Medinan (surah 48 • 29 ayahs)

»The surah that opens by acclaiming the manifest VICTORY or Triumph of peace that God accorded His Prophet in the truce he agreed to with the Meccans at a place called Ḥudaybiyyah. It takes its name from verse 1 wherein “victory” (fatḥ) is mentioned. The surah makes reference to the occasion when the Prophet had a vision that he and his followers would be performing pilgrimage to Mecca (verse 27). They set out, but the Meccans decided to bar them at Ḥudaybiyyah from reaching the town and sent emissaries to have discussions with the Prophet. In the end the Prophet signed a treaty that he and the believers would not enter Mecca that year, but would do so the next year. Seeing the long-term significance of this treaty, in the interests of peace he agreed to a truce often years during which time, if any Meccan went over to his side, he would return him to the Meccans, but if any of his people went over to the Meccans, they would not return them. Throughout the surah the Prophet is assured that this treaty that God has given him is a great breakthrough (verse 1ff., verse 18 ff. and verse 27). The believers are reassured that their self-restraint and obedience to the Prophet were inspired by God (verse 4 ff. and verse 24 ff.). The surah condemns both the hypocrites in Medina (verse 6) and the idolaters of Mecca (verse 6 and verse 26) and closes by praising the believers (verse 29).«

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم





إنا فتحنا لك فتحا مبينا


Indeed We have inaugurated for you a clear victory,1

Or ‘Indeed We have initiated for you a clear breakthrough.’



ليغفر لك الله ما تقدم من ذنبك وما تأخر ويتم نعمته عليك ويهديك صراطا مستقيما


that Allah may forgive you

what is past of your sin and what is to come,

and that He may perfect His blessing upon you

and guide you on a straight path,



وينصرك الله نصرا عزيزا


and Allah will help you with a mighty help.



هو الذي أنزل السكينة في قلوب المؤمنين ليزدادوا إيمانا مع إيمانهم ۗ ولله جنود السماوات والأرض ۚ وكان الله عليما حكيما


It is He who sent down composure

into the hearts of the faithful

that they might enhance their faith.

To Allah belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth,

and Allah is all-knowing, all-wise.



ليدخل المؤمنين والمؤمنات جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار خالدين فيها ويكفر عنهم سيئاتهم ۚ وكان ذلك عند الله فوزا عظيما


That He may admit the faithful, men and women,

into gardens with streams running in them,

to remain in them [forever],

and that He may absolve them of their misdeeds.

That is a great success with Allah.



ويعذب المنافقين والمنافقات والمشركين والمشركات الظانين بالله ظن السوء ۚ عليهم دائرة السوء ۖ وغضب الله عليهم ولعنهم وأعد لهم جهنم ۖ وساءت مصيرا


That He may punish the hypocrites, men and women,

and the polytheists, men and women,

who entertain a bad opinion of Allah.

For them shall be an adverse turn of fortune:

Allah is wrathful with them

and He has cursed them,

and prepared for them hell,

and it is an evil destination.



ولله جنود السماوات والأرض ۚ وكان الله عزيزا حكيما


To Allah belong the hosts of the heavens

and the earth,

and Allah is all-mighty, all-wise.



إنا أرسلناك شاهدا ومبشرا ونذيرا


Indeed We have sent you as a witness,

and as a bearer of good news and warner,



لتؤمنوا بالله ورسوله وتعزروه وتوقروه وتسبحوه بكرة وأصيلا


that you may have faith in Allah and His Apostle,

and that you may support him and revere him,

and that you may glorify Him morning

and evening.



إن الذين يبايعونك إنما يبايعون الله يد الله فوق أيديهم ۚ فمن نكث فإنما ينكث على نفسه ۖ ومن أوفى بما عاهد عليه الله فسيؤتيه أجرا عظيما


Indeed those who swear allegiance to you,

swear allegiance only to Allah:

the hand of Allah is above their hands.

So whosoever breaks his oath,

breaks it only to his own detriment,

and whoever fulfills

the covenant he has made with Allah,

He will give him a great reward.



