AL-RŪM

The Byzantines

الروم

Meccan (surah 30 • 60 ayahs)

»The surah that mentions the defeat of THE BYZANTINES and the divine promise of their forthcoming victory in several years—and in prophesying this, implying martial triumph for the Muslims over their idolatrous adversaries at the same time. The surah is occasioned by the celebration of the idol-worshipping opponents of the prophet at the new of the Byzantine defeat by the Persians, for they drew an analogy between themselves and the fire-worshipping Persians as defenders of polytheism in opposition to the monotheism of the Muslims and Byzantine Christians. It derives its name from verse 2 which mentions “Byzantium” (al-Rūm). The surah opens with a reference to the defeat of the Byzantines at the hands of the Persians (613–14 CE) in Syria, and the subsequent victory of the Byzantines in 624 CE. The surah urges people to reflect on the creation of themselves, the heavens and earth, and all God’s wonders. God’s power to give life to a barren land is repeated as an indication both of His ability to raise the dead and of His mercy to mankind. The disbelievers are warned to believe before it is too late; the Prophet is urged to persevere and to ignore the taunts of the disbelievers.«

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,

THE ALL-BENEFICENT, THE ALL-MERCIFUL.

1

القرآن:

الم

TRANSLATION:

Alif, Lām, Mīm.

2

القرآن:

غلبت الروم

TRANSLATION:

Byzantium has been vanquished

3

القرآن:

في أدنى الأرض وهم من بعد غلبهم سيغلبون

TRANSLATION:

in a nearby territory, but following their defeat they will be victors

4

القرآن:

في بضع سنين ۗ لله الأمر من قبل ومن بعد ۚ ويومئذ يفرح المؤمنون

TRANSLATION:

in a few years. All command belongs to Allah, before and after, and on that day the faithful will rejoice

5

القرآن:

بنصر الله ۚ ينصر من يشاء ۖ وهو العزيز الرحيم

TRANSLATION:

at Allah’s help. He helps whomever He wishes, and He is the All-mighty, the All-merciful.

6

القرآن:

وعد الله ۖ لا يخلف الله وعده ولكن أكثر الناس لا يعلمون

TRANSLATION:

[This is] a promise of Allah: Allah does not break His promise, but most people do not know.

7

القرآن:

يعلمون ظاهرا من الحياة الدنيا وهم عن الآخرة هم غافلون

TRANSLATION:

They know just an outward aspect of the life of the world, but they are oblivious of the Hereafter.

8

القرآن:

أولم يتفكروا في أنفسهم ۗ ما خلق الله السماوات والأرض وما بينهما إلا بالحق وأجل مسمى ۗ وإن كثيرا من الناس بلقاء ربهم لكافرون

TRANSLATION:

Have they not reflected in their own souls? Allah did not create the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them except with reason and for a specified term. Indeed many of the people disbelieve in the encounter with their Lord.

9

القرآن:

أولم يسيروا في الأرض فينظروا كيف كان عاقبة الذين من قبلهم ۚ كانوا أشد منهم قوة وأثاروا الأرض وعمروها أكثر مما عمروها وجاءتهم رسلهم بالبينات ۖ فما كان الله ليظلمهم ولكن كانوا أنفسهم يظلمون

TRANSLATION:

Have they not traveled in the land so that they may observe how was the fate of those who were before them? They were more powerful than them, and they plowed the earth and developed it more than they have developed it. Their apostles brought them manifest proofs. So it was not Allah who wronged them, but it was they who used to wrong themselves.

10

القرآن:

ثم كان عاقبة الذين أساءوا السوأى أن كذبوا بآيات الله وكانوا بها يستهزئون

TRANSLATION:

Then the fate of those who committed misdeeds was that they denied the signs of Allah and they used to deride them.

11

القرآن:

الله يبدأ الخلق ثم يعيده ثم إليه ترجعون

TRANSLATION:

Allah originates the creation, then He will bring it back, then you will be brought back to Him.

12

القرآن:

ويوم تقوم الساعة يبلس المجرمون

TRANSLATION:

And when the Hour sets in, the guilty will despair.

