بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ عَلَىٰ عَبْدِهِ الْكِتَابَ وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ عِوَجًا ۜ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:1]

The Quran, revealed to the Holy Prophet, contains plain, simple and clear guidance to mankind, in order that the Holy Prophet as the nadhir may warn those who do not believe in his message although it is straight and there is no ambiguity in it; and as the bashir may give glad tidings to those who believe and follow him.

The last verse of the preceding surah says that praise be to Allah because He has begotten no son and has no partner in His authority, and this surah also begins with “praise be to Allah” and states that those who say: “Allah has begotten a son” are like the disbelievers. The Jews, the Christians and the infidels are warned of a terrible punishment. The ultimate fate of a large number of human beings because of their obstinate adherence to falsehood caused utmost grief to the Holy Prophet, the mercy unto the worlds, who suffered abuse and persecution in order to preach the truth and show the way of salvation to the whole mankind, in every age, so that the maximum number of people may be saved from the certain wrath of Allah. His love for the human race was particular as well as general. It was his earnest desire that every living being should receive guidance from the book of Allah (the word hadith has been used for the Quran in verse 6) and follow its guidance to attain bliss and salvation.

قَيِّمًا لِيُنْذِرَ بَأْسًا شَدِيدًا مِنْ لَدُنْهُ وَيُبَشِّرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا حَسَنًا {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:2] (see commentary for verse 1)

مَاكِثِينَ فِيهِ أَبَدًا {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:3] (see commentary for verse 1)

وَيُنْذِرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:4] (see commentary for verse 1)

مَا لَهُمْ بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ وَلَا لِآبَائِهِمْ ۚ كَبُرَتْ كَلِمَةً تَخْرُجُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۚ إِنْ يَقُولُونَ إِلَّا كَذِبًا {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:5] (see commentary for verse 1)

فَلَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَفْسَكَ عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمْ إِنْ لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَٰذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَسَفًا {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:6] (see commentary for verse 1)

إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا مَا عَلَى الْأَرْضِ زِينَةً لَهَا لِنَبْلُوَهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:7]

The forests, the mountains, the rivers, the oceans, the valleys and all other natural resources created by Allah are useful for man, but He has placed the human beings on the earth amid these bounties so that He may try them to see which of them is best in deeds. Those who scramble for these bounties as if they shall have them for ever must know that one day the earth will become dust and waste, bare and barren. Refer to the commentary of Yunus: 10 and Hud: (9 to 22) Imam Jafar bin Muhammad As Sadiq said:

“In order to test the Holy Prophet the pagans of Makka sent three men to Najran so that they might learn a few unknown episodes from the Jew scholars and confront him with them. They returned with the story of the “seven sleepers in the cave”, and when the Holy Prophet was asked to narrate their story these verses were revealed .”

The Quran, as usual, lays stress on the moral lessons of the story, and not on the exact identification of the persons concerned. The Holy Prophet not only told them the main story but pointed out the variations that were current, and admonished them for disputing about such details. The story is treated as a parable, containing spiritual lessons of the highest value. The ashab ul kahf (the dwellers of the cave) were seven young Christian men who lived in Ephesus, a city on the west coast of Asia Minor. They lived in a society which was completely idolatrous, although they themselves were believers in only one God, as the true followers of Prophet Isa. The city in which they lived was under the rule of the Roman emperor Decius who ruled from 249 to 251 A.D. Decius was a tyrant, and an idol-worshipper. All those who lived under his rule were forced to worship the idols. He issued an order saying that any citizen who refused to worship the idols was a traitor and was condemned to death. Soon the seven young men-the ashab ul kahf-realised that they were the only persons left who refrained from worshipping the idols. This forced them to re-evaluate their situation: either give in to the majority pressure to worship idols, or refuse and be killed. None of these alternatives seemed favourable. Man must not jeopardise his life but should take all precautions to save it because it is a trust, and then leave the matter to the will of Allah. Therefore, they decided to leave the city and seek refuge elsewhere, away from the reach of the tyrant emperor. So they left the city. Outside the city, a dog named Qatmir joined them. They went towards the hills and finally found a cave for themselves. They prayed for Allah’s help, and Allah made them sleep for about 300 years. A party of investigators, headed by a minister of the emperor came to the cave. The minister, who went inside the cave and found them sleeping, was a believer, so he told the emperor that they were dead. The cave was closed and a tablet (raqim) whereon were inscribed the names of the ashab ul kahf, their religion, and what it was from which they fled was put upon the entrance of the cave. The cave is said to be in Damascus. Even today the pilgrims who call upon the shrine of Bibi Zaynab, pay a visit to this cave.

They were raised up in the reign of Theodosius 11 (408 to 450 A.D.), who was a Christian. It is written in Hastings “Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics” that the cave was reopened when Allah suggested to Adolius, the proprietor of the field where the cave is, to build a sheepfold for his flock; for this purpose the workmen used the stones which closed the entrance of the cave. The long period of 300 years seemed to the ashab ul kahf, as if only a day or two passed by, or even less. So our ideas of time are fallacious. The Almighty Lord controls time and space. Even an animal who associated itself with the godly servants of Allah was rewarded. This event is an example of Allah’s power to resurrect all human beings after their death on the day of judgement.

There is another version in which it is stated that when the ashab ul kahf came out of sleep they found the mouth of the cave closed.

