بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ زَلْزَلَةَ السَّاعَةِ شَيْءٌ عَظِيمٌ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:1]

From the very beginning all the verbs referring to “tuqwa” have been translated or interpreted as safeguarding oneself against evil with full awareness and knowledge of the laws made by Allah. “Be God-fearing” or “fear Allah” is also correct but fear of Allah always implies hatred of evil and injustice, and makes for truth and righteousness. As explained in the introduction and commentary of Al Fatihah the religion of Allah, Islam, is based upon truth, righteousness, peace, love and harmony.

The end of the world, the doomsday, will bring terrible consequences for those who have rebelled against the authority of the almighty Lord and disobeyed His laws (shari-ah), but it will be a day wherefrom the believers shall begin an eternal life of bliss.

يَوْمَ تَرَوْنَهَا تَذْهَلُ كُلُّ مُرْضِعَةٍ عَمَّا أَرْضَعَتْ وَتَضَعُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ حَمْلٍ حَمْلَهَا وَتَرَى النَّاسَ سُكَارَىٰ وَمَا هُمْ بِسُكَارَىٰ وَلَٰكِنَّ عَذَابَ اللَّهِ شَدِيدٌ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:2]

The day of judgement will be an awful day for the disbelievers and sinners. The extreme terror of this day will drive them to frenzy with terror.

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيْطَانٍ مَرِيدٍ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:3]

The devils among the spirits and the devils among men belong to the same category.

This verse refers to those who dispute about Allah without knowledge, and to those who blindly follow those who have rebelled against Allah and His laws. On account of ignorance they identify themselves with their false leaders and defend their wicked and evil conduct and false claims. Those who have harassed and persecuted the prophets of Allah and the holy chosen Imams are in fact the devils among men. They always deserted the Holy Prophet in the hours of trial, engineered schemes to prevent his true message and declarations from reaching the people and taking the course of history, deprived his daughter, Bibi Fatimah, of her rights and privileges, oppressed and killed the Imams of his Ahl ul Bayt, and persecuted the true followers of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse refers to those who dispute about Allah, His attributes, His actions, His laws and His authority on the basis of conjecture and follow every rogue and ruffian who has rebelled against Allah.

كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ مَنْ تَوَلَّاهُ فَأَنَّهُ يُضِلُّهُ وَيَهْدِيهِ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ السَّعِيرِ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:4]

This verse clearly points to the ultimate punishment divinely decreed for the leaders and their followers mentioned in verse 3.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ مُضْغَةٍ مُخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ ۚ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ثُمَّ نُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ ۖ وَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْلَا يَعْلَمَ مِنْ بَعْدِ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا ۚ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنْبَتَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:5]

Those who have doubts in their minds about resurrection and the life after death are asked to study their own nature as well as the nature around. The physical growth of every human being is processed from lifeless matter, to seed, fertilised ovum, foetus, child, youth, old age and death. Please refer to the commentary of An-am: 2; Rad: 8, Nahl: 41, and 70; Kahf :37.

Allah’s fertilising showers bring the dead and barren earth to life, growth, and beauty in various forms.

The almighty author of this marvellous display of beauty, order and harmony shall certainly create yet another and a more wonderful world. His omnipotent authority shall give man a future life of great promise. He who created man and nature, out of nothing, shall as easily raise the dead.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

To prove the ultimate resurrection the Quran refers to the evolutionary development of man in the womb and the beautiful growth of all vegetable life on the earth when Allah pours down rain on it without which it would remain dead and barren. The process of change from one state to another is evolutionary as well as retrogressive.

All that which has been described in verse 5 points to the absolute reality of one supreme, almighty and perfect creator.

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّهُ يُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ وَأَنَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:6] (see commentary for verse 5)

وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:7]

The day of resurrection or the day of reckoning shall certainly come and Allah will then raise up all the dead.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Every movement, howsoever continuous, comes to an end; and every subsequent stage of development is latent in the preceding structure.

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلَا هُدًى وَلَا كِتَابٍ مُنِيرٍ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:8]

Hudan (guidance) implies divine guidance made available through a prophet or his successor (Imam).