سيقول لك المخلفون من الأعراب شغلتنا أموالنا وأهلونا فاستغفر لنا ۚ يقولون بألسنتهم ما ليس في قلوبهم ۚ قل فمن يملك لكم من الله شيئا إن أراد بكم ضرا أو أراد بكم نفعا ۚ بل كان الله بما تعملون خبيرا


The Bedouins who were left behind will tell you,

‘Our possessions and our families kept us occupied.

So plead [to Allah] for our forgiveness!’

They say with their tongues

what is not in their hearts.

Say, ‘Who can be of any avail to you against Allah,

should He desire to cause you harm

or desire to bring you benefit?

Rather Allah is well aware of what you do.’



بل ظننتم أن لن ينقلب الرسول والمؤمنون إلى أهليهم أبدا وزين ذلك في قلوبكم وظننتم ظن السوء وكنتم قوما بورا


Rather you thought

that the Apostle and the faithful will not return

to their folk ever,

and that was made to seem decorous to your hearts,

and you entertained evil thoughts,

and you were a ruined lot.



ومن لم يؤمن بالله ورسوله فإنا أعتدنا للكافرين سعيرا


As for those who have no faith in Allah

and His Apostle,

We have prepared a blaze for the faithless.



ولله ملك السماوات والأرض ۚ يغفر لمن يشاء ويعذب من يشاء ۚ وكان الله غفورا رحيما


To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens

and the earth:

He forgives whomever He wishes,

and punishes whomever He wishes,

and Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful.



سيقول المخلفون إذا انطلقتم إلى مغانم لتأخذوها ذرونا نتبعكم ۖ يريدون أن يبدلوا كلام الله ۚ قل لن تتبعونا كذلكم قال الله من قبل ۖ فسيقولون بل تحسدوننا ۚ بل كانوا لا يفقهون إلا قليلا


Those who were left to stay behind will say,

when you set out to capture booty:

‘Let us follow you.’

They desire to change the word of Allah.

Say, ‘You shall never follow us!

Thus has Allah said beforehand.’

Then they will say, ‘You are envious of us.’

Rather they do not understand but a little.



قل للمخلفين من الأعراب ستدعون إلى قوم أولي بأس شديد تقاتلونهم أو يسلمون ۖ فإن تطيعوا يؤتكم الله أجرا حسنا ۖ وإن تتولوا كما توليتم من قبل يعذبكم عذابا أليما


Say to the Bedouins who were left to stay behind,

‘You will be called against a people

of a great might:

they will embrace Islam, or you will fight them.

So if you obey, Allah will give you a good reward;

but if you turn away like you turned away before,

He will punish you with a painful punishment.’



ليس على الأعمى حرج ولا على الأعرج حرج ولا على المريض حرج ۗ ومن يطع الله ورسوله يدخله جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار ۖ ومن يتول يعذبه عذابا أليما


There is no blame on the blind,

nor is there any blame on the lame,

nor is there blame on the sick;

and whoever obeys Allah and His Apostle,

He will admit him into gardens

with streams running in them,

and whoever refuses to comply,

He will punish him with a painful punishment.



۞ لقد رضي الله عن المؤمنين إذ يبايعونك تحت الشجرة فعلم ما في قلوبهم فأنزل السكينة عليهم وأثابهم فتحا قريبا


Allah was certainly pleased with the faithful

when they swore allegiance to you under the tree.

He knew what was in their hearts,

so He sent down composure on them,

and requited them with a victory near at hand



ومغانم كثيرة يأخذونها ۗ وكان الله عزيزا حكيما


and abundant spoils that they will capture,

and Allah is all-mighty, all-wise.



وعدكم الله مغانم كثيرة تأخذونها فعجل لكم هذه وكف أيدي الناس عنكم ولتكون آية للمؤمنين ويهديكم صراطا مستقيما


Allah has promised you abundant spoils

which you will capture.

He has expedited this one for you,

and withheld men’s hands from you,

so that it may be a sign for the faithful,

and that He may guide you to a straight path.



وأخرى لم تقدروا عليها قد أحاط الله بها ۚ وكان الله على كل شيء قديرا


And other [spoils]

which you have not yet captured:

Allah has comprehended them,

and Allah has power over all things.