One of them said:

“O my Lord, once I hired a man to work for me for one full day, but he finished the work in half a day and left without taking the payment. With the amount payable to him I bought a calf. Soon it multiplied into a herd. It so happened that one day he came to see me. I told him what had happened. He did not believe. I swore in Your name and gave the whole flock to him. I did it in Your name and for Your sake. Please open the cave.”

One third portion of the cave opened. Another from them said:

“O my Lord, a beautiful woman came to me for some food when there was a widespread famine in our land. I desired her very much as soon as I saw her beauty but she refused to yield to my carnal passion and went away. She came to me again and again but every time I put the same proposal to her. At last she agreed. When I held her in my arms I felt she was violently trembling. To my question she said she was trembling in fear of God. I at once freed her and gave her the provision she asked for. I did it to obtain Your pleasure. I wept and sought Your forgiveness. Now I beseech You to open the cave.”

Now the two third portion of the cave was open. Another from them said:

“O my Lord, once I brought some milk for my parents, but found them asleep. I did not want to disturb them. So I waited beside them. The whole night passed and my flock of sheep perished in the field as I could not attend to them. In the morning my parents awoke and drank the milk. I did it to please You, O my l.ord; so open the cave.”

Now the whole cave lay open before them.

Whatever is stated about the ashab ul kahf is a miracle of Allah. He is able to do all things. No one has yet found the bodies of ashab ul kahf who are said to be still sleeping. Allah has kept them invisible as He has kept Isa, Khizr, Idris and the living Imam Al Qa-im hidden from the sight of all people.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

When the people of the town found one of the ashab ul kahf in the market who went there to buy food they wanted to know who he was. He told them their story. They went with him to the cave. The man went inside in advance and informed his comrades that the emperor with his scholars is coming to see them. They fell prostrate before Allah and prayed that the sleep might come over them again. So when the royal entourage came in they were asleep. They decided to build a masjid over them. The act of giving recognition to the men of God has been appreciated by the Quran. To build a masjid over the graves of men of God or to treat the place where they are buried as a place of worship of Allah is permissible according to verse 21. On this basis the tawaf of hajr of Ismail, known as hajr al aswad, close to the Ka-bah, is obligatory during the performance of hajj.

According to a few schools of thought in Islam the Holy Prophet issued orders contrary to the implication of this verse. They quote the following traditions:

(i) Allah has cursed the Jews and the Christians for adopting the graves of their prophets as masjids (place of worship). Do not make my grave a place of worship.

(ii) The Christians have chosen the place where their saints are buried as objects of worship. You should not do as they do.

(iii) Do not glorify me as the Christians glorify Isa.

Even if these traditions are authentic, they do not in any way repeal the permissibility of worshipping Allah near or on the grave of a chosen servant of Allah. They only warn the people not to treat the servants of Allah like the Lord to whom they had submitted unconditionally in their lives. The place where a chosen servant of Allah is buried becomes a sacred place which makes the worshipper of Allah remember Allah in a more favourable and spiritual environment than anywhere else. There is no restriction on the devotees of Allah to avoid any blessed place for His worship. In order to save the Muslims from falling into the pit of shirk (polytheism), it has been made obligatory to recite tashahud in every salat. There is no god save Allah and Muhammad is His servant and His messenger, and blessings of Allah be on Muhammad and his Ahl ul Bayt. There is no possibility of adopting any created being as an object of worship, beside Allah, when a Muslim repeats tashahud in every salat, which makes it clear that even the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, inspire of their highest status, are created beings, therefore there is none equal to Him and He alone is the sole object of worship. The Quran gives permission to remember the chosen servants of Allah as sincere worshippers of Allah. To pay homage to them, bowing and prostrating before them, as the angels were commanded to prostrate before Adam (Baqarah: 34) or the family of Yusuf prostrated before him (Yusuf: 100), is not prohibited, because worship (ibadat) depends on intention, and the intention of a true Muslim can never be their worship which is for Allah alone.

وَإِنَّا لَجَاعِلُونَ مَا عَلَيْهَا صَعِيدًا جُرُزًا {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:8] (see commentary for verse 7)

أَمْ حَسِبْتَ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْكَهْفِ وَالرَّقِيمِ كَانُوا مِنْ آيَاتِنَا عَجَبًا {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:9]

إِذْ أَوَى الْفِتْيَةُ إِلَى الْكَهْفِ فَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:10]

فَضَرَبْنَا عَلَىٰ آذَانِهِمْ فِي الْكَهْفِ سِنِينَ عَدَدًا {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:11]

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاهُمْ لِنَعْلَمَ أَيُّ الْحِزْبَيْنِ أَحْصَىٰ لِمَا لَبِثُوا أَمَدًا {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:12]

نَحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ نَبَأَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ فِتْيَةٌ آمَنُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ وَزِدْنَاهُمْ هُدًى {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:13]

وَرَبَطْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ إِذْ قَامُوا فَقَالُوا رَبُّنَا رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَنْ نَدْعُوَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَٰهًا ۖ لَقَدْ قُلْنَا إِذًا شَطَطًا {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:14]

هَٰؤُلَاءِ قَوْمُنَا اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ آلِهَةً ۖ لَوْلَا يَأْتُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِسُلْطَانٍ بَيِّنٍ ۖ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:15]

وَإِذِ اعْتَزَلْتُمُوهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ فَأْوُوا إِلَى الْكَهْفِ يَنْشُرْ لَكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ مِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ وَيُهَيِّئْ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَمْرِكُمْ مِرْفَقًا {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:16]