Kitabin munir refers to the revealed book of Allah.

ثَانِيَ عِطْفِهِ لِيُضِلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ لَهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ ۖ وَنُذِيقُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:9]

Man shall suffer for what he himself does. Allah is not unjust to His servants.

ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاكَ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِظَلَّامٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:10] (see commentary for verse 9)

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ حَرْفٍ ۖ فَإِنْ أَصَابَهُ خَيْرٌ اطْمَأَنَّ بِهِ ۖ وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ فِتْنَةٌ انْقَلَبَ عَلَىٰ وَجْهِهِ خَسِرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:11]

Ala harfin means very half-heartedly, as one standing on a thin and sharp edge between belief and disbelief. Such a person comes into the fold of faith with a wavering mind, ready to quit as soon as some worldly loss befalls him, like those who wait and watch the game of life and death in a battlefield from a safe distance, and rush at once to be among the front fighters to lay hands on booty if it is victory, or run away safely to safe hideouts if it is defeat. Please refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 121,122, 128, 140 to 142, 144, 151 to 156, 159, 166 to 168; Anfal: 16; Bara-at: 25, 27 to know about those who deserted the Holy Prophet whenever a trial came to them.

Also refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 6 to 20 for hypocrites.

Haraf also means word (tongue), in which case it means a man who has professed faith by pronouncing words by his tongue while his heart has never accepted it (Minhaj al Sadiqin).

يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُ وَمَا لَا يَنْفَعُهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الضَّلَالُ الْبَعِيدُ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:12]

يَدْعُو لَمَنْ ضَرُّهُ أَقْرَبُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِ ۚ لَبِئْسَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَلَبِئْسَ الْعَشِيرُ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:13]

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:14]

مَنْ كَانَ يَظُنُّ أَنْ لَنْ يَنْصُرَهُ اللَّهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ بِسَبَبٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ لْيَقْطَعْ فَلْيَنْظُرْ هَلْ يُذْهِبَنَّ كَيْدُهُ مَا يَغِيظُ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:15]

It is an assurance to the Holy Prophet from Allah, also a prophecy, that he will have complete victory over his enemies who were convinced that Allah will not help him against them, and when the help came they were enraged at his victories. Now they must fix a rope to their ceiling and hang themselves. If sama is rendered by the word “heaven” it means let the enemies of the Holy Prophet who are enraged at the help he gets from heaven (Allah) stretch a rope to heaven and see if they can cut off Allah’s help by their petty and stupid devices.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Stretching a rope to heaven refers to the attempts of the materialists who try to understand and explain the working of the universe from the standpoint of their theories and deny the existence of spiritual life and God, just as Firawn asked one of his courtiers to think of a plan to ascend to the heavens in order to find out if there is any God or not.

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يُرِيدُ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:16]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The assurance of continuous help from Allah to the Holy Prophet and the prophecy of his victories over the infidels are clear signs of Allah which serve as guidance for those who are willing to accept the guidance.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالصَّابِئِينَ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالْمَجُوسَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:17]

Allah will sit in judgement over the Jews, the Sabians, the Christians, the Magians and the polytheists on the day of judgement. The believers are asked to be tolerant within the limits of tolerance-i.e., so long as there is no oppression, injustice and persecution-but if there is unprovoked aggression, it is the duty of the believers to take suitable action against the mischief-makers and set right the disorder created by them. It would be wrong on the part of believers to intimidate the disbelievers simply because they do not agree with their point of view. For Sabians see commentary of Al Baqarah: 62.

The Magians (Majus) consider fire as the purest and noblest element, and worship it as a fit sign of God. Their religion was founded by Zardusht (about 600 B.C.). Their scripture is the Zend-Avesta. It is believed that like Isa, Zardusht also preached the unity of God but his followers, like the followers of Isa, gradually corrupted his preachings and began to worship fire.

Like the Jews and the Christians, according to this verse, the Sabians and the Magians may also be described as the people of the book (ahl al kitab), provided they follow the true message of the unity of God preached by their prophets; but when they introduce false beliefs and theories to deny the unity of Allah they are rightly treated as infidels and disbelievers by the true Muslims.

