بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:1]

This verse is identical with Hadid: 1. All that which has been created in the universe obey and fulfil the will of Allah – the wonderful working of Allah’s plan and providence. Refer to the commentary of Bani Israil: 44.

 

هُوَ الَّذِي أَخْرَجَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ لِأَوَّلِ الْحَشْرِ ۚ مَا ظَنَنْتُمْ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا ۖ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ مَانِعَتُهُمْ حُصُونُهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَأَتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَحْتَسِبُوا ۖ وَقَذَفَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ ۚ يُخْرِبُونَ بُيُوتَهُمْ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَيْدِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَاعْتَبِرُوا يَا أُولِي الْأَبْصَارِ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:2]

After the battle of Badr, the Jews of Bani Nadir accepted the fact that the Holy Prophet was the messenger of Allah whose advent has been clearly mentioned in their scripture and made a pledge not to help or abet the enemies of Islam.

The hypocrites had sympathized with the Jews of Bani Nadir, whose opposition had grown strong since the Muslim reverse at Uhad (when many well-known companions had fled), and had promised to side with them if it came to a collision with the Muslims; and to emigrate with them if they were forced to emigrate.

When the Holy Prophet visited their habitation to conduct an inquiry concerning of killing of some Muslims, they tried to kill him. Then, because of their treason and projected murder of the Holy Prophet, they were asked to leave the strategic position which they occupied, about 3 miles south of Madina, endangering the very existence of the Muslims. At first they disagreed, relying on their fortresses and their secret alliances with the pagans of Makka and the hypocrites among the Muslims. When the Muslims marched against the Bani Nadir and besieged them while they were in their strong towers, the hypocrites did nothing; and when at length they were exiled, the hypocrites did not go with them into exile. Some went to Syria and some joined their brethren in Khaybar. The Bani Nadir deserved punishment for treason and projected murder of the Holy Prophet, but their lives were spared, and they were allowed to carry away their goods and chattels.

 

وَلَوْلَا أَنْ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْجَلَاءَ لَعَذَّبَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابُ النَّارِ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:3] (see commentary for verse 2)

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ شَاقُّوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۖ وَمَنْ يُشَاقِّ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:4]

Verse 4 was revealed to announce punishment of the fire in the hereafter for those who opposed the Holy Prophet in his lifetime or after his departure from this world. The application is not restricted to the Jews of Bani Nadir, but as a general principle it is applicable in all ages. Therefore those who became Muslims but continued to disobey and oppose the Holy Prophet in order to corrupt and distort the religion of Allah should be dealt with in the light of this verse.

The early history of Islam records the behaviour of the companions which brings to light the following events;

(i) When the companions, present beside his bed on the eve of his departure from this world, refused to give him pen and paper for writing that which would keep them on the right path and prevent them from backsliding into error, he commanded them to leave his presence at once. See commentary of Nisa: 65 for hadith al qirtas. Umar bin Khattab said: “The man wanders in delirium. The book of Allah is sufficient for us.” A large body of Muslims take this announcement of Umar as a move of separation from the religion established by the Holy Prophet, who directed all to follow the Quran and his Ahl ul Bayt (see hadith al thaqalayn on page 6). Some said that the writing material should be given; others sided with Umar. Voices rose high. The Holy Prophet recited verse 2 of Hujurat and said: “Begone, let me alone. The women (who wanted to provide pen and paper but rebuked by Umar) are much better than you.”

Hadith al qirtas has been reported by Bukhari, Muslim, Tabarani, Ahmed bin Hanbal and Shahrastani.

While the Holy Prophet lay dead in the apartment, the ansar assembled at Saqifa Bani Sa-ada to choose Sad bin Obada as their leader. Receiving the news, Abu Bakr, Abu Obayda and Umar with their supporters hurried to Saqifa. As they used to run away from the battlefield in the face of danger, they now deserted him in the lure of temporal power. All, unconcerned of the movement outside, performed the prescribed funeral rites with the Holy Prophet’s uncle Abbas, his two sons Qutham and Fadal, Usama and Salih. Refer to Ibn Sad in Tabaqat; Tairkh al Khamis; Tarikh Abul Fida.