وَتَرَى الشَّمْسَ إِذَا طَلَعَتْ تَزَاوَرُ عَنْ كَهْفِهِمْ ذَاتَ الْيَمِينِ وَإِذَا غَرَبَتْ تَقْرِضُهُمْ ذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ وَهُمْ فِي فَجْوَةٍ مِنْهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ ۗ مَنْ يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ ۖ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ وَلِيًّا مُرْشِدًا {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:17]

وَتَحْسَبُهُمْ أَيْقَاظًا وَهُمْ رُقُودٌ ۚ وَنُقَلِّبُهُمْ ذَاتَ الْيَمِينِ وَذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ ۖ وَكَلْبُهُمْ بَاسِطٌ ذِرَاعَيْهِ بِالْوَصِيدِ ۚ لَوِ اطَّلَعْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَوَلَّيْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِرَارًا وَلَمُلِئْتَ مِنْهُمْ رُعْبًا {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:18]

وَكَذَٰلِكَ بَعَثْنَاهُمْ لِيَتَسَاءَلُوا بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ قَالَ قَائِلٌ مِنْهُمْ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا لَبِثْنَا يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍ ۚ قَالُوا رَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا لَبِثْتُمْ فَابْعَثُوا أَحَدَكُمْ بِوَرِقِكُمْ هَٰذِهِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ أَيُّهَا أَزْكَىٰ طَعَامًا فَلْيَأْتِكُمْ بِرِزْقٍ مِنْهُ وَلْيَتَلَطَّفْ وَلَا يُشْعِرَنَّ بِكُمْ أَحَدًا{19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:19]

إِنَّهُمْ إِنْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ يَرْجُمُوكُمْ أَوْ يُعِيدُوكُمْ فِي مِلَّتِهِمْ وَلَنْ تُفْلِحُوا إِذًا أَبَدًا {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:20]

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَعْثَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ لِيَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا إِذْ يَتَنَازَعُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَمْرَهُمْ ۖ فَقَالُوا ابْنُوا عَلَيْهِمْ بُنْيَانًا ۖ رَبُّهُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِهِمْ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ غَلَبُوا عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَسْجِدًا {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:21]

سَيَقُولُونَ ثَلَاثَةٌ رَابِعُهُمْ كَلْبُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ خَمْسَةٌ سَادِسُهُمْ كَلْبُهُمْ رَجْمًا بِالْغَيْبِ ۖ وَيَقُولُونَ سَبْعَةٌ وَثَامِنُهُمْ كَلْبُهُمْ ۚ قُلْ رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِعِدَّتِهِمْ مَا يَعْلَمُهُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ ۗ فَلَا تُمَارِ فِيهِمْ إِلَّا مِرَاءً ظَاهِرًا وَلَا تَسْتَفْتِ فِيهِمْ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدًا {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:22]

وَلَا تَقُولَنَّ لِشَيْءٍ إِنِّي فَاعِلٌ ذَٰلِكَ غَدًا {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:23]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

If you wish to do anything do not say: “I shall certainly do it”, without adding: “Inshallah (if Allah wills)”. It is a general directive to every true believer. He must not depend on his own will

and ability for the successful completion of his action, but rely on the will of Allah however strong may be his will-power and ability, because complete submission to the will of Allah is Islam.

Remember Allah whenever you neglect or postpone any decision; because He alone is able to direct you to the truth of the matter rightly.

إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاذْكُرْ رَبَّكَ إِذَا نَسِيتَ وَقُلْ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَهْدِيَنِ رَبِّي لِأَقْرَبَ مِنْ هَٰذَا رَشَدًا {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:24] (see commentary for verse 23)

وَلَبِثُوا فِي كَهْفِهِمْ ثَلَاثَ مِائَةٍ سِنِينَ وَازْدَادُوا تِسْعًا {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:25]

In reply to a Jew’s query Ali ibn abi Talib said:

“They stayed in the cave 309 years according to lunar calendar.”

It is Allah’s computation that is given here. He is the knower, seer and hearer of all that which is taking place in the heavens and the earth. He protected them (ashab ul kahf) from the tyranny of the heathen ruler. He does not share His authority with any one whatsoever.

قُلِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا لَبِثُوا ۖ لَهُ غَيْبُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ أَبْصِرْ بِهِ وَأَسْمِعْ ۚ مَا لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ وَلِيٍّ وَلَا يُشْرِكُ فِي حُكْمِهِ أَحَدًا {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:26] (see commentary for verse 25)

وَاتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ كِتَابِ رَبِّكَ ۖ لَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ مِنْ دُونِهِ مُلْتَحَدًا {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:27]

The Holy Prophet is commanded to recite the verses, that have been revealed to him, from the book of his Lord, in reply to the query about the ashab ul kahf the Quraysh put to him as directed by the Jews.

The people are warned through the Holy Prophet not to try to change the words of Allah because His commands, decrees and orders are final and irrevocable.

See commentary of An-am: 116.

وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ وَلَا تَعْدُ عَيْنَاكَ عَنْهُمْ تُرِيدُ زِينَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَنْ ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:28]

The true servants of Allah are those whose hearts are turned to Him morning, noon and night, and who do not seek worldly gains, but desire only Allah’s grace and His presence. They are poor in the world, but their company gives far more inward and spiritual satisfaction than worldly grandeur. Such a man was Salman. Qummi says in his commentary that this verse was revealed when A-inya bin Hasin asked the Holy Prophet to send away Salman whenever he or wealthy people like him came to see him because the social status of a poor man like Salman who had only one garment did not justify his presence among them. The Holy Prophet recited this verse and added: “Salman is one of my Ahl ul Bayt.” It was a distinction which no other companion had ever enjoyed.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Holy Prophet, who only followed the revelations (Najm: 4), never paid any attention to the loose talk of those who have been referred to in this verse, in Al Qalam: 10 to 15 and in the early verses of al Ahzab.

