بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:1]

In the commandment of “Do not be forward or presumptuous”, Allah has joined the Holy Prophet with Himself. This implies that no irreverence should be shown to either Allah or His Prophet in any matter. The believers must be mannerly, decorous, feeling and showing reverence in the presence of the Holy Prophet. It is not allowed to give advice in any matter before the Holy Prophet asks a believer to do so, if he pleases. Obey Allah and His Prophet in every matter, small or great; in the whole conduct of your life.

Judgement or verdict is given by Allah in all matters through His messenger. So obey and revere the Holy Prophet as you should obey and revere Allah. Some ill-mannered companions used to show positive disrespect to the Holy Prophet by their behaviour. Bad manners and rudeness destroy the value of any services which have been rendered. Those who had true piety in their hearts really and sincerely respected, honoured and revered their leader. Those who did the opposite surely undid the work of years by weakening the leader’s authority. See commentary of Nisa: 65 and always keep in mind the person who said about the Holy Prophet:

“The old man is in a delirium. The book of Allah is sufficient for us.”

Apart from the derogatory comment on the infallible messenger of Allah which had rendered all his deeds null and void, his ignorance of the book of Allah had also become known to the whole world. It is because of such “wandering in the darkness of ignorance”, the Holy Prophet had advised his followers to refer to his Ahl ul Bayt whenever they desire to understand the true meanings of the verses of the Quran (see hadith al thaqalayn on page 6). So think twice before following such ignorant and self conceited persons as your leaders who ridiculed and slandered the Holy Prophet, when even walking ahead of him or beside him, or talking loud before him or interposing while he is speaking, has been prohibited .

It is reported in a tradition mentioned in Sahih Bukhari that a group of men of Qa-aqa came to the Holy Prophet; and before he could give his verdict, Abu Bakr proposed Qa-aqa bin Mu-ud and Umar suggested Qara to be appointed as the leader of the group. Then they began to dispute with each other on that issue. So these verses were revealed to establish the supreme authority of the Holy Prophet.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Unwarranted interference in the issues of religion already decided by the Holy Prophet emerged in full force after his departure from the world and continues in every age.

The occasion of revelation shows that the most prominent companions of the Holy Prophet indulged in what has been forbidden in these verses.

Bukhari says:

“The two good men were very near (a certain) perdition” (Kadal khayyiran an yahlika)

Notwithstanding this reprimand, according to Bukhari, disrespectful behaviour of the companions continued and lasted till the Holy Prophet’s departure. The well known tradition of qirtas throws sufficient light on the ignorance of the companions.

Verse 3 mentions the men of sublime character around the Holy Prophet who are referred to in order to distinguish good from evil, because behaviour unto the Holy Prophet has been made a test of the faith of his followers.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَنْ تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:2] (see commentary for verse 1)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۚ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:3] (see commentary for verse 1)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُنَادُونَكَ مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْحُجُرَاتِ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:4] (see commentary for verse 1)

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ صَبَرُوا حَتَّىٰ تَخْرُجَ إِلَيْهِمْ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:5] (see commentary for verse 1)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَنْ تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:6]

The Holy Prophet sent Walid bin Aqbah to Bani Mustalaq to collect zakat. Before becoming Muslims the tribe of Mustalaq did not like Walid, so to show their change of heart, as they were all now brothers in faith, they came out in a large gathering to receive him outside the town, but Walid, a man of easy morals, jumped at the conclusion that they wanted to kill him; so turned at once on his heels and came back to the Holy Prophet with a false conjecture that the tribe of Mustalaq had turned apostate. The truth was found out and this verse was revealed to condemn Walid, a companion of the Holy Prophet, and men like him who are ready to shed innocent blood on mere guesswork. In the reign of Uthman Walid was appointed as the governor of Kufa. Living up to his reputation, one morning, fully drunk, he came into the masjid and prayed four rak-ats in Fajr salat, and wanted to pray more if the people praying behind allowed him to do so. Yes, he was a sahabi, appropriately described as fasiq (wicked) by the Quran.

 

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ فِيكُمْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ۚ لَوْ يُطِيعُكُمْ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ لَعَنِتُّمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْإِيمَانَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكُفْرَ وَالْفُسُوقَ وَالْعِصْيَانَ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الرَّاشِدُونَ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:7]

The Holy Prophet, if he consults his friends and companions, should not be expected to follow their advice, because Allah speaks, commands and acts through him (Najm: 2 to 5); and in case their advice coincides with the divine will, well and good, else it has to be bypassed.