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسْجُدُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُومُ وَالْجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَابُّ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِ الْعَذَابُ ۗ وَمَنْ يُهِنِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ مُكْرِمٍ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۩ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:18]

هَٰذَانِ خَصْمَانِ اخْتَصَمُوا فِي رَبِّهِمْ ۖ فَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا قُطِّعَتْ لَهُمْ ثِيَابٌ مِنْ نَارٍ يُصَبُّ مِنْ فَوْقِ رُءُوسِهِمُ الْحَمِيمُ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:19]

The two disputants, opponents or antagonists referred to here are (i) men of faith who believe in Allah and carry out His will (ii) the disbelievers who deny their Lord and defy His will. In Sahih Bukhari Abu Dharr al Ghiffari, the truthful, is related to have said that six persons have been referred to in this verse i.e., Hamza bin Abd al Muttalib, Ali ibn abi Talib and Obayda bin Harith as the men of faith; and Utba bin Rabi-a, Shayba bin Rabi-a, and Walid bin Utba as the disbelievers. In the battle of Badr Ali killed Walid, Hamza killed Utba; and Obayda was martyred by Shayba.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

It is a well-known fact, unanimously agreed by almost all the Muslim scholars, that Ali was the first and foremost among the party of Allah, so he who was his opponent should belong to the party of falsehood. On this basis Ibn Abbas said that as the first and the foremost leader of those who have been addressed as believers in the Quran Ali is the main person who is referred to as the chief of them in all such verses.

يُصْهَرُ بِهِ مَا فِي بُطُونِهِمْ وَالْجُلُودُ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:20] (see commentary for verse 19)

وَلَهُمْ مَقَامِعُ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:21] (see commentary for verse 19)

كُلَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا مِنْ غَمٍّ أُعِيدُوا فِيهَا وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:22] (see commentary for verse 19)

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَلُؤْلُؤًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُهُمْ فِيهَا حَرِيرٌ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:23] (see commentary for verse 19)

وَهُدُوا إِلَى الطَّيِّبِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ وَهُدُوا إِلَىٰ صِرَاطِ الْحَمِيدِ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:24] (see commentary for verse 19)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ الَّذِي جَعَلْنَاهُ لِلنَّاسِ سَوَاءً الْعَاكِفُ فِيهِ وَالْبَادِ ۚ وَمَنْ يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:25]

The sacred Masjid al Haram is a sanctuary. It is said that to enter into it, not clad as a pilgrim, is an offense. It is a universal principle that unless an evil deed is actually committed, it is neither recorded nor punished, but in the sacred masjid even an evil thought or intention is treated as a sin committed which is invariably punished. Now remember the plan of Yazid bin Mu-awiyah to kill Imam Husayn bin Ali in Ka-bah, while he was performing the hajj.

وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَنْ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:26]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 125 and 126, 127 to 129, 196 to 200; Ali Imran: 96 and 97.

“Associate not anything with Me (Allah)” is a message given to people through Ibrahim.

When Ibrahim and Ismail had built the Ka-bah, Ibrahim, as commanded by Allah, called out all mankind to come to the house of Allah for pilgrimage. Ibrahim, from atop the mountain of Abu Qubays, made the announcement. His voice is meant for all those who were and are destined to perform the pilgrimage till the day of resurrection. When the Holy Prophet decided to go to the house of Allah in 10 Hijra, verse 27 was revealed. A very large number of Muslims came in response to the call of the Holy Prophet. The pilgrimage is known as hajjah al wida (the last pilgrimage), after which the historic event of Ghadir Khum took place. Please refer to the commentary of al Ma-idah: 5 and 67.

To know the moral, spiritual and material excellences of hajj please refer to the commentary of the abovenoted verses of al Baqarah and Ali Imran.

