي ملكه من يشاء ۚ والله واسع عليم
TRANSLATION:
Their prophet said to them, ‘Allah has appointed Saul as king for you.’ They said, ‘How can he have kingship over us, when we have a greater right to kingship than him, as he has not been given ample wealth?’ He said, ‘Indeed Allah has chosen him over you, and enhanced him vastly in knowledge and physique, and Allah gives His kingdom to whomever He wishes, and Allah is all-bounteous, all-knowing.’
248
القرآن:
وقال لهم نبيهم إن آية ملكه أن يأتيكم التابوت فيه سكينة من ربكم وبقية مما ترك آل موسى وآل هارون تحمله الملائكة ۚ إن في ذلك لآية لكم إن كنتم مؤمنين
TRANSLATION:
Their prophet said to them, ‘Indeed the sign of his kingship shall be that the Ark will come to you, bearing tranquillity from your Lord and the relics left behind by the House of Moses and the House of Aaron, borne by the angels. There is indeed a sign in that for you, should you be faithful.’
249
القرآن:
فلما فصل طالوت بالجنود قال إن الله مبتليكم بنهر فمن شرب منه فليس مني ومن لم يطعمه فإنه مني إلا من اغترف غرفة بيده ۚ فشربوا منه إلا قليلا منهم ۚ فلما جاوزه هو والذين آمنوا معه قالوا لا طاقة لنا اليوم بجالوت وجنوده ۚ قال الذين يظنون أنهم ملاقو الله كم من فئة قليلة غلبت فئة كثيرة بإذن الله ۗ والله مع الصابرين
TRANSLATION:
As Saul set out with the troops, he said, ‘Allah will test you with a stream: anyone who drinks from it will not belong to me, but those who do not drink from it will belong to me, barring someone who draws a scoop with his hand.’ But they drank from it, [all] except a few of them. So when he crossed it along with the faithful who were with him, they said, ‘We have no strength today against Goliath and his troops.’ Those who were certain they will encounter Allah said, ‘How many a small party has overcome a larger party by Allah’s will! And Allah is with the patient.’
250
القرآن:
ولما برزوا لجالوت وجنوده قالوا ربنا أفرغ علينا صبرا وثبت أقدامنا وانصرنا على القوم الكافرين
TRANSLATION:
So when they marched out for [encounter with] Goliath and his troops, they said, ‘Our Lord, pour patience upon us, make our feet steady, and assist us against the faithless lot.’
251
القرآن:
فهزموهم بإذن الله وقتل داوود جالوت وآتاه الله الملك والحكمة وعلمه مما يشاء ۗ ولولا دفع الله الناس بعضهم ببعض لفسدت الأرض ولكن الله ذو فضل على العالمين
TRANSLATION:
Thus they routed them with Allah’s will, and David killed Goliath, and Allah gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him whatever He liked. Were it not for Allah’s repelling the people by means of one another, the earth would surely have been corrupted; but Allah is gracious to the world’s creatures.
252
القرآن:
تلك آيات الله نتلوها عليك بالحق ۚ وإنك لمن المرسلين
TRANSLATION:
These are the signs of Allah which We recite for you in truth, and you are indeed one of the apostles.
253
القرآن:
۞ تلك الرسل فضلنا بعضهم على بعض ۘ منهم من كلم الله ۖ ورفع بعضهم درجات ۚ وآتينا عيسى ابن مريم البينات وأيدناه بروح القدس ۗ ولو شاء الله ما اقتتل الذين من بعدهم من بعد ما جاءتهم البينات ولكن اختلفوا فمنهم من آمن ومنهم من كفر ۚ ولو شاء الله ما اقتتلوا ولكن الله يفعل ما يريد
TRANSLATION:
These are the apostles, some of whom We gave an advantage over others: of them are those to whom Allah spoke, and some of them He raised in rank, and We gave Jesus, son of Mary, manifest proofs and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. Had Allah wished, those who succeeded them would not have fought each other after the manifest proofs had come to them. But they differed. So there were among them those who had faith and there were among them those who were faithless, and had Allah wished, they would not have fought one another; but Allah does whatever He desires.
254
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا أنفقوا مما رزقناكم من قبل أن يأتي يوم لا بيع فيه ولا خلة ولا شفاعة ۗ والكافرون هم الظالمون
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Spend out of what We have provided you before there comes a day on which there will be no bargaining, neither friendship, nor intercession. And the faithless—they are the wrongdoers.