The qualities described in this verse refer to the ulil amr whose obedience has been made obligatory. See commentary of Nisa: 59.

وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيُؤْمِنْ وَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ ۚ إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ نَارًا أَحَاطَ بِهِمْ سُرَادِقُهَا ۚ وَإِنْ يَسْتَغِيثُوا يُغَاثُوا بِمَاءٍ كَالْمُهْلِ يَشْوِي الْوُجُوهَ ۚ بِئْسَ الشَّرَابُ وَسَاءَتْ مُرْتَفَقًا {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:29]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ إِنَّا لَا نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ مَنْ أَحْسَنَ عَمَلًا {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:30]

أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهِمُ الْأَنْهَارُ يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَيَلْبَسُونَ ثِيَابًا خُضْرًا مِنْ سُنْدُسٍ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍ مُتَّكِئِينَ فِيهَا عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ ۚ نِعْمَ الثَّوَابُ وَحَسُنَتْ مُرْتَفَقًا {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:31]

وَاضْرِبْ لَهُمْ مَثَلًا رَجُلَيْنِ جَعَلْنَا لِأَحَدِهِمَا جَنَّتَيْنِ مِنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَحَفَفْنَاهُمَا بِنَخْلٍ وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُمَا زَرْعًا {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:32]

Here is a parable of the contrast between two men. One had much wealth from the gardens and plantations he owned. All this wealth made him very arrogant and proud. The other had nothing. His trust was in Allah. The worldly wealth of the first was destroyed because he had forgotten Allah who gave him the physical strength and intelligence to exploit the land and animals for his own advantage. The second was happier in the end because he believed that Allah was his Lord, and did not associate any one with his Lord. It was not wealth that ruined the wealthy man, but the attitude of his mind. In his love of the material possessions he forgot the spiritual share and openly defied the bestower of all bounties. The poor man remonstrates against the proud man who denied Allah. From his own spiritual experience he tells the proud man that Allah is good and the better way of enjoying His bounties is to remember Him and give thanks to Him. He warns him of the fleeting nature of worldly possessions and of the certainty of Allah’s punishment for inordinate vanity.

Man should always safeguard himself against the arrogance he builds up within his conscious soul when he enjoys prosperity and authority over less fortunate fellow-beings, because what the Almighty Lord has given him can be taken away from him in a flash of an eyelid. Those who safeguard themselves against evil with full awareness of the laws made by Allah never yield to the lure of wealth, pomp and power. They shall abide in the land of eternal bliss for ever. Those who surrender to evil, wickedness and pride shall have nothing but torment of the fire, after the day of judgement, for ever and ever.

كِلْتَا الْجَنَّتَيْنِ آتَتْ أُكُلَهَا وَلَمْ تَظْلِمْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ وَفَجَّرْنَا خِلَالَهُمَا نَهَرًا {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:33] (see commentary for verse 32)

وَكَانَ لَهُ ثَمَرٌ فَقَالَ لِصَاحِبِهِ وَهُوَ يُحَاوِرُهُ أَنَا أَكْثَرُ مِنْكَ مَالًا وَأَعَزُّ نَفَرًا {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:34] (see commentary for verse 32)

وَدَخَلَ جَنَّتَهُ وَهُوَ ظَالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ قَالَ مَا أَظُنُّ أَنْ تَبِيدَ هَٰذِهِ أَبَدًا {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:35] (see commentary for verse 32)

وَمَا أَظُنُّ السَّاعَةَ قَائِمَةً وَلَئِنْ رُدِدْتُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّي لَأَجِدَنَّ خَيْرًا مِنْهَا مُنْقَلَبًا {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:36] (see commentary for verse 32)

قَالَ لَهُ صَاحِبُهُ وَهُوَ يُحَاوِرُهُ أَكَفَرْتَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَكَ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ سَوَّاكَ رَجُلًا {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:37] (see commentary for verse 32)

لَٰكِنَّا هُوَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي وَلَا أُشْرِكُ بِرَبِّي أَحَدًا {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:38] (see commentary for verse 32)

وَلَوْلَا إِذْ دَخَلْتَ جَنَّتَكَ قُلْتَ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ ۚ إِنْ تَرَنِ أَنَا أَقَلَّ مِنْكَ مَالًا وَوَلَدًا {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:39] (see commentary for verse 32)

فَعَسَىٰ رَبِّي أَنْ يُؤْتِيَنِ خَيْرًا مِنْ جَنَّتِكَ وَيُرْسِلَ عَلَيْهَا حُسْبَانًا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتُصْبِحَ صَعِيدًا زَلَقًا {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:40] (see commentary for verse 32)

أَوْ يُصْبِحَ مَاؤُهَا غَوْرًا فَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعَ لَهُ طَلَبًا {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:41] (see commentary for verse 32)

وَأُحِيطَ بِثَمَرِهِ فَأَصْبَحَ يُقَلِّبُ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَىٰ مَا أَنْفَقَ فِيهَا وَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَىٰ عُرُوشِهَا وَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُشْرِكْ بِرَبِّي أَحَدًا{42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:42] (see commentary for verse 32)

وَلَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ فِئَةٌ يَنْصُرُونَهُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانَ مُنْتَصِرًا {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:43] (see commentary for verse 32)

هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَةُ لِلَّهِ الْحَقِّ ۚ هُوَ خَيْرٌ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ عُقْبًا {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:44] (see commentary for verse 32)

وَاضْرِبْ لَهُمْ مَثَلَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ فَأَصْبَحَ هَشِيمًا تَذْرُوهُ الرِّيَاحُ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُقْتَدِرًا {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:45]

The rain-water is soon absorbed in the earth, and produces grain, grass and vegetation for a time. The produce of the earth is consumed by men and animals and when the summer comes the water disappears as if it was a dry straw which the winds scatter around. Such is the life of this world- temporary and consumable. Allah is the only enduring power we can look to, supreme over all.

الْمَالُ وَالْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلًا {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:46]

Material possessions, if spent in the way of Allah, for the overall welfare of the society, become the source of good deeds which not only earn rewards but also give us confidence that we shall receive His mercy in both the worlds.

The Holy Prophet said:

“There are people who do not desire to own much material possessions. They earn only what is sufficient for their livelihood. They are those for whom “there is no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (Ahqaf: 13)

Those who earn wealth through lawful means and spend it to do good to others shall be examined in view of their mode of earning and spending, so that they may be rewarded for their good deeds and reprimanded for any non-performance or miscarriage of duties (laid down by Allah for people whom He gives large means).

Those who amass wealth through unfair and unlawful means, usurping the rights of other people, and do not spend in the way of Allah, do not even pay the prescribed share to the poor, and use it to indulge in unlawful pleasure, shall be thrown in the fire where they shall abide for ever.”

وَيَوْمَ نُسَيِّرُ الْجِبَالَ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ بَارِزَةً وَحَشَرْنَاهُمْ فَلَمْ نُغَادِرْ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدًا {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:47]

On the day of judgement none of our present landmarks will remain. We shall stand as we were created before the Lord with our record of deeds. Expressed in the forms of this world it will be a clear statement of all we did in this life. Refer to Bani Israil: 13 and 14.

وَعُرِضُوا عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ صَفًّا لَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۚ بَلْ زَعَمْتُمْ أَلَّنْ نَجْعَلَ لَكُمْ مَوْعِدًا {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:48] (see commentary for verse 47)

وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ فَتَرَى الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُشْفِقِينَ مِمَّا فِيهِ وَيَقُولُونَ يَا وَيْلَتَنَا مَالِ هَٰذَا الْكِتَابِ لَا يُغَادِرُ صَغِيرَةً وَلَا كَبِيرَةً إِلَّا أَحْصَاهَا ۚ وَوَجَدُوا مَا عَمِلُوا حَاضِرًا ۗ وَلَا يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:49] (see commentary for verse 47)

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ ۗ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِي وَهُمْ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ ۚ بِئْسَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بَدَلًا {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:50]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 34; Hijr: 28 to 31 and Bani Israil: 61.

مَا أَشْهَدْتُهُمْ خَلْقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَا خَلْقَ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَمَا كُنْتُ مُتَّخِذَ الْمُضِلِّينَ عَضُدًا {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:51]

وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ نَادُوا شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ مَوْبِقًا {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:52]

وَرَأَى الْمُجْرِمُونَ النَّارَ فَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ مُوَاقِعُوهَا وَلَمْ يَجِدُوا عَنْهَا مَصْرِفًا {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:53]

وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِلنَّاسِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ ۚ وَكَانَ الْإِنْسَانُ أَكْثَرَ شَيْءٍ جَدَلًا {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:54]

Refer to the commentary of Bani Israil: 41.

وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا إِذْ جَاءَهُمُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّهُمْ إِلَّا أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمْ سُنَّةُ الْأَوَّلِينَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ قُبُلًا {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:55]

وَمَا نُرْسِلُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ ۚ وَيُجَادِلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِالْبَاطِلِ لِيُدْحِضُوا بِهِ الْحَقَّ ۖ وَاتَّخَذُوا آيَاتِي وَمَا أُنْذِرُوا هُزُوًا {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:56]

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ ذُكِّرَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهَا وَنَسِيَ مَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاهُ ۚ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَنْ يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ۖ وَإِنْ تَدْعُهُمْ إِلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَلَنْ يَهْتَدُوا إِذًا أَبَدًا {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:57]

Refer to the commentary of Araf: 179; Nahl: 108 and Bani Israil: 45.

وَرَبُّكَ الْغَفُورُ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ ۖ لَوْ يُؤَاخِذُهُمْ بِمَا كَسَبُوا لَعَجَّلَ لَهُمُ الْعَذَابَ ۚ بَلْ لَهُمْ مَوْعِدٌ لَنْ يَجِدُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ مَوْئِلًا {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:58]

وَتِلْكَ الْقُرَىٰ أَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ لَمَّا ظَلَمُوا وَجَعَلْنَا لِمَهْلِكِهِمْ مَوْعِدًا {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:59]

Refer to the commentary of verses pertaining to the destruction of cities in Al Araf

and Hud.

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّىٰ أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:60]

In these verses the Quran describes the meeting which took place between Musa and a chosen servant of Allah, whose name, as per Islamic traditions, was Khizr. Allah told Musa that if he wanted to see a more knowledgeable person then he should go to meet him at the place where the two seas come together. The sign for that meeting-place was that a fish would disappear in the water.

Musa was the most learned man of his times, but even his wisdom did not comprehend everything. Therefore he was commanded by Allah to go in search of Khizr who would impart to him such knowledge as even he did not possess.

To meet him Musa had to reach the junction of the two seas where he lived. The distance was very long. Huquba means a long space of time, sometimes it is limited to 80 years. Musa took Yusha, his attendant, with him. When they reached the junction of the two seas where the two arms of the Red Sea join together viz., the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez, they stopped and took rest. Yusha put the cooked fish on a nearby rock. While Yusha was looking on, the fish took its way into the sea in a strange manner. When they had passed the meeting-place, Musa felt hungry and asked Yusha to bring the fish. Then Yusha cursed the avowed enemy of man, Shaytan, who made him forget the mentioning of it to Musa. So they immediately turned back retracing their tracks and reached the meeting place where they found Khizr, a servant from among the servants of Allah, whom He had granted mercy and whom He had taught knowledge from Himself. Verses 66 to 77 describe the actions of Khizr, during their onward journey, which baffled Musa and forced him to question Khizr inspite of the warning Khizr gave to him in the beginning that he would not be able to bear patiently with the events he could not comprehend. In verses 79 to 82 Khizr explains to Musa the interpretation of his actions which he could not bear with patience.

Musa learned from Khizr that the mysteries of life are diverse and countless. The finite mind cannot easily disentangle the web of secrets unless the all-wise Lord shows the way to have a glimpse of the unknown; that patience is essential to face the vicissitudes of life and to know the inner meanings of the external manifestations; that the working of the divine plan always brings good in the end; that in the larger interest of the human society the loss of a few lives is not a loss at all; and that good deeds should be done for the sake of good not for immediate return in terms of material gain.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In verse 79 Khizr says: “I intended to damage it (the boat)”; in verse 81 he says: “We intended that their Lord would give them in exchange (a son) better in purity”; and in verse 82 he says: “So your Lord intended that they should attain their maturity.” In the end he says: “I did it not of my own accord.”

The reason for taking the responsibility of damaging the boat in verse 79, is not to attribute such an act to Allah as a matter of courtesy. In verse 81 the slaying of the boy deprived him of his life but it was a service to his parents, therefore “we” is used. The deprivation refers to Khizr and the advantage refers to Allah. The act referred to in verse 82 is purely good, so it has been attributed to Allah exclusively. Khizr’s statement is based upon the fact that every manifestation has a cause in the final analysis. In verse 79 he refers to himself as the causative agent; in verse 81 he takes the apparent and the real causes into consideration; and in verse 82 by stating that “he did not do anything” he discards human or any created agency and points towards the real author of all events. Whatever takes place is a divine blessing in disguise even if the manifestation is apparently not favourable to an individual or a group of individuals. The knowledge of even those who have received divine revelation is not all-encompassing, and is limited according to the excellence Allah bestowed on them as mentioned in verse 253 al Baqarah and explained in the commentary of Bani Israil: 1.

فَلَمَّا بَلَغَا مَجْمَعَ بَيْنِهِمَا نَسِيَا حُوتَهُمَا فَاتَّخَذَ سَبِيلَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ سَرَبًا {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:61] (see commentary for verse 60)

فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَا قَالَ لِفَتَاهُ آتِنَا غَدَاءَنَا لَقَدْ لَقِينَا مِنْ سَفَرِنَا هَٰذَا نَصَبًا {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:62] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ إِذْ أَوَيْنَا إِلَى الصَّخْرَةِ فَإِنِّي نَسِيتُ الْحُوتَ وَمَا أَنْسَانِيهُ إِلَّا الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَهُ ۚ وَاتَّخَذَ سَبِيلَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ عَجَبًا{63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:63] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ ذَٰلِكَ مَا كُنَّا نَبْغِ ۚ فَارْتَدَّا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمَا قَصَصًا {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:64] (see commentary for verse 60)

فَوَجَدَا عَبْدًا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا آتَيْنَاهُ رَحْمَةً مِنْ عِنْدِنَا وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ مِنْ لَدُنَّا عِلْمًا {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:65] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَىٰ هَلْ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلَىٰ أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِ مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:66] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبْرًا {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:67] (see commentary for verse 60)

وَكَيْفَ تَصْبِرُ عَلَىٰ مَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ خُبْرًا {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:68] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ سَتَجِدُنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ صَابِرًا وَلَا أَعْصِي لَكَ أَمْرًا {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:69] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ فَإِنِ اتَّبَعْتَنِي فَلَا تَسْأَلْنِي عَنْ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ أُحْدِثَ لَكَ مِنْهُ ذِكْرًا {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:70] (see commentary for verse 60)

فَانْطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَكِبَا فِي السَّفِينَةِ خَرَقَهَا ۖ قَالَ أَخَرَقْتَهَا لِتُغْرِقَ أَهْلَهَا لَقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا إِمْرًا {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:71] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبْرًا {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:72] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ لَا تُؤَاخِذْنِي بِمَا نَسِيتُ وَلَا تُرْهِقْنِي مِنْ أَمْرِي عُسْرًا {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:73] (see commentary for verse 60)

فَانْطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلَامًا فَقَتَلَهُ قَالَ أَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا زَكِيَّةً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ لَقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا نُكْرًا {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:74] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَكَ إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبْرًا {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:75] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ إِنْ سَأَلْتُكَ عَنْ شَيْءٍ بَعْدَهَا فَلَا تُصَاحِبْنِي ۖ قَدْ بَلَغْتَ مِنْ لَدُنِّي عُذْرًا {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:76] (see commentary for verse 60)

فَانْطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَتَيَا أَهْلَ قَرْيَةٍ اسْتَطْعَمَا أَهْلَهَا فَأَبَوْا أَنْ يُضَيِّفُوهُمَا فَوَجَدَا فِيهَا جِدَارًا يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَنْقَضَّ فَأَقَامَهُ ۖ قَالَ لَوْ شِئْتَ لَاتَّخَذْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:77] (see commentary for verse 60)

قَالَ هَٰذَا فِرَاقُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنِكَ ۚ سَأُنَبِّئُكَ بِتَأْوِيلِ مَا لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ عَلَيْهِ صَبْرًا {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:78] (see commentary for verse 60)

أَمَّا السَّفِينَةُ فَكَانَتْ لِمَسَاكِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ فِي الْبَحْرِ فَأَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَعِيبَهَا وَكَانَ وَرَاءَهُمْ مَلِكٌ يَأْخُذُ كُلَّ سَفِينَةٍ غَصْبًا {79}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:79] (see commentary for verse 60)

وَأَمَّا الْغُلَامُ فَكَانَ أَبَوَاهُ مُؤْمِنَيْنِ فَخَشِينَا أَنْ يُرْهِقَهُمَا طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا {80}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:80] (see commentary for verse 60)

فَأَرَدْنَا أَنْ يُبْدِلَهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا خَيْرًا مِنْهُ زَكَاةً وَأَقْرَبَ رُحْمًا {81}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:81] (see commentary for verse 60)

وَأَمَّا الْجِدَارُ فَكَانَ لِغُلَامَيْنِ يَتِيمَيْنِ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ وَكَانَ تَحْتَهُ كَنْزٌ لَهُمَا وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَالِحًا فَأَرَادَ رَبُّكَ أَنْ يَبْلُغَا أَشُدَّهُمَا وَيَسْتَخْرِجَا كَنْزَهُمَا رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۚ وَمَا فَعَلْتُهُ عَنْ أَمْرِي ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَأْوِيلُ مَا لَمْ تَسْطِعْ عَلَيْهِ صَبْرًا {82}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:82] (see commentary for verse 60)

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنْ ذِي الْقَرْنَيْنِ ۖ قُلْ سَأَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْهُ ذِكْرًا {83}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:83]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Qarn literally means a distinctive mark in a man, animal or thing which is distinguished and known by it. Therefore any person who possesses two such distinctive qualifications is described as dhul qarnayn. Whether Dhul Qarnayn was Alexander or Darius or some one else is not the issue in these verses but the Quran aims to provide guidance to man through the narrative of a man who possessed two qualities, knowledge and strength, like Talut. Dhul Qarnayn was an upright and righteous king, a true servant of Allah, whose sway extended over east and west, and over people of diverse civilisations. His first expedition was to the west. A spring of murky water refers to Lychintis (now Ochrida). There he protected the weak and punished the unlawful and the turbulent.

He possessed the qualities, a god-fearing man must own, to administer the affairs of men. Great was his power and great were his ways and means which he used for justice and righteousness, but he always remembered that his power and capabilities were given to him by Allah. He never said like Firawn: “I am your Lord, most high.” He declared that his punishment to the wicked was tentative to preserve the balance of this life as he could appraise it but the real consequences of the evil-doing will be encountered by the evildoers on the day of judgement.

Then he went to the east. Those who lived there were a primitive but simple people. The climate was hot, and they required neither roofs over their heads, nor much clothing. He did not disturb their simple mode of living. He left them as they were. Dhul Qarnayn was a man of God. He was not a despot who would forcibly change that which he did not find agreeable to him. He knew his limitations in the sight of his Lord.

Then he reached a tract between two mountains (most probably Armenia and Azerbaijan). The people of this land did not understand the speech of the conqueror. Dhul Qarnayn was now among a people who were different in speech and race from him. They were a peaceable and industrious race, much subject to incursions from wild tribes who were called Yajuj and Majuj (Gog and Magog). Against these tribes they were willing to pay him tribute in return for protection. The permanent protection they wanted was the closing of a mountain gap through which the incursions were made. Dhul Qarnayn was not greedy. He did not impose any tribute, nor was he in need of monetary help or subsidy from them. He had the organising skill. He only asked for material and labour. A barrier was constructed with blocks or bricks of iron, and the cracks were filled up with molten lead, so as to form an impregnable mass of metal. After all the effort which he made for their protection, he claimed no credit for himself beyond that of discharging his duties as a ruler. He turned their attention to Allah who provided the ways and means by which they could be helped and protected, but a time would come when all their precautions would crumble into dust, because it was a promise of Allah.