Verse 27 was revealed in Makka. Historically the Muslims were passing through a most difficult time. A group of helpless Muslims were sent to Abyssinia to escape from the relentless persecution of the pagan Quraysh. The Holy Prophet along with his family and the remaining companions left Makka to take refuge in Madina permanently. The city of Makka was in the control of the polytheists who publicly declared their plans to kill the Holy Prophet, his relatives and his followers. It was a miracle of Allah that under such adverse circumstances and despite universal hostility the house of Allah, built by Ibrahim and Ismail, became the centre of Islam in the years that followed this proclamation. This miracle is a lasting evidence of the truthfulness of the Holy Prophet and the religion of Allah, Islam, till eternity.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Hajj is described as mash-had, a place to be present and attend the meeting to witness universal advantages. Id prayers have also been described by the holy Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt as a general place for witnessing or meeting in this sense.

Imam Ali bin Musa ar Rida said:

“The two rakats have been replaced by the two sermons in Friday prayers because on Friday a general meeting or witnessing takes place.”

The congregational devotion and worship gives an opportunity to the believers to meet and know each other better, to pay homage to their leader (Imam), and to receive guidance from him or from his representative.

For bayt al atiq (the ancient house) refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 125, 126 and Ali Imran : 96.

For lawful food refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 173, al Ma-idah: 3 and 4 and An-am: 122, 139 and 147.

Hurumat refers to the sacred laws and rites prescribed by Allah.

Zur, according to the Ahl ul Bayt, are the “vain words”, including any utterances disapproved by Allah.

According to the scholars among the followers of ahl al dhikr (the people of the holy Quran), the Ahl ul Bayt, Zur also refers to music since it is composed of “vain sounds and voices.”

وَأَذِّنْ فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَىٰ كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِنْ كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:27] (see commentary for verse 26)

لِيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ وَيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَعْلُومَاتٍ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُمْ مِنْ بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ ۖ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْبَائِسَ الْفَقِيرَ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:28] (see commentary for verse 26)

ثُمَّ لْيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ وَلْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ وَلْيَطَّوَّفُوا بِالْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:29] (see commentary for verse 26)

ذَٰلِكَ وَمَنْ يُعَظِّمْ حُرُمَاتِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ ۗ وَأُحِلَّتْ لَكُمُ الْأَنْعَامُ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ فَاجْتَنِبُوا الرِّجْسَ مِنَ الْأَوْثَانِ وَاجْتَنِبُوا قَوْلَ الزُّورِ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:30] (see commentary for verse 26)

حُنَفَاءَ لِلَّهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:31]

The man who falls from the worship of one true God, Allah, is like a man who falls from heaven into the laps of false gods but is ripped open in the mid air by the birds of prey. Then a fierce blast of wind, the wrath of Allah, snatches him and throws him into the hell of those who rebel against Allah and defy him, from where he can never return to the safety of the faith.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Compared to the highly exalted, sensible and conscious man who does not submit to any authority other than Allah’s, is the lifeless deviator, ready to accept any authority, who would be torn to pieces by vultures and carried away by the winds to fathomless abyss.

ذَٰلِكَ وَمَنْ يُعَظِّمْ شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِنْ تَقْوَى الْقُلُوبِ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:32]

Sha-a-ir-symbols, signs or marks by which something is known to belong to some particular person or a group of persons. See commentary of al Baqarah: 158 and al Ma-idah: 2. In al Baqarah : 158 Safa and Marwa have been described as the signs of Allah, and in verse 36 of this surah the sacrificial camels have been termed as the symbols of Allah. To respect or honour anything which stimulates the remembrance of Allah, without the intention of worship, is described as the piety of heart. Here it applies to the rites of pilgrimage.