(iii) The drama staged at Saqifa Bani Sa-ada was a clear violation, transgression and deviation in view of the covenant they made with the Holy Prophet at Ghadir Khum. See commentary of Ma-idah: 67.

 

مَا قَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ لِينَةٍ أَوْ تَرَكْتُمُوهَا قَائِمَةً عَلَىٰ أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَلِيُخْزِيَ الْفَاسِقِينَ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:5]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

As a military necessity, to put pressure on the rebellious transgressors and disgrace them, cutting of trees, not uprooting, was recommended. “By leave of Allah” implies that destruction or preservation of anything created is the sole prerogative of the creator Lord or of those whom He delegates His authority.

 

وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:6]

As has been asserted in several verses of the Quran whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth and between them belongs to Allah. They are made available to people as a trust. When disbelieving possessors turn hostile and aggressive against Allah and His Prophet, then, if their possessions are returned to the prophet of Allah without any effort or exertion on the part of the believers, such possessions become the property of His prophet. In this way it is distinguished from anfal(spoils), taken after fighting. Even in the case of anfal the authority of the prophet of Allah is unchallengeable. See commentary of Anfal: 1.

The voluntary submission of the enemy in verse 2 has been referred to here.

The Jews of Madina had come from outside and seized the lands of the original inhabitants. Since then they had been scheming and plotting to retain the usurped properties by hook or by crook. Seeing the growth of Islam they became more active and aggressive against the people of Madina. It was a just and wise decree of the Lord of the worlds to restore the lands to their original owners and thus bring peace and order in the region.

Fa-i is derived from afa which means “returned to”. The warriors are not entitled to any share in the property of fa-i as stated above. It belongs to Allah and His Prophet and is to be distributed among the relatives of the Holy Prophet (see commentary of Anfal: 41; Nahl: 90; Rum: 38), orphans, the needy and the wayfarer, so that it does not concentrate in the hands of a few rich-this serves as a basis for the socio-economic system of Islam.

After the Holy Prophet his share has to be given to the Imam of his Ahl ul Bayt in addition to the share of his relatives. To know the real and genuine relatives (Ahl ul Bayt) of the Holy Prophet see commentary of Baqarah: 124; Ali Imran: 61; Ahzab: 33 and Shura: 23.

Also see commentary of Bani Isarail: 26; Naml: 15, 16; Nahl: 90 and Maryam: 2 to 15 for the unjust, unislamic and unquranic deviation of the so-called followers of the Holy Prophet resorted to for depriving the Ahl ul Bayt from their rightful share decreed by Allah. They began to misappropriate the share of the Holy Prophet in the name of “baytul mal” (public treasury), which is an open transgression of the explicit ordinance of Allah.

 

مَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَىٰ فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:7] (see commentary for verse 6)

لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنْصُرُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:8]

Among the beneficiaries were the mahajirin, who forsook their homes and property in Makka in order to have the freedom to believe in the religion of Allah and comply with its commands. Their devotion and sincerity were proved by their sacrifice, so they should be rewarded.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In addition to all that which has been said concerning the rights of the Ahl ul Bayt in Bani Israil: 26; Naml: 15 and 16; Nahl: 90, and Maryam: 2 to 15 and Hashr: 6 and 7, the fact that Fatimah was a mahajir should have been taken into consideration. Why not the share of other mahajirinwas confiscated to enrich the public funds?

 

وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِمَّا أُوتُوا وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ ۚ وَمَنْ يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ{9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:9]

This verse refers to the ansar (the helpers), the people of Madina, who accepted Islam when it was opposed tooth and nail by the pagans of Makka, and who invited the Holy Prophet to settle down in Madina and become their leader. The ties of brotherhood were established between mahajirin and ansar. When the confiscated land and property of Bani Nadir was divided, and the major portion was given to the mahajirin, there was not the least jealousy on the part of the ansar, although there were poor among them also. They rejoiced in the good fortune of their brothers. We give below a few events pertaining to the generosity of Imam Ali mentioned in Minhajul Sadiqin.