255
القرآن:
الله لا إله إلا هو الحي القيوم ۚ لا تأخذه سنة ولا نوم ۚ له ما في السماوات وما في الأرض ۗ من ذا الذي يشفع عنده إلا بإذنه ۚ يعلم ما بين أيديهم وما خلفهم ۖ ولا يحيطون بشيء من علمه إلا بما شاء ۚ وسع كرسيه السماوات والأرض ۖ ولا يئوده حفظهما ۚ وهو العلي العظيم
TRANSLATION:
Allah—there is no god except Him— is the Living One, the All-sustainer. Neither drowsiness befalls Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that may intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows that which is before them and that which is behind them, and they do not comprehend anything of His knowledge except what He wishes. His seat embraces the heavens and the earth, and He is not wearied by their preservation, and He is the All-exalted, the All-supreme.
256
القرآن:
لا إكراه في الدين ۖ قد تبين الرشد من الغي ۚ فمن يكفر بالطاغوت ويؤمن بالله فقد استمسك بالعروة الوثقى لا انفصام لها ۗ والله سميع عليم
TRANSLATION:
There is no compulsion in religion: rectitude has become distinct from error. So one who disavows the Rebels1 and has faith in Allah has held fast to the firmest handle for which there is no breaking; and Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing.
The word ṭāghūt has been said to refer to Satan (also called the ‘rebel angel’ and ‘rebel against God’), idol, soothsayer, magician, rebellious humans and jinn, and the carnal soul. Cf. 4:51, 60, 76; 5:60; 16:36.
257
القرآن:
الله ولي الذين آمنوا يخرجهم من الظلمات إلى النور ۖ والذين كفروا أولياؤهم الطاغوت يخرجونهم من النور إلى الظلمات ۗ أولئك أصحاب النار ۖ هم فيها خالدون
TRANSLATION:
Allah is the Guardian of the faithful: He brings them out of darkness into light. As for the faithless, their patrons are the Rebels, who drive them out of light into darkness. They shall be the inmates of the Fire, and they shall remain in it [forever].
258
القرآن:
ألم تر إلى الذي حاج إبراهيم في ربه أن آتاه الله الملك إذ قال إبراهيم ربي الذي يحيي ويميت قال أنا أحيي وأميت ۖ قال إبراهيم فإن الله يأتي بالشمس من المشرق فأت بها من المغرب فبهت الذي كفر ۗ والله لا يهدي القوم الظالمين
TRANSLATION:
Have you not regarded him1 who argued with Abraham about his Lord, because Allah had given him kingdom? When Abraham said, ‘My Lord is He who gives life and brings death,’ he replied, ‘I [too] give life and bring death.’ Abraham said, ‘Indeed Allah brings the sun from the east; now you bring it from the west.’ Thereat the faithless one was dumbfounded. And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing lot.
That is, Nimrod.
259
القرآن:
أو كالذي مر على قرية وهي خاوية على عروشها قال أنى يحيي هذه الله بعد موتها ۖ فأماته الله مائة عام ثم بعثه ۖ قال كم لبثت ۖ قال لبثت يوما أو بعض يوم ۖ قال بل لبثت مائة عام فانظر إلى طعامك وشرابك لم يتسنه ۖ وانظر إلى حمارك ولنجعلك آية للناس ۖ وانظر إلى العظام كيف ننشزها ثم نكسوها لحما ۚ فلما تبين له قال أعلم أن الله على كل شيء قدير
TRANSLATION:
Or him1 who came upon a township as it lay fallen on its trellises. He said, ‘How will Allah revive this after its death?!’ So Allah made him die for a hundred years, then He resurrected him. He said, ‘How long have you remained?’ Said he, ‘I have remained a day or part of a day.’ He said, ‘Rather you have remained a hundred years. Now look at your food and drink which have not rotted! Then look at your ass! [This was done] that We may make you a sign for mankind. And look at the bones, how We arrange them and then clothe them with flesh!’ When it became evident to him, he said, ‘I know that Allah has power over all things.’
That is, Ezra (ʿUzayr).
260
القرآن:
وإذ قال إبراهيم رب أرني كيف تحيي الموتى ۖ قال أولم تؤمن ۖ قال بلى ولكن ليطمئن قلبي ۖ قال فخذ أربعة من الطير فصرهن إليك ثم اجعل على كل جبل منهن جزءا ثم ادعهن يأتينك سعيا ۚ واعلم أن الله عزيز حكيم
TRANSLATION:
And when Abraham said, ‘My Lord! Show me how You revive the dead,’ He said, ‘Do you not believe?’ He said, ‘Yes indeed, but in order that my heart may be at rest.’ He said, ‘Take four of the birds. Then cut them into pieces, and place a part of them on every mountain, then call them; they will come to you hastening. And know that Allah is all-mighty and all-wise.’