 

فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَنِعْمَةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:8] (see commentary for verse 7)

وَإِنْ طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ فَإِنْ بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّىٰ تَفِيءَ إِلَىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:9]

In order to maintain collective and overall peace and order in the community of the Muslims, group quarrels should be eliminated as soon as they crop up; but if one party is determined to be unjustly aggressive, the whole force of the community must be brought to bear against them with the just and fair principles laid down by Islam.

This verse was revealed when the Holy Prophet established peace and harmony among the tribes of Aws and Khazraj who were at sword’s point with each other.

The Holy Prophet said:

“The reward for making peace between two quarrelling groups is equal to the reward of taking part in a jihad.”

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

“Allah loves those most who make peace among two quarrelling groups, because with Allah it is the best zakat man can give in the way of Allah. He accepts it at once.”

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

As for how the insurgent should be dealt with all the schools of Islamic jurisprudence refer to the treatment Ali employed in Siffin, Jamal and Naharwan.

It is written in Bukhari, Muslim and other Sahihs that the party (Mu-awiyah) against whom Ammar bin Yasir fought and the group who killed him were referred to asbaghi (insurgent) by the Holy Prophet as he had said long before the event that Ammar would be killed by an insurgent party.

While dealing with the abovenoted insurgents who, by fighting against the Imam of their time, became apostates, Imam Hasan tried to show them the right path and make peace, but the treacherous insurgents killed him, so Imam Husayn fought against them.

 

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:10]

However different the Muslims may be in race, colour and worldly possessions, they are brothers in faith. This is humanisation in the best sense of the word. Muslim brotherhood is the greatest social ideal known to human society. All the forms of worship (of Allah) prescribed by Islam-salat, hajj etcetera-bring them together in one brotherhood. Whatever be his race, colour or antecedents, every Muslim is received into the brotherhood of believers, and takes his place as an equal among equals.

The Holy Prophet said:

“None of you have faith until he desires for his brother what he desires for himself.

Attend to the sick among your brothers; go at least two miles with the funeral of a believer; accept invitation of your brother in faith; keep your regular contact with the believers wherever they are; remove their distress; deliver them from oppression.”

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَوْمٌ مِنْ قَوْمٍ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَكُونُوا خَيْرًا مِنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاءٌ مِنْ نِسَاءٍ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَكُنَّ خَيْرًا مِنْهُنَّ ۖ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ ۖ بِئْسَ الِاسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ ۚ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَتُبْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:11]

Mutual ridicule ceases to be fun when there is arrogance or selfishness or malice or contempt behind it. We may laugh with people, but we must never laugh at people to disgrace or dishonour them.

Defamation may consist in speaking ill of others by the spoken or written word, or in acting in such a way as to suggest a charge. A biting remark or taunt or sarcasm is included in the wordlamaza. An offensive nickname may amount to defamation.

Ammar, Bilal, Suhayl, Salman and Habib were used to be ridiculed by the people of Bani Tamim for their not having sufficient means of livelihood. A-isha used to hold Ummi Salimah in contempt because she had no adornments. Once A-isha and Hafsa laughed at Safiyah in contempt to remind her that she was the daughter of a Jew.

The Holy Prophet asked Safiyah to say: “Yes, My father was Harun and my uncle was Musa, the messengers of Allah, and my husband the last Prophet of Allah.”

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ ۖ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَبْ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضًا ۚ أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَحِيمٌ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:12]

Most kinds of suspicion are baseless, and some are crimes in themselves, therefore conjecture (qiyas) has been “outlawed” in Islam. Spying into other people’s affairs means either idle curiosity or suspicion carried a stage further. Backbiting, being futile, is mischievous, and if poisoned with malice, it is a sin added to sin. It is like eating flesh of a dead brother, abomination plus abomination.

The Holy Prophet said:

“Backbiting is worse than adultery, because Allah may forgive an adulterer or adulteress if he or she turns repentant to Him, but pardon for backbiting is not available until the aggrieved person agrees to forgive.”

Imam Ali said:

“Have a good opinion about your brother in faith unless proved otherwise.”

Once a few companions sent Salman to bring food from the kitchen of the Holy Prophet. After obtaining the Holy Prophet’s permission he went to Usama bin Zayd who was in charge of the Holy Prophet’s kitchen, but as there was nothing in the kitchen, he returned to the companions with empty hands. They laughed at Salman and Usama and branded them closefisted misers. Then they came to the Holy Prophet. He told them: “I see particles of flesh in your teeth. It is the flesh of Salman and Usama.” Then this verse was revealed.

Imam Musa bin Jafar al Kazim said:

“Anything evil said about anyone, when he is not present, to the people who do not know it, is backbiting.”

It is mentioned in Tafsir Thalabi that some people reported to Umar that Abu Mahjan was drinking wine in his house. Umar at once raided his house but found no wine. Mahjan said: “O Umar, you have spied on me, although Allah says: ‘Spy not on each other.'” Zayd bin Thabit and Abdullah bin Arqam were the witnesses to this event.