(i) Once, having come to know that there was no food in the house, Ali borrowed a dinar and went to the market to buy some cereals. There he found Miqdad crossing a street. He was strolling to fritter away time as in his house also there was no food. He could not bear the sorry plight of his children. The Imam found out the real cause of his distressed appearance and gave him the dinar and resumed to home with empty hands.

(ii) Abdullah bin Masud reports that once, after the isha salat, a man from among the prayers stood up and said: “I am very poor. I am hungry.” The Holy Prophet said: “Who among you will give food to this man?” Ali stood up and took the poor man to his home. There was food in the house, but barely enough for one man which was kept for him. Ali put out the lamp and gave it to Fatimah asking her to bring it back when the guest had eaten the food. It was done so that the guest might not feel discomforted and uneasy. Ali sat with him and acted as if he too was eating.

The house of Ahl ul Bayt always put their trust wholly in Allah under all circumstances and gave whatever they had in the way of Allah.

Once a group of men came to Ali and said: “We always rely upon Allah. We eat when we have food, and if we do not have it we bear with patience.” Ali said: “Real dependence on Allah is to thank Him when there is nothing with you, and when you have anything to give it to others who are more in need of it than you.”

Shuhha is not niggardliness. Niggardliness is not giving from that which is in hand. Shuhha is covetousness-desire to deprive others of what they have and own everything for personal use.

The Holy Prophet said:

“To acquire forbidden possessions is shuhha. Never resort to it because shuhha and faith (in Allah) never exist together in the heart of a true believer. There is nothing more destitute than a masjid where the people living around it do not come to pray; or the book of Allah (Quran) in a house dwellers of which never recite; or a scholar among the careless people none of whom goes to him to learn from his wisdom; or a helpless believer in the captivity of disbelievers.”

 

وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:10]

The Muslims have been classified in three groups:

(i) Those who accepted Islam as soon as the Holy Prophet made known his mission and invited them to the worship of Allah, and migrated to Madina, leaving their possessions in Makka.

(ii) Those who came into the fold of Islam after migration.

(iii) Those who come and will come into the house of Islam till the end of the world.

The description applies to the true believers in any age. To harbour ill will and grudge against any true believer is infidelity.

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نَافَقُوا يَقُولُونَ لِإِخْوَانِهِمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَئِنْ أُخْرِجْتُمْ لَنَخْرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمْ وَلَا نُطِيعُ فِيكُمْ أَحَدًا أَبَدًا وَإِنْ قُوتِلْتُمْ لَنَنْصُرَنَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:11]

For the alliance between the Jews and the hypocrites, see commentary of verses 2 and 3 of this Surah. All hopes founded on iniquity and treachery are vain and illusory.

Allah creates fear in the hearts of the transgressors, so in spite of numerical strength they are defeated whenever they come to fight against the true believers.

In verse 15 the reference is to the tribe of Bani Qa-inuqa who were settled in a fortified township near Madina. They were punished and banished for their treachery about a month after the battle of Badr, long before the banishment of Bani Nadir upon whom that lesson was lost.

 

لَئِنْ أُخْرِجُوا لَا يَخْرُجُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ قُوتِلُوا لَا يَنْصُرُونَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ نَصَرُوهُمْ لَيُوَلُّنَّ الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يُنْصَرُونَ{12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:12] (see commentary for verse 11)

لَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ رَهْبَةً فِي صُدُورِهِمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:13] (see commentary for verse 11)

لَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ جَمِيعًا إِلَّا فِي قُرًى مُحَصَّنَةٍ أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ جُدُرٍ ۚ بَأْسُهُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ شَدِيدٌ ۚ تَحْسَبُهُمْ جَمِيعًا وَقُلُوبُهُمْ شَتَّىٰ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:14] (see commentary for verse 11)

كَمَثَلِ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ قَرِيبًا ۖ ذَاقُوا وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:15] (see commentary for verse 11)

كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ{16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:16]

Shaytan (evil) tempts man in all sorts of ways and allures him with seductive promises and alliances to delude him to deny Allah and goodness and to disobey His laws and deviate from the right path. When the sinner goes deep into the mire, he forsakes him and disconnects all ties of false friendship. The sinner is left alone to bear the consequences of rebellion and transgression.