261
القرآن:
مثل الذين ينفقون أموالهم في سبيل الله كمثل حبة أنبتت سبع سنابل في كل سنبلة مائة حبة ۗ والله يضاعف لمن يشاء ۗ والله واسع عليم
TRANSLATION:
The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is that of a grain which grows seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. Allah enhances severalfold whomever He wishes, and Allah is all-bounteous, all-knowing.
262
القرآن:
الذين ينفقون أموالهم في سبيل الله ثم لا يتبعون ما أنفقوا منا ولا أذى ۙ لهم أجرهم عند ربهم ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون
TRANSLATION:
Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah and then do not follow up what they have spent with reproaches1 and affronts, they shall have their reward near their Lord, and they will have no fear, nor will they grieve.
More exactly, with reproachful reminders of favours done. Cf. 2:264 below.
263
القرآن:
۞ قول معروف ومغفرة خير من صدقة يتبعها أذى ۗ والله غني حليم
TRANSLATION:
An honourable word with pardon is better than a charity followed by affront. Allah is all-sufficient, most forbearing.
264
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تبطلوا صدقاتكم بالمن والأذى كالذي ينفق ماله رئاء الناس ولا يؤمن بالله واليوم الآخر ۖ فمثله كمثل صفوان عليه تراب فأصابه وابل فتركه صلدا ۖ لا يقدرون على شيء مما كسبوا ۗ والله لا يهدي القوم الكافرين
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Do not render your charities void by reproaches and affronts, like those who spend their wealth to be seen by people and have no faith in Allah and the Last Day. Their parable1 is that of a rock covered with soil: a downpour strikes it, leaving it bare. They have no power over anything of what they have earned, and Allah does not guide the faithless lot.
Or ‘example.’
265
القرآن:
ومثل الذين ينفقون أموالهم ابتغاء مرضات الله وتثبيتا من أنفسهم كمثل جنة بربوة أصابها وابل فآتت أكلها ضعفين فإن لم يصبها وابل فطل ۗ والله بما تعملون بصير
TRANSLATION:
The parable of those who spend their wealth seeking Allah’s pleasure and to confirm themselves, is that of a garden on a hillside: the downpour strikes it, whereupon it brings forth its fruit twofold; and if it is not a downpour that strikes it, then a shower, and Allah sees best what you do.
266
القرآن:
أيود أحدكم أن تكون له جنة من نخيل وأعناب تجري من تحتها الأنهار له فيها من كل الثمرات وأصابه الكبر وله ذرية ضعفاء فأصابها إعصار فيه نار فاحترقت ۗ كذلك يبين الله لكم الآيات لعلكم تتفكرون
TRANSLATION:
Would any of you like to have a garden of palm trees and vines, with streams running in it, with all kinds of fruit for him therein, and old age were to strike him while he has weakly offspring; whereupon a fiery hurricane were to hit it, whereat it lies burnt? Thus does Allah clarify His signs for you so that you may reflect.
267
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا أنفقوا من طيبات ما كسبتم ومما أخرجنا لكم من الأرض ۖ ولا تيمموا الخبيث منه تنفقون ولستم بآخذيه إلا أن تغمضوا فيه ۚ واعلموا أن الله غني حميد
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Spend of the good things you have earned, and of what We bring forth for you from the earth, and do not be of the mind to give the bad part of it, for you yourselves would not take it, unless you overlook it. And know that Allah is all-sufficient, all-laudable.
268
القرآن:
الشيطان يعدكم الفقر ويأمركم بالفحشاء ۖ والله يعدكم مغفرة منه وفضلا ۗ والله واسع عليم
TRANSLATION:
Satan frightens you of poverty and prompts you to [commit] indecent acts. But Allah promises you His forgiveness and grace, and Allah is all-bounteous, all-knowing.
269
القرآن:
يؤتي الحكمة من يشاء ۚ ومن يؤت الحكمة فقد أوتي خيرا كثيرا ۗ وما يذكر إلا أولو الألباب
TRANSLATION:
He gives wisdom to whomever He wishes, and he who is given wisdom, is certainly given an abundant good. But none takes admonition except those who possess intellect.
270
القرآن:
وما أنفقتم من نفقة أو نذرتم من نذر فإن الله يعلمه ۗ وما للظالمين من أنصار
TRANSLATION:
Whatever charity you may give, or vows that you may vow, Allah indeed knows it, and the wrongdoers have no helpers.