13

القرآن:

ولم يكن لهم من شركائهم شفعاء وكانوا بشركائهم كافرين

TRANSLATION:

None of those whom they ascribed as partners [to Allah] will intercede for them, and they will disavow their partners.1

Or ‘though they had been faithless for the sake of their partners [i.e. their false gods].’

14

القرآن:

ويوم تقوم الساعة يومئذ يتفرقون

TRANSLATION:

The day the Hour sets in, they will be divided on that day:

15

القرآن:

فأما الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات فهم في روضة يحبرون

TRANSLATION:

As for those who have faith and do righteous deeds, they shall be in a garden, rejoicing.

16

القرآن:

وأما الذين كفروا وكذبوا بآياتنا ولقاء الآخرة فأولئك في العذاب محضرون

TRANSLATION:

But as for those who were faithless and denied Our signs and the encounter of the Hereafter, they will be brought to the punishment.

17

القرآن:

فسبحان الله حين تمسون وحين تصبحون

TRANSLATION:

So glorify Allah when you enter evening and when you rise at dawn.

18

القرآن:

وله الحمد في السماوات والأرض وعشيا وحين تظهرون

TRANSLATION:

To Him belongs all praise in the heavens and the earth, at nightfall and when you enter noontime.

19

القرآن:

يخرج الحي من الميت ويخرج الميت من الحي ويحيي الأرض بعد موتها ۚ وكذلك تخرجون

TRANSLATION:

He brings forth the living from the dead, and brings forth the dead from the living, and revives the earth after its death. Likewise you [too] shall be raised [from the dead].

20

القرآن:

ومن آياته أن خلقكم من تراب ثم إذا أنتم بشر تنتشرون

TRANSLATION:

Of His signs is that He created you from dust, then, behold, you are humans scattering [all over]!

21

القرآن:

ومن آياته أن خلق لكم من أنفسكم أزواجا لتسكنوا إليها وجعل بينكم مودة ورحمة ۚ إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يتفكرون

TRANSLATION:

And of His signs is that He created for you mates from your own selves that you may take comfort in them, and He ordained affection and mercy between you. There are indeed signs in that for a people who reflect.

22

القرآن:

ومن آياته خلق السماوات والأرض واختلاف ألسنتكم وألوانكم ۚ إن في ذلك لآيات للعالمين

TRANSLATION:

Among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colours. There are indeed signs in that for those who know.

23

القرآن:

ومن آياته منامكم بالليل والنهار وابتغاؤكم من فضله ۚ إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يسمعون

TRANSLATION:

And of His signs is your sleep by night and day, and your pursuit of His grace. There are indeed signs in that for a people who listen.

24

القرآن:

ومن آياته يريكم البرق خوفا وطمعا وينزل من السماء ماء فيحيي به الأرض بعد موتها ۚ إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يعقلون

TRANSLATION:

And of His signs is that He shows you the lightning, arousing fear and hope, and He sends down water from the sky, and with it revives the earth after its death. There are indeed signs in that for a people who apply reason.

25

القرآن:

ومن آياته أن تقوم السماء والأرض بأمره ۚ ثم إذا دعاكم دعوة من الأرض إذا أنتم تخرجون

TRANSLATION:

And of His signs is that the sky and the earth stand by His command, and then, when He calls you forth from the earth, behold, you will come forth.

26

القرآن:

وله من في السماوات والأرض ۖ كل له قانتون

TRANSLATION:

To Him belongs whoever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient to Him.

27

القرآن:

وهو الذي يبدأ الخلق ثم يعيده وهو أهون عليه ۚ وله المثل الأعلى في السماوات والأرض ۚ وهو العزيز الحكيم

TRANSLATION:

It is He who originates the creation, and then He will bring it back —and that is more simple for Him. His is the loftiest description in the heavens and the earth. And He is the All-mighty, the All-wise.

28

القرآن:

ضرب لكم مثلا من أنفسكم ۖ هل لكم من ما ملكت أيمانكم من شركاء في ما رزقناكم فأنتم فيه سواء تخافونهم كخيفتكم أنفسكم ۚ كذلك نفصل الآيات لقوم يعقلون

TRANSLATION:

He draws for you an example from yourselves: Do you have among your slaves any partners [who may share] in what We have provided you, so that you are equal in its respect, and you revere them as you revere one another?1 Thus do We elaborate2 the signs for a people who apply reason.