It is said that on the eve of the departure for the battle of Badr, Shaytan in the guise of the chief of Bani Kananah assured Abu Jahl that he would certainly prevail over the Holy Prophet but when he saw the angels descending from heaven ran away from the scene of the battle, forsaking Abu Jahl and his comrades to defeat and disgrace. The fate of the seducer and the seduced is the same-burning in the fire for ever.

 

فَكَانَ عَاقِبَتَهُمَا أَنَّهُمَا فِي النَّارِ خَالِدَيْنِ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:17] (see commentary for verse 16)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْتَنْظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ{18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:18]

The “fear of God” is akin to love. Taqwa implies full awareness of the laws made by Allah-which prevents and safeguards man from transgressing the boundaries laid down by Allah, creates self-control, keeps away from sin and injustice and stimulates positive doing of good. It is not merely a feeling or an emotion; it is an act, a doing of things which become a preparation and provision for the hereafter.

 

وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنْسَاهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:19]

To forget Allah is to forget the only reality. As man is only a reflected existence, if he does not remember Allah, he is bound to lose himself. So remembrance of Allah is in the interest of man. Allah is free from all needs.

 

لَا يَسْتَوِي أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:20]

لَوْ أَنْزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُتَصَدِّعًا مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:21]

Refer to the commentary of Araf: 143. A mere reflection of divine glory reduced the mountain to cyst. Also refer to Ahzab: 72 where the mountains, mentioned allegorically as rocky, stony and hard, an emblem of stability, refused to accept the trust.

Aqa Mabdi Puya says:

Quran is so forceful and convincing that it would affect a heartless mountain, but hearts of many men remain unmoved.

 

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۖ هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:22]

These verses contain the most beautiful names of Allah which give us the fundamental basis on which we can have a glimpse of the glory of Allah. Refer to the commentary of Fatihah: 1.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The goodness found in the created beings are the reflection of His inseparable attributes. He is the real owner of all excellences.

Imam Ali said:

Total dedication to Allah is correspondingly related to mature understanding of His Supreme Being.

(He is) the (absolute) being, not ‘happened for the first time’, nor His being is on account of an accident or event; the (ever) existing, not after “missing” or “be wanting”, nor there is any “before” before Him.

He is along with everything, not allied, related or circumstanced;

aloof, by Himself, (but) not detached, nor missing or slipping over any thing;

making, doing, operating, effective, not in terms of movement or motion, nor through any medium; seeing, even when there was ‘nothing’ to look at.

Utmost degree of involvement (with Him) tells the truth that “He is single”. Ultimate of “He is single” belief generates sincere love with Him. The most possible in sincere love is not to associate qualifying terms with Him, because every adjective demonstrate its exclusion from the substance, and every substance certifies that it is other than the adjective.

There is no adjective, limiting definition of His attributes, at hand to give a character to the actual and make it agree with the same; and incomputable is the space of time (to record His beginning), and no “time to come” will arrest the end, therefore, whoso gives Allah a character joins one thing to another; and he who joins together, adds (addition in effect is collection of bit and pieces); and to divide Him into parts and portions is to be unwittingly ignorant of Him; and to stipulate direction or position is to circumscribe Him. He who outlines Him in fact computes Him. “In” infers He is that which is implied; “upon, at or by” assumes void devoid of Him. He was “there” before the created beings could describe Him.

He who describes Him in terms of qualities, gives simile or example, or estimates relatively, in fact, does not subscribe to His singleness. He, who draws a parallel or brings to mind a likeness to convey an image of Him, has not indeed referred to Him. He who makes a conjecture and employs guesswork goes wrong and does not have in him to know Allah as the independent, everlasting and free of wants Lord master.

(Selected sentences taken from various sermons of the Nahj al Balagha).

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:23] (see commentary for verse 22)

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 59:24] (see commentary for verse 22)
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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