271
القرآن:
إن تبدوا الصدقات فنعما هي ۖ وإن تخفوها وتؤتوها الفقراء فهو خير لكم ۚ ويكفر عنكم من سيئاتكم ۗ والله بما تعملون خبير
TRANSLATION:
If you disclose your charities, that is well, but if you hide them and give them to the poor, that is better for you, and it will atone for some of your misdeeds, and Allah is well aware of what you do.
272
القرآن:
۞ ليس عليك هداهم ولكن الله يهدي من يشاء ۗ وما تنفقوا من خير فلأنفسكم ۚ وما تنفقون إلا ابتغاء وجه الله ۚ وما تنفقوا من خير يوف إليكم وأنتم لا تظلمون
TRANSLATION:
It is not up to you to guide them; rather it is Allah who guides whomever He wishes. And whatever wealth you spend, it is for your own benefit, as you do not spend but to seek Allah’s pleasure, and whatever wealth you spend will be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged.
273
القرآن:
للفقراء الذين أحصروا في سبيل الله لا يستطيعون ضربا في الأرض يحسبهم الجاهل أغنياء من التعفف تعرفهم بسيماهم لا يسألون الناس إلحافا ۗ وما تنفقوا من خير فإن الله به عليم
TRANSLATION:
[The charities are] for the poor who are straitened in the way of Allah,1 not capable of moving about in the land [for trade]. The unaware suppose them to be well-off because of their reserve. You recognize them by their mark; they do not ask the people importunately. And whatever wealth you may spend, Allah indeed knows it.
That is, due to their engagement in jihād, or in learning and teaching Islamic sciences or martial arts, or due to the rigours of spiritual wayfaring.
274
القرآن:
الذين ينفقون أموالهم بالليل والنهار سرا وعلانية فلهم أجرهم عند ربهم ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون
TRANSLATION:
Those who give their wealth by night and day, secretly and openly, they shall have their reward near their Lord, and they will have no fear, nor will they grieve.
275
القرآن:
الذين يأكلون الربا لا يقومون إلا كما يقوم الذي يتخبطه الشيطان من المس ۚ ذلك بأنهم قالوا إنما البيع مثل الربا ۗ وأحل الله البيع وحرم الربا ۚ فمن جاءه موعظة من ربه فانتهى فله ما سلف وأمره إلى الله ۖ ومن عاد فأولئك أصحاب النار ۖ هم فيها خالدون
TRANSLATION:
Those who exact usury will not stand but like one deranged by the Devil’s touch. That is because they say, ‘Trade is just like usury.’ While Allah has allowed trade and forbidden usury. Whoever, on receiving advice from his Lord, relinquishes [usury], shall keep [the gains of] what is past, and his matter shall rest with Allah. As for those who resume, they shall be the inmates of the Fire and they shall remain in it [forever].
276
القرآن:
يمحق الله الربا ويربي الصدقات ۗ والله لا يحب كل كفار أثيم
TRANSLATION:
Allah brings usury to naught, but He makes charities flourish. Allah does not like any sinful ingrate.
277
القرآن:
إن الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات وأقاموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة لهم أجرهم عند ربهم ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون
TRANSLATION:
Indeed those who have faith, do righteous deeds, maintain the prayer and give the zakāt, they shall have their reward near their Lord, and they will have no fear, nor will they grieve.
278
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا اتقوا الله وذروا ما بقي من الربا إن كنتم مؤمنين
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! Be wary of Allah, and abandon [all claims to] what remains of usury, should you be faithful.
279
القرآن:
فإن لم تفعلوا فأذنوا بحرب من الله ورسوله ۖ وإن تبتم فلكم رءوس أموالكم لا تظلمون ولا تظلمون
TRANSLATION:
And if you do not, then be informed of a war from Allah and His apostle. And if you repent, then you will have your principal, neither harming others, nor suffering harm.
280
القرآن:
وإن كان ذو عسرة فنظرة إلى ميسرة ۚ وأن تصدقوا خير لكم ۖ إن كنتم تعلمون
TRANSLATION:
And if [the debtor] is in straits, let there be a respite until the time of ease; and if you remit [the debt] as charity, it will be better for you, should you know.
281
القرآن:
واتقوا يوما ترجعون فيه إلى الله ۖ ثم توفى كل نفس ما كسبت وهم لا يظلمون
TRANSLATION:
And beware of a day in which you will be brought back to Allah. Then every soul shall be recompensed fully for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.