Or ‘revere your own folks.’

Or ‘articulate.’

29

القرآن:

بل اتبع الذين ظلموا أهواءهم بغير علم ۖ فمن يهدي من أضل الله ۖ وما لهم من ناصرين

TRANSLATION:

Rather the wrongdoers follow their own desires without any knowledge. So who will guide those whom Allah has led astray? They will have no helpers.

30

القرآن:

فأقم وجهك للدين حنيفا ۚ فطرت الله التي فطر الناس عليها ۚ لا تبديل لخلق الله ۚ ذلك الدين القيم ولكن أكثر الناس لا يعلمون

TRANSLATION:

So set your heart on the religion as a people of pure faith, the origination of Allah according to which He originated mankind (There is no altering Allah’s creation; that is the upright religion, but most people do not know.)

31

القرآن:

۞ منيبين إليه واتقوه وأقيموا الصلاة ولا تكونوا من المشركين

TRANSLATION:

—turning to Him in penitence, and be wary of Him, and maintain the prayer, and do not be among the polytheists

32

القرآن:

من الذين فرقوا دينهم وكانوا شيعا ۖ كل حزب بما لديهم فرحون

TRANSLATION:

—of those who split up their religion and became sects: each faction exulting in what it possessed.

33

القرآن:

وإذا مس الناس ضر دعوا ربهم منيبين إليه ثم إذا أذاقهم منه رحمة إذا فريق منهم بربهم يشركون

TRANSLATION:

When distress befalls people, they supplicate their Lord, turning to Him in penitence. Then, when He lets them taste His mercy, behold, a part of them ascribe partners to their Lord,

34

القرآن:

ليكفروا بما آتيناهم ۚ فتمتعوا فسوف تعلمون

TRANSLATION:

being ungrateful toward what We have given them. So let them enjoy. Soon they will know!

35

القرآن:

أم أنزلنا عليهم سلطانا فهو يتكلم بما كانوا به يشركون

TRANSLATION:

Have We sent down to them any authority which might speak of what they associate with Him?

36

القرآن:

وإذا أذقنا الناس رحمة فرحوا بها ۖ وإن تصبهم سيئة بما قدمت أيديهم إذا هم يقنطون

TRANSLATION:

And when We let people taste [Our] mercy, they exult in it; but should an ill visit them because of what their hands have sent ahead, behold, they become despondent!

37

القرآن:

أولم يروا أن الله يبسط الرزق لمن يشاء ويقدر ۚ إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يؤمنون

TRANSLATION:

Do they not see that Allah expands the provision for whomever He wishes, and tightens it? There are indeed signs in that for a people who have faith.

38

القرآن:

فآت ذا القربى حقه والمسكين وابن السبيل ۚ ذلك خير للذين يريدون وجه الله ۖ وأولئك هم المفلحون

TRANSLATION:

Give the relative his right, and the needy and the traveller [as well]. That is better for those who seek Allah’s pleasure, and it is they who are the felicitous.

39

القرآن:

وما آتيتم من ربا ليربو في أموال الناس فلا يربو عند الله ۖ وما آتيتم من زكاة تريدون وجه الله فأولئك هم المضعفون

TRANSLATION:

That which you give in usury in order that it may increase people’s wealth does not increase with Allah. But what you pay as zakāt seeking Allah’s pleasure —it is they who will be given a manifold increase.

40

القرآن:

الله الذي خلقكم ثم رزقكم ثم يميتكم ثم يحييكم ۖ هل من شركائكم من يفعل من ذلكم من شيء ۚ سبحانه وتعالى عما يشركون

TRANSLATION:

It is Allah who created you and then He provided for you, then He makes you die, then He will bring you to life. Is there anyone among your partners who does anything of that kind? Immaculate is He and exalted above [having] any partners that they ascribe [to Him]!

41

القرآن:

ظهر الفساد في البر والبحر بما كسبت أيدي الناس ليذيقهم بعض الذي عملوا لعلهم يرجعون

TRANSLATION:

Corruption has appeared in land and sea because of the doings of the people’s hands, that He may make them taste something of what they have done, so that they may come back.