The followers of Muhammad and ali Muhammad respect and honour the “banner of Husayn” (alam) because it is the symbol and sign of the sacrifice he offered at Karbala to save the religion of Allah, Islam, from total distortion by Yazid bin Mu-awiyah. The opponents and enemies of the Ahl ul Bayt oppose the “banner of Husayn” to make people forget the “great sacrifice” so that the distortion and deviation introduced by Yazid and other caliphs like him may continue as the real religion preached by the Holy Prophet, otherwise there is nothing contrary to the principles of true Islam in paying respect to the banner of Husayn (alam) as per verses 32 and 36 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

To honour and respect the signs of Allah such as

(i) kissing the hafr al aswad,

(ii) circumambulating round the Ka-bah,

(iii) running to and fro between Safa and Marwa,

(iv) and pelting stones at the three places in Mina, are, in a way, the worship of Allah, so acts like above should not be confused with idolatrous practices and rituals. As explained in the commentary of verse 5 of al Fatihah to employ ways and means, in contravention to Allah’s orders, even to worship Him, is prohibited. When commanded by Him the angels fell prostrate before Adam because compliance with His command is His worship.

لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَنَافِعُ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ثُمَّ مَحِلُّهَا إِلَى الْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:33]

For bayt al atiq refer to al Baqarah: 125, 127 to 129, 196 to 200; Ali Imran: 96 and 97.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Fiha (in them) refers to the divine signs and rites concerning the pilgrimage, which also include the sacrifice of animals. It is wrong to think that the pronouns fiha andmahilluha refer to sacrifice only, because the place of sacrifice is not the ancient house (Ka-bah) but Mina. All the rites of pilgrimage end with the last circumambulation of the Ka-bah.

وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنْسَكًا لِيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُمْ مِنْ بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ ۗ فَإِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَلَهُ أَسْلِمُوا ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُخْبِتِينَ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:34]

For giving sacrifice of animals see commentary of al Baqarah: 196.

الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَهُمْ وَالْمُقِيمِي الصَّلَاةِ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:35]

This verse describes the qualities of al makhbitin (who humble themselves) mentioned in the preceding verse. See the commentary of al Baqarah: 177.

وَالْبُدْنَ جَعَلْنَاهَا لَكُمْ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ ۖ فَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا صَوَافَّ ۖ فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ جُنُوبُهَا فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْقَانِعَ وَالْمُعْتَرَّ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ سَخَّرْنَاهَا لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:36]

For sha-a-irillah refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 158 ; Ma-idah: 2 and Hajj: 32.

For spending in the way of Allah see commentary of al Baqarah: 3, 215, 273, particularly 273 for giving alms to the deserving, not to the professional beggars.

لَنْ يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَٰكِنْ يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَىٰ مِنْكُمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:37]

Refer to the references given in verse 34 of this surah; and also verse 163 of An-am.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدَافِعُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ خَوَّانٍ كَفُورٍ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:38]

Allah promises to defend the believers against the evil of their enemies. When the pagans of Makka were persecuting and torturing the Holy Prophet and the believers, the believers sought permission of the Holy Prophet to fight against them but the permission was put off to the days the Muslims migrated to Madina and became organised. Then permission was given to defend themselves against aggression because they were driven out of their homes (migration to Abyssinia). This was the first revelation for jihad.

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 251.

Aziz means exalted in power, authority, rank, honour; incomparable, full of might and majesty, able to enforce His will.

أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:39] (see commentary for verse 38)

الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لَهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا ۗ وَلَيَنْصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَنْصُرُهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:40] (see commentary for verse 38)

الَّذِينَ إِنْ مَكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَمَرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْا عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:41]

The Holy Prophet was given the authority to administer all the affairs of the world by enjoining good and forbidding evil. See commentary of Nisa: 162. After the Holy Prophet the authority was transferred to his Ahl ul Bayt. See also commentary of al Ma-idah: 67.

وَإِنْ يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَعَادٌ وَثَمُودُ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:42]

Refer to the commentary of al Araf: 59 to 136 and Hud: 25 to 100 for the people of Nuh, Salih, Shu-ayb, Lut and Musa (Firawn and his followers), who were punished because they rejected as false the message of Allah preached by His prophets. Those who rejected the mission of the Holy Prophet are reminded that the people who did as they were doing were destroyed. By seeing the ruins of the ancient beliers of the prophets of Allah, the people may learn wisdom, yet, instead of drawing lesson (admonition) their blind hearts desired to taste the punishment. Allah gives respite to repent and follow the right path; and when it is ended the day of reckoning shall certainly come to pass. Allah will not fail in His promise. The punishment will come neither sooner nor later. Time with Him is nothing. His existence is absolute, and not conditioned by time or place. The calculation of time on the earth depends upon the rising and setting of the sun. Outside the sphere of the sun the basis of the calculation would be totally different. “A thousand years” has been mentioned in an indefinite sense because the Arabs had no figure beyond thousand. The time factor concerning the day of judgement or sending down of the wrath of Allah upon any people cannot be applied as we understand it on the earth. It is known to Allah alone.

وَقَوْمُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَقَوْمُ لُوطٍ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:43] (see commentary for verse 42)

وَأَصْحَابُ مَدْيَنَ ۖ وَكُذِّبَ مُوسَىٰ فَأَمْلَيْتُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ نَكِيرِ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:44] (see commentary for verse 42)

فَكَأَيِّنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا وَهِيَ ظَالِمَةٌ فَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَىٰ عُرُوشِهَا وَبِئْرٍ مُعَطَّلَةٍ وَقَصْرٍ مَشِيدٍ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:45] (see commentary for verse 42)

أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا أَوْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۖ فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَعْمَى الْأَبْصَارُ وَلَٰكِنْ تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:46] (see commentary for verse 42)

وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَلَنْ يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ ۚ وَإِنَّ يَوْمًا عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ كَأَلْفِ سَنَةٍ مِمَّا تَعُدُّونَ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:47] (see commentary for verse 42)

وَكَأَيِّنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَمْلَيْتُ لَهَا وَهِيَ ظَالِمَةٌ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهَا وَإِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:48]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse and verse 45 indicate that in the case of some wrongs the wrongdoers are caught while doing the wrong and in some cases they are given a respite but caught afterwards. In any case they will not escape punishment.

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا أَنَا لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُبِينٌ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:49]

The Holy Prophet is a warner. Those who believe in him and his mission receive forgiveness and sustenance. In the widest sense sustenance can be spiritual as well as intellectual and physical. Those who fought against the Holy Prophet to falsify Islam will abide in hell for ever.

فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:50] (see commentary for verse 49)

وَالَّذِينَ سَعَوْا فِي آيَاتِنَا مُعَاجِزِينَ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:51] (see commentary for verse 49)

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنْسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:52]

To confuse people so as to make them misinterpret the verses of the Quran Shaytan plants doubts in their minds about the Holy Prophet and the words of Allah he recited. Some translators and commentators have drawn misconceived and mischievous conclusions to belittle the high status of the Holy Prophet in order to bring him on the level of those ordinary men whom they accept as their leaders, mentioned in Qasas: 41. Please refer to the commentary of Bani Israil: 71.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Some pagans and hypocrites planned secretly to recite words praising idolatry alongside the recitation of the Holy Prophet, while he was praying, in such a way that the people would think as if they were recited by him. Once when the Holy Prophet was reciting verses 19 and 20 of Najm one of the pagans recited: “Tilkal gharani-ul ula wa inna shafa-atahuma laturja”-(These are the lofty (idols), verily their intercession is sought after.) As soon as this was recited the conspirators shouted in delight to make the people believe that it was the Holy Prophet who said these words. Here, the Quran is stating the general pattern the enemies of the messengers of Allah followed when they were positively convinced that the people were paying attention to the teachings of the messengers of Allah and sincerely believing in them. They would mix their false doctrines with the original teachings so as to make the divine message a bundle of contradictions. This kind of satanic insertions are referred to in thus verse, and it is supported by Ha Mim: 26. It is sheer blasphemy to say that satanic forces can influence the messengers of Allah. The Quran has repeatedly asserted that Shaytan shall have no authority whatsoever over the purified servants of Allah. Please refer to the commentary of Ibrahim: 22 and Nahl: 99 and 100 according to which Shaytan has no authority over the purified servants of Allah.

لِيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:53] (see commentary for verse 52)

وَلِيَعْلَمَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَيُؤْمِنُوا بِهِ فَتُخْبِتَ لَهُ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهَادِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:54]

As stated in the preceding verse those on whom knowledge and wisdom have been bestowed by Allah (not acquired from any worldly agency) will never be beguiled by Shaytan.

وَلَا يَزَالُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي مِرْيَةٍ مِنْهُ حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ السَّاعَةُ بَغْتَةً أَوْ يَأْتِيَهُمْ عَذَابُ يَوْمٍ عَقِيمٍ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:55]

Aqim literally means barren, incapable of producing children. The day of judgement is barren because it will be devoid of all grace and blessings for the disbelievers.

الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلَّهِ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فِي جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:56]

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا فَأُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:57]

وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ قُتِلُوا أَوْ مَاتُوا لَيَرْزُقَنَّهُمُ اللَّهُ رِزْقًا حَسَنًا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُوَ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:58]

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 154 and Ali Imran: 169 for those who are slain in the cause of Allah (shuhada).

Imam Husayn bin Ali left his home in the cause of Allah and was martyred in 61 Hijra at Karbala. These verses foretell the events of Karbala and martyrdom of Imam Husayn, his relatives and friends.

لَيُدْخِلَنَّهُمْ مُدْخَلًا يَرْضَوْنَهُ ۗ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:59] (see commentary for verse 58)

ذَٰلِكَ وَمَنْ عَاقَبَ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبَ بِهِ ثُمَّ بُغِيَ عَلَيْهِ لَيَنْصُرَنَّهُ اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَفُوٌّ غَفُورٌ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:60]

Please refer to the commentary of al Hajj: 60.

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ يُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي النَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:61]

Refer to the commentary of Rad: 2 and Anbiya: 33.

The omnipotent almighty Allah controls the creation and the working of creation throughout the universe, and He is fully aware of the minutest movement taking place therein. He knows the harm the disbelievers have caused to the believers and that which they are planning to cause. He will bring them to account and punish them when He finds it suitable. He alone knows His plan, its time of execution and the reasons thereof. He is both merciful and just.

Human life and human relations are very complicated, and it is Allah alone who is aware of all the subtle intricacies of existence in this world, and hears the cries of all His creatures and answers them.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The struggle between evil and good, truth and falsehood, and now and then one having an upper hand over the other, has been symbolised by the alternation of night and day-but it is the truth or good which ultimately wins.

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:62]

Allah alone is the ever-abiding reality. All else shall perish. Therefore He alone should be worshipped. Refer to Al Hajj: 6 and Luqman: 30.

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَتُصْبِحُ الْأَرْضُ مُخْضَرَّةً ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:63]

Latif refers to one of the finest attributes of Allah, the appropriate meaning of which can neither be properly worded in any language nor can be grasped by human intellect. It implies: fine and subtle; so fine, subtle, perfect and pure as to be imperceptible and incomprehensible to human faculties, and so kind and gracious that bestows gifts and benefits on all the creatures whether they ask or not. Also refer to An-am: 104; Ahzab : 34 and Shura: 19.

لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:64]

Allah’s mercies are not like those of human beings who depend upon one another and expect kindness or recognition in return. Allah is above all wants and depends in no way whatever on His creatures. They cannot describe or understand His mercies except by gratefully glorifying His praise.

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَالْفُلْكَ تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِأَمْرِهِ وَيُمْسِكُ السَّمَاءَ أَنْ تَقَعَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:65]

Land and sea have been made subject to man by Allah’s command, so that man can develop his material and spiritual life on earth, so it is ingratitude on the part of man that he should bow to any other creature, made subservient to him, save Allah.

The whole universe, created by Allah, is working or operating under precise laws made by Allah, therefore there is complete order and harmony in the working of the universe. Nothing can go wrong unless He Himself wills it.

وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَحْيَاكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ لَكَفُورٌ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:66]

لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنْسَكًا هُمْ نَاسِكُوهُ ۖ فَلَا يُنَازِعُنَّكَ فِي الْأَمْرِ ۚ وَادْعُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ هُدًى مُسْتَقِيمٍ {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:67]

Rites and ceremonies may appear to be a less important matter compared with the higher needs of man’s spiritual nature, but such visible public presentations are necessary for stimulating the latent spirit of mutual love and friendship among the believers in order to structure a just, fair and harmonious society. They manifest the inner attitude of a believing community towards the supreme authority of Allah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Rites and ritual have been prescribed, apart from their social advantages, mainly to test man’s willingness to obey Allah’s commands. From prophet to prophet these rites and rituals were changed and amended to suit the advancement and progress in human society. Refer to al Baqarah: 142 and 143.

وَإِنْ جَادَلُوكَ فَقُلِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:68]

اللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:69]

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ فِي كِتَابٍ ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:70]

وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَمَا لَيْسَ لَهُمْ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۗ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ نَصِيرٍ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:71]

There is neither knowledge, nor intelligence, nor authority in the acts of disbelievers who absurdly worship false gods. No one can help the misguided creatures who associate other gods with Allah or worship man-made gods beside Allah.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْمُنْكَرَ ۖ يَكَادُونَ يَسْطُونَ بِالَّذِينَ يَتْلُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا ۗ قُلْ أَفَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِشَرٍّ مِنْ ذَٰلِكُمُ ۗ النَّارُ وَعَدَهَا اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:72]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَنْ يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا لَهُ ۖ وَإِنْ يَسْلُبْهُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَيْئًا لَا يَسْتَنْقِذُوهُ مِنْهُ ۚ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالْمَطْلُوبُ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:73]

Both idols and their worshippers are weak and foolish creatures. By ignoring Allah, the creator of the worlds, they worship helpless objects who cannot even create the lowest form of life.

The idolworshippers of Makka used to anoint their idols with honey and scents and shut the doors of the temple. As soon as they left the flies, lurking there, used to swarm the idols and eat the honey. In the morning the stupid heathens used to rejoice under the false impression that their idols had consumed the honey.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The challenge regarding the exclusive creative power of Allah in this verse is similar to the challenge in verse 23 of al Baqarah which refers to the inimitable book of Allah revealed to the Holy Prophet.

مَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:74]

اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِي مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا وَمِنَ النَّاسِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:75]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

After making known the exclusive power of Allah to create, His omnipotence in the realm of revelation and legislation is referred to in this verse.

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۗ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:76]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ارْكَعُوا وَاسْجُدُوا وَاعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَافْعَلُوا الْخَيْرَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ۩ {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:77]

Refer to Araf: 206 and Rad: 15.

The essential spirit of Islam has been summarised in this verse.

وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ ۚ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ ۚ مِلَّةَ أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۚ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَفِي هَٰذَا لِيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْكُمْ وَتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ ۚ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِاللَّهِ هُوَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۖ فَنِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 22:78]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 128, 143; Ali Imran: 68; Ma-idah: 3 and Ibrahim : 35 to 41.

Strive as a believer for spiritual good and truth in all paths, to the maximum, to please Allah and His prophet. The religion of Allah, which Ibrahim followed, is Islam-complete submission to the will of Allah. Ibrahim, the first man to call himself a Muslim (Baqarah: 128), is the great ancestor of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. The religion of Allah, Islam, was perfected and completed through the Holy Prophet. See commentary of al Ma-idah: 5 and 67.

The witness over mankind should be thoroughly purified, therefore Allah thoroughly purified the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet in verse 33 of Al Ahzab, because He willed to appoint them as witnesses over all the human beings He has created and will create. The Holy Prophet is a witness over these thoroughly purified witnesses. At the revelation of this verse the Holy Prophet said:

“Only thirteen men have been addressed in this verse. Myself, my brother Ali, and the eleven Imams in his progeny.” (Umdatul Bayan).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“O you who believe” in verse 77 and “you be witnesses for mankind” in this verse have been addressed to those of the descendants of Ibrahim referred to in Baqarah: 124 and 128 and in his prayer (Ibrahim: 35 to 41), who never worshipped a ghayrallah (other than Allah)-see commentary of al Baqarah : 124. The Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt identified in the verse of mubahila (Ali Imran: 61) are the descendants of Ibrahim.


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