282
القرآن:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا تداينتم بدين إلى أجل مسمى فاكتبوه ۚ وليكتب بينكم كاتب بالعدل ۚ ولا يأب كاتب أن يكتب كما علمه الله ۚ فليكتب وليملل الذي عليه الحق وليتق الله ربه ولا يبخس منه شيئا ۚ فإن كان الذي عليه الحق سفيها أو ضعيفا أو لا يستطيع أن يمل هو فليملل وليه بالعدل ۚ واستشهدوا شهيدين من رجالكم ۖ فإن لم يكونا رجلين فرجل وامرأتان ممن ترضون من الشهداء أن تضل إحداهما فتذكر إحداهما الأخرى ۚ ولا يأب الشهداء إذا ما دعوا ۚ ولا تسأموا أن تكتبوه صغيرا أو كبيرا إلى أجله ۚ ذلكم أقسط عند الله وأقوم للشهادة وأدنى ألا ترتابوا ۖ إلا أن تكون تجارة حاضرة تديرونها بينكم فليس عليكم جناح ألا تكتبوها ۗ وأشهدوا إذا تبايعتم ۚ ولا يضار كاتب ولا شهيد ۚ وإن تفعلوا فإنه فسوق بكم ۗ واتقوا الله ۖ ويعلمكم الله ۗ والله بكل شيء عليم
TRANSLATION:
O you who have faith! When you contract a loan for a specified term, write it down. Let a writer write between you with honesty, and let not the writer refuse to write as Allah has taught him. So let him write, and let the one who incurs the debt dictate, and let him be wary of Allah, his Lord, and not diminish anything from it. But if the debtor be feeble-minded, or weak, or incapable of dictating himself, then let his guardian dictate with honesty, and take as witness two witnesses from your men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women —from those whom you approve as witnesses— so that if one of the two defaults the other will remind her. The witnesses must not refuse when they are called, and do not consider it wearisome to write it down, whether it be a big or a small sum, [as being lent] until its term. That is more just with Allah and more upright in respect to testimony, and the likeliest way to avoid doubt, unless it is an on the spot deal you transact between yourselves, in which case there is no sin upon you not to write it. Take witnesses when you make a deal, and let no harm be done to writer or witness, and if you did that, it would be sinful of you. Be wary of Allah and Allah shall teach you, and Allah has knowledge of all things.
283
القرآن:
۞ وإن كنتم على سفر ولم تجدوا كاتبا فرهان مقبوضة ۖ فإن أمن بعضكم بعضا فليؤد الذي اؤتمن أمانته وليتق الله ربه ۗ ولا تكتموا الشهادة ۚ ومن يكتمها فإنه آثم قلبه ۗ والله بما تعملون عليم
TRANSLATION:
If you are on a journey and cannot find a writer, then a retained pledge [shall suffice]. And if one of you entrusts to another, let him who is trusted deliver his trust, and let him be wary of Allah, his Lord. And do not conceal testimony; anyone who conceals it, his heart will indeed be sinful. And Allah knows best what you do.
284
القرآن:
لله ما في السماوات وما في الأرض ۗ وإن تبدوا ما في أنفسكم أو تخفوه يحاسبكم به الله ۖ فيغفر لمن يشاء ويعذب من يشاء ۗ والله على كل شيء قدير
TRANSLATION:
To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth; and whether you disclose what is in your hearts or hide it, Allah will bring you to account for it. Then He will forgive whomever He wishes and punish whomever He wishes, and Allah has power over all things.
285
القرآن:
آمن الرسول بما أنزل إليه من ربه والمؤمنون ۚ كل آمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله لا نفرق بين أحد من رسله ۚ وقالوا سمعنا وأطعنا ۖ غفرانك ربنا وإليك المصير
TRANSLATION:
The Apostle has faith in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and all the faithful. Each [of them] has faith in Allah, His angels, His scriptures and His apostles. [They declare,] ‘We make no distinction between any of His apostles.’ And they say, ‘We hear and obey. Our Lord, forgive us, and toward You is the return.’
286
القرآن:
لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها ۚ لها ما كسبت وعليها ما اكتسبت ۗ ربنا لا تؤاخذنا إن نسينا أو أخطأنا ۚ ربنا ولا تحمل علينا إصرا كما حملته على الذين من قبلنا ۚ ربنا ولا تحملنا ما لا طاقة لنا به ۖ واعف عنا واغفر لنا وارحمنا ۚ أنت مولانا فانصرنا على القوم الكافرين
TRANSLATION:
Allah does not task any soul beyond its capacity. Whatever [good] it earns is to its benefit, and whatever [evil] it incurs is to its harm.
‘Our Lord! Take us not to task if we forget or make mistakes! Our Lord! Place not upon us a burden as You placed on those who were before us! Our Lord! Lay not upon us what we have no strength to bear! Excuse us and forgive us, and be merciful to us! You are our Master, so help us against the faithless lot!’

Source:al-quran.info


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