Abdur Rahman bin Awf, a very close friend of Umar, is reported to have said: “While crossing a street in the night, we saw light in the house of Umayya bin Rabi-ah. We jumped over the outer wall and entered into his chamber. Along with his friends he was drinking wine. Umar admonished him for breaking the law of Allah. Umayya said: “O Umar, I have broken only one law, but you have done four forbidden acts-spying, not entering through the front door, not obtaining my permission to come into my house, and not greeting me with assalamu alaykum.”

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:13]

This is addressed to all mankind and not to the Muslims only, though it is understood that in a perfect world the two would be synonymous. All races of men, white, brown and black are His creation. Allah has made them to vary in colour, language and mode of life, and has placed them in different lands, but before Him they are all one and cherished by Him alike, and he is most honoured who is most righteous.

The Holy Prophet said:

“Do not take pride in superior birth, tribe or nation.”

Even the descendants of the Holy Prophet, known as sharif or sayyid, have been forbidden to give themselves airs on account of their relationship with him because it will not save them from punishment on the day of judgement if they have transgressed the boundaries laid down by Allah.

Imam Ali bin Husayn Zaynal Abidin said:

“The hell has been made ready for those who disobey Allah, be he a most important person in the society; and only those who obey Allah will go into paradise, be he a slave.”

It is reported that a Muslim bought a slave who appealed to the people gathered in the auction square that he who was ready to allow him to pray behind the Holy Prophet should buy him, and the slave was always in the rows formed behind the Holy Prophet. After a few days the Holy Prophet noticed his absence. He went to his place. He was sick. After three days he died. The Holy Prophet personally attended to his funeral rites, bathed him, gave him a shroud and buried him. When mahajirs and ansar showed signs of astonishment this verse was revealed.

It is said that once the disciples of Isa asked him as to who was to be considered as superior among men. Isa took a handful of dust in his hand and said:

“All man are from the dust and they shall return to dust. In the eyes of God he is most honoured who is most righteous.”

This verse renders null and void all distinctions based on race, colour, caste and social position. Taqwa (obedience to Allah and His laws) is the only criterion for superiority or honour.

The Holy Prophet said:

“No man is superior to another on account of race or colour, taqwa (wisdom and piety) alone is the distinction.”

In this way man finds his individual as well as collective freedom, material progress and spiritual happiness, peace and order in Islam.

To have an idea of taqwa refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 to 5 and 177. Maximum degree of taqwa is found in the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt.

 

قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا ۖ قُلْ لَمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تُطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لَا يَلِتْكُمْ مِنْ أَعْمَالِكُمْ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:14]

The desert Arabs, in general, were uncertain in their faith. Their hearts and minds were petty, and they thought of petty things, while Islam demands complete submission to the will of Allah. The reference here is to the Bani Asad who came to profess Islam in order to get charity during a famine.

This verse refers to the actual possibility of professing faith as lip-profession, without a deep, inward and living assurance of the heart which in fact is the basis of reward given by Allah to His sincere servants. The lip-profession was resorted to because of many advantages available to the Muslims.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Real submission to the will of Allah creates iman (conviction which enters and abides in the heart). So those who say: “We submit,” can be called Muslims but they are notmumins, whereas mumin is necessarily a muslim. Islam is the outer circle and iman is the inner core. Islam is submission and iman is the full realisation of the faith with complete conviction. Both can be verbal declaration without conviction, and both can be from the bottom of the heart, real and sincere.

For a full description of a true mumin for whom verse 13 assigns superiority and honour see commentary of Baqarah: 177 and Bara-at: 119.

 

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ{15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:15]

This verse very clearly says that those who used to have doubts in the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (see commentary of Fat-h: 1) and run away from the battlefields (see commentary of Bara-at: 25 to 27) could never be the true faithfuls. The truthfuls have been described in Baqarah: 177 and Bara-at: 119. These qualities in highest degree are found only in the Ahl ul Bayt, who alone should be followed by all muslims as their leaders.

 

قُلْ أَتُعَلِّمُونَ اللَّهَ بِدِينِكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:16]

يَمُنُّونَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ أَسْلَمُوا ۖ قُلْ لَا تَمُنُّوا عَلَيَّ إِسْلَامَكُمْ ۖ بَلِ اللَّهُ يَمُنُّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ هَدَاكُمْ لِلْإِيمَانِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:17]

Refer to Baqarah: 129, 151 and Ali Imran: 164.

By accepting Islam man confers no favour on its preacher. If the acceptance is from the heart, it is a favour done to his own self because the light of guidance has entered his heart.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 49:18]
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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