ولو قاتلكم الذين كفروا لولوا الأدبار ثم لا يجدون وليا ولا نصيرا


If the faithless fight you,

they will turn their backs [to flee].

Then they will not find any protector or helper.



سنة الله التي قد خلت من قبل ۖ ولن تجد لسنة الله تبديلا


[It is] Allah’s precedent that has passed before,

and you will never find in Allah’s precedent

any change.



وهو الذي كف أيديهم عنكم وأيديكم عنهم ببطن مكة من بعد أن أظفركم عليهم ۚ وكان الله بما تعملون بصيرا


It is He who withheld their hands from you,

and your hands from them,

in the valley of Makkah,

after He had given you victory over them,

and Allah sees best what you do.



هم الذين كفروا وصدوكم عن المسجد الحرام والهدي معكوفا أن يبلغ محله ۚ ولولا رجال مؤمنون ونساء مؤمنات لم تعلموهم أن تطئوهم فتصيبكم منهم معرة بغير علم ۖ ليدخل الله في رحمته من يشاء ۚ لو تزيلوا لعذبنا الذين كفروا منهم عذابا أليما


They are the ones who disbelieved

and barred you from the Sacred Mosque,

and kept the offering from reaching its destination.

And were it not for [certain] faithful men

and faithful women,

whom you did not know

—lest you should trample them,

and thus blame for [killing] them should fall on you

unawares;1 [He held you back]

so that Allah may admit into His mercy

whomever He wishes.

And had they been separate,

We would have surely punished the faithless

among them

with a painful punishment.

Ellipsis; the omitted phrase is ‘We would have given you a free hand against them.’



إذ جعل الذين كفروا في قلوبهم الحمية حمية الجاهلية فأنزل الله سكينته على رسوله وعلى المؤمنين وألزمهم كلمة التقوى وكانوا أحق بها وأهلها ۚ وكان الله بكل شيء عليما


When the faithless nourished

bigotry in their hearts,

the bigotry of pagan ignorance,

Allah sent down His composure

upon His Apostle and upon the faithful,

and made them abide by the word of Godwariness,

for they were the worthiest of it and deserved it,

and Allah has knowledge of all things.



لقد صدق الله رسوله الرؤيا بالحق ۖ لتدخلن المسجد الحرام إن شاء الله آمنين محلقين رءوسكم ومقصرين لا تخافون ۖ فعلم ما لم تعلموا فجعل من دون ذلك فتحا قريبا


Certainly Allah has fulfilled His Apostle’s vision

in all truth:

You will surely enter the Sacred Mosque,

God willing,

in safety,

with your heads shaven or hair cropped,

without any fear.

So He knew what you did not know,

and He assigned [you] besides that

a victory near at hand.



هو الذي أرسل رسوله بالهدى ودين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ۚ وكفى بالله شهيدا


It is He who has sent His Apostle with guidance

and the true religion,

that He may make it prevail over all religions,

and Allah suffices as witness.



محمد رسول الله ۚ والذين معه أشداء على الكفار رحماء بينهم ۖ تراهم ركعا سجدا يبتغون فضلا من الله ورضوانا ۖ سيماهم في وجوههم من أثر السجود ۚ ذلك مثلهم في التوراة ۚ ومثلهم في الإنجيل كزرع أخرج شطأه فآزره فاستغلظ فاستوى على سوقه يعجب الزراع ليغيظ بهم الكفار ۗ وعد الله الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات منهم مغفرة وأجرا عظيما


Muḥammad, the Apostle of Allah,

and those who are with him

are hard against the faithless

and merciful amongst themselves.

You see them bowing and prostrating [in worship],

seeking Allah’s grace and [His] pleasure.

Their mark is [visible] on their faces,

from the effect of prostration.

Such is their description in the Torah

and their description in the Evangel.

Like a tillage

that sends out its shoots and builds them up,

and they grow stout

and settle on their stalks,

impressing the sowers,

so that He may enrage the faithless by them.

Allah has promised those

of them who have faith and do righteous deeds

forgiveness and a great reward.

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