42

القرآن:

قل سيروا في الأرض فانظروا كيف كان عاقبة الذين من قبل ۚ كان أكثرهم مشركين

TRANSLATION:

Say, ‘Travel over the land and then observe how was the fate of those who were before [you], most of whom were polytheists.’

43

القرآن:

فأقم وجهك للدين القيم من قبل أن يأتي يوم لا مرد له من الله ۖ يومئذ يصدعون

TRANSLATION:

So set your heart on the upright religion, before there comes a day irrevocable from Allah. On that day they shall be split [into various groups].1

See 39:71, 73; 56:7-56.

44

القرآن:

من كفر فعليه كفره ۖ ومن عمل صالحا فلأنفسهم يمهدون

TRANSLATION:

Whoever is faithless shall face the consequences of his faithlessness, and those who act righteously only prepare for their own souls,

45

القرآن:

ليجزي الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات من فضله ۚ إنه لا يحب الكافرين

TRANSLATION:

that He may reward those who have faith and do righteous deeds out of His grace. Indeed He does not like the faithless.

46

القرآن:

ومن آياته أن يرسل الرياح مبشرات وليذيقكم من رحمته ولتجري الفلك بأمره ولتبتغوا من فضله ولعلكم تشكرون

TRANSLATION:

And of His signs is that He sends the winds as bearers of good news and to let you taste of His mercy, and that the ships may sail by His command, and that you may seek of His grace, and so that you may give [Him] thanks.

47

القرآن:

ولقد أرسلنا من قبلك رسلا إلى قومهم فجاءوهم بالبينات فانتقمنا من الذين أجرموا ۖ وكان حقا علينا نصر المؤمنين

TRANSLATION:

Certainly We sent apostles to their people before you, and they brought them manifest proofs. Then We took vengeance upon those who were guilty, and it was a must for Us to help the faithful.

48

القرآن:

الله الذي يرسل الرياح فتثير سحابا فيبسطه في السماء كيف يشاء ويجعله كسفا فترى الودق يخرج من خلاله ۖ فإذا أصاب به من يشاء من عباده إذا هم يستبشرون

TRANSLATION:

It is Allah who sends the winds. Then they raise a cloud, then He spreads it as He wishes in the sky, and forms it into fragments, whereat you see the rain issuing from its midst. Then, when He strikes with it whomever of His servants that He wishes, behold, they rejoice;

49

القرآن:

وإن كانوا من قبل أن ينزل عليهم من قبله لمبلسين

TRANSLATION:

and indeed they had, before it was sent down upon them, been despondent earlier.

50

القرآن:

فانظر إلى آثار رحمت الله كيف يحيي الأرض بعد موتها ۚ إن ذلك لمحيي الموتى ۖ وهو على كل شيء قدير

TRANSLATION:

So observe the effects of Allah’s mercy: how He revives the earth after its death! Indeed He is the reviver of the dead, and He has power over all things.

51

القرآن:

ولئن أرسلنا ريحا فرأوه مصفرا لظلوا من بعده يكفرون

TRANSLATION:

And if We send a wind and they see it1 turn yellow, they will surely become ungrateful after that.2

That is, their tillage, fields and orchards.

That is, after they have been joyous on Allah’s reviving the dead earth and turning it green.

52

القرآن:

فإنك لا تسمع الموتى ولا تسمع الصم الدعاء إذا ولوا مدبرين

TRANSLATION:

Indeed you cannot make the dead hear, nor can you make the deaf hear the call when they turn their backs [upon you],

53

القرآن:

وما أنت بهاد العمي عن ضلالتهم ۖ إن تسمع إلا من يؤمن بآياتنا فهم مسلمون

TRANSLATION:

nor can you lead the blind out of their error. You can make hear only those who have faith in Our signs, and thus have submitted.

54

القرآن:

۞ الله الذي خلقكم من ضعف ثم جعل من بعد ضعف قوة ثم جعل من بعد قوة ضعفا وشيبة ۚ يخلق ما يشاء ۖ وهو العليم القدير

TRANSLATION:

It is Allah who created you from [a state of] weakness, then He gave you power after weakness. Then, after power, He ordained weakness and old age: He creates whatever He wishes, and He is the All-knowing, the All-powerful.

55

القرآن:

ويوم تقوم الساعة يