بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۙ أَنْ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي ۚ تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:1]

The immediate occasion for the revelation of this passage was a letter, secretly despatched from Madina, through a slave songstress of Makka who came to Madina posing as a destitute but was a spy, by Hatib, a muhajir, addressed to the Makkans, giving them notice of the intended Muslim expedition to Makka, and advising them to arm themselves to fight against the Holy Prophet. Jibrail revealed the affair to the Holy Prophet who immediately sent Ali, Miqdad and Ammar after her. The spy, when intercepted, readily presented herself for a search, denying the charge she was accused of. Having full faith in the knowledge of the Holy Prophet, Ali threatened her with slaughter if she did not produce the letter. Then she brought the letter from the long tresses of her hair. On being questioned, Hatib offered the excuse that it was solely due to his natural desire to save his unprotected family at the hands of the Makkan pagans. The Holy Prophet, in view of his past conduct, graciously asked him to seek pardon from Allah.

This was shortly before the conquest of Makka, but the principle is of universal importance. There cannot be any intimacy with the enemies of your faith and people, who are persecuting your faith and seeking to destroy you and your faith. You should not do so even for the sake of your relatives, as it compromises the life and existence of your whole community. For treachery the plea of children and relatives will not be accepted when the day of judgement comes. Children, family and friends will be of no avail.

The command to avoid contact with the enemies of the truth is the basis of the doctrine of tabarra. Tabarra is not vulgar vilification or wanton abuse. It is that which has been commanded in this verse.

 

إِنْ يَثْقَفُوكُمْ يَكُونُوا لَكُمْ أَعْدَاءً وَيَبْسُطُوا إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالسُّوءِ وَوَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:2] (see commentary for verse 1)

لَنْ تَنْفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَامُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ ۚ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:3] (see commentary for verse 1)

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّىٰ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ إِلَّا قَوْلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ وَمَا أَمْلِكُ لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۖ رَبَّنَا عَلَيْكَ تَوَكَّلْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ أَنَبْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:4]

Refer to the commentary Anam: 75 and Bara-at: 114 and Maryam: 41 to 48 for “there is for you an excellent pattern in Ibrahim.” Ibrahim warned Azar, not his father but the patriarch of his family and his people, against idolatry and prayed for Azar, but when they became open enemies of Allah, he dissociated himself from them and left his home, his family and his people. “Those with him” were his wife and nephew Lut and those who believed in Allah who went into exile with him. The enemies of Allah are the enemies of the believers. Therefore the believers must cut themselves off from them, unless they repent and submit themselves to Allah.

The believers must put their trust in Allah and seek His protection from becoming so weak as to tempt the disbelievers to try to attack and destroy them.

For fitnat see commentary of Baqarah: 102 and Anfal: 25.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

“In ancient times every believer was poor and a great number of disbelievers were men of large means, but when Ibrahim prayed to Allah to make believers strong and able to stand up to the disbelievers, riches or poverty became the fruit of one’s labour and efforts.”

 

رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا رَبَّنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:5] (see commentary for verse 4)

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِيهِمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:6] (see commentary for verse 4)

عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ عَادَيْتُمْ مِنْهُمْ مَوَدَّةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ قَدِيرٌ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:7]

That which has been stated in this verse happened on taking of Makka, when some of the leading Quraysh, who had till then been invertebrate enemies of Islam, apparently embraced the faith and their hostility was neutralised.

 

لَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:8]

Fairness and equity are made obligatory in dealing with every creature of Allah whatever his beliefs may be, unless they exceed all bounds and come out to destroy the faith and the faithful.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Islam enjoins kindness, fairplay and justice to non-violent non-muslims.

 

إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَىٰ إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَنْ تَوَلَّوْهُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:9] (see commentary for verse 8)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ ۖ وَآتُوهُمْ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تَنْكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ وَاسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ۖ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:10]

Under the treaty of Hudaybiya [see Fat-h: 1 clause (ii) and (iii),] whosoever wished to join the Holy Prophet had the liberty to do so, but if claimed back by the guardian should be returned. A party of men and women came to the Holy Prophet and embraced Islam among whom was Saba daughter of Harith. Her husband came and demanded her return under clause (iii). But as the Quraysh had already broken the treaty, some instructions were necessary as to what should be done in such circumstances. Muslim women married to pagan husbands were oppressed for their faith and some of them came to Madina as refugees. After this verse, they were not to be resumed to the custody of their pagan husbands, as the marriage of believing women with non-muslims is held to be dissolved if the husbands do not accept Islam. In order to give no room of complaint to the pagans, the dower they had given on marriage should be repaid to the husband.

Islam recognises the change of faith as one of the causes of separation.

The believers are told to examine women who come to them as fugitives from the idolaters and find out their real and inner motives that they are prompted by the sole desire of serving Islam and of saving their faith, and are not pretenders. The examination should be directed, among other things, to the points mentioned in verse 12. They were required

(i) not to worship any god save one true God, Allah;

(u) not to steal;

(iii) not to indulge in sex outside the marriage tie;

(iv) not to commit infanticide,

(v) not to disobey the laws and principles of Islam.

Ma arjulihanna literally means “not to utter slander which they have forged between their hands and feet”, which implies the practice of ascribing their spurious (illegitimate) children to their husbands.

La yaqtulna awladahunna (not to kill their children) also refers to abortion.

 

وَإِنْ فَاتَكُمْ شَيْءٌ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكُمْ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبْتُمْ فَآتُوا الَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتْ أَزْوَاجُهُمْ مِثْلَ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي أَنْتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:11] (see commentary for verse 10)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَنْ لَا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْرِقْنَ وَلَا يَزْنِينَ وَلَا يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ وَلَا يَأْتِينَ بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ وَلَا يَعْصِينَكَ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ ۙ فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:12] (see commentary for verse 10)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَوَلَّوْا قَوْمًا غَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ قَدْ يَئِسُوا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ كَمَا يَئِسَ الْكُفَّارُ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْقُبُورِ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:13]

See commentary of Mujadilah: 14 and verses 1 to 3 of this surah for not turning to disbelievers for friendship.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The last portion of this verse asserts that to believe that the people of the grave have no existence at all and are just dust and decayed bones is kufr (infidelity).

 
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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