إِنَّا مَكَّنَّا لَهُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ سَبَبًا {84}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:84] (see commentary for verse 83)

فَأَتْبَعَ سَبَبًا {85}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:85] (see commentary for verse 83)

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَغْرِبَ الشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَغْرُبُ فِي عَيْنٍ حَمِئَةٍ وَوَجَدَ عِنْدَهَا قَوْمًا ۗ قُلْنَا يَا ذَا الْقَرْنَيْنِ إِمَّا أَنْ تُعَذِّبَ وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَتَّخِذَ فِيهِمْ حُسْنًا {86}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:86] (see commentary for verse 83)

قَالَ أَمَّا مَنْ ظَلَمَ فَسَوْفَ نُعَذِّبُهُ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِ فَيُعَذِّبُهُ عَذَابًا نُكْرًا {87}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:87] (see commentary for verse 83)

وَأَمَّا مَنْ آمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُ جَزَاءً الْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ وَسَنَقُولُ لَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِنَا يُسْرًا {88}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:88] (see commentary for verse 83)

ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَ سَبَبًا {89}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:89] (see commentary for verse 83)

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَطْلِعَ الشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَطْلُعُ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ لَمْ نَجْعَلْ لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِهَا سِتْرًا {90}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:90] (see commentary for verse 83)

كَذَٰلِكَ وَقَدْ أَحَطْنَا بِمَا لَدَيْهِ خُبْرًا {91}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:91] (see commentary for verse 83)

ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَ سَبَبًا {92}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:92] (see commentary for verse 83)

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ بَيْنَ السَّدَّيْنِ وَجَدَ مِنْ دُونِهِمَا قَوْمًا لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ قَوْلًا {93}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:93] (see commentary for verse 83)

قَالُوا يَا ذَا الْقَرْنَيْنِ إِنَّ يَأْجُوجَ وَمَأْجُوجَ مُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَهَلْ نَجْعَلُ لَكَ خَرْجًا عَلَىٰ أَنْ تَجْعَلَ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُمْ سَدًّا{94}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:94] (see commentary for verse 83)

قَالَ مَا مَكَّنِّي فِيهِ رَبِّي خَيْرٌ فَأَعِينُونِي بِقُوَّةٍ أَجْعَلْ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ رَدْمًا {95}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:95] (see commentary for verse 83)

آتُونِي زُبَرَ الْحَدِيدِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا سَاوَىٰ بَيْنَ الصَّدَفَيْنِ قَالَ انْفُخُوا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَعَلَهُ نَارًا قَالَ آتُونِي أُفْرِغْ عَلَيْهِ قِطْرًا {96}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:96] (see commentary for verse 83)

فَمَا اسْطَاعُوا أَنْ يَظْهَرُوهُ وَمَا اسْتَطَاعُوا لَهُ نَقْبًا {97}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:97] (see commentary for verse 83)

قَالَ هَٰذَا رَحْمَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّي ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي جَعَلَهُ دَكَّاءَ ۖ وَكَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي حَقًّا {98}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:98] (see commentary for verse 83)

وَتَرَكْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَمُوجُ فِي بَعْضٍ ۖ وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَجَمَعْنَاهُمْ جَمْعًا {99}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:99]

On the day of resurrection all human barriers will be swept away. There will be tumultuous rush. The trumpet will be blown, and the judgement will begin. The disbelievers will encounter the terrible reality. Those very men who refused to believe in the signs of Allah in this world will then see the consequences fully brought up before them. Some commentators say that “Do the disbelievers think that they can take My servants as protectors besides Me?” refer to the Christians who worship Prophet Isa as God or son of God. In verse 30 of Maryam Isa says: “I am indeed a servant of Allah.”

وَعَرَضْنَا جَهَنَّمَ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَرْضًا {100}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:100] (see commentary for verse 99)

الَّذِينَ كَانَتْ أَعْيُنُهُمْ فِي غِطَاءٍ عَنْ ذِكْرِي وَكَانُوا لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَمْعًا {101}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:101] (see commentary for verse 99)

أَفَحَسِبَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنْ يَتَّخِذُوا عِبَادِي مِنْ دُونِي أَوْلِيَاءَ ۚ إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا جَهَنَّمَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ نُزُلًا {102}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:102] (see commentary for verse 99)

قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالًا {103}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:103]

Mere exertion and toil, even in apparently good works, will be of no avail, if there is no belief in Allah. Verse 106 refers to those who ridicule the signs of Allah. Among the signs of Allah, the Quran, the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt are the most important.

الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا {104}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:104] (see commentary for verse 103)

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا {105}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:105] (see commentary for verse 103)

ذَٰلِكَ جَزَاؤُهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ بِمَا كَفَرُوا وَاتَّخَذُوا آيَاتِي وَرُسُلِي هُزُوًا {106}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:106] (see commentary for verse 103)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَانَتْ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ نُزُلًا {107}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:107]

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا لَا يَبْغُونَ عَنْهَا حِوَلًا {108}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:108]

قُلْ لَوْ كَانَ الْبَحْرُ مِدَادًا لِكَلِمَاتِ رَبِّي لَنَفِدَ الْبَحْرُ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْفَدَ كَلِمَاتُ رَبِّي وَلَوْ جِئْنَا بِمِثْلِهِ مَدَدًا {109}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:109]

The words and signs and mercies of Allah are in all creation, and can never be fully set out in human language, however extended our means may imagine to be.

قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا {110}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 18:110]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The theoretical and practical fundamentals of faith have been summed up in this verse:

(i) The messengers of Allah were human beings but they were sent to convey the message of Allah to other human beings. The revelations revealed. to them had exalted them above all the created beings. Refer to the commentary of Bani Israil: 1. It would be an evil thought if the Holy Prophet who reached the highest stage of qaba qawsayni aw adna (two bows or yet nearer) nearness to Allah (Najm: 9), is brought to the level of ordinary human beings by the misguided votaries of his companions.

(ii) Tawhid-Oneness of Allah.

(iii) Every one shall meet the Lord, so man should do good, and in the obedience of the Lord should not associate any one as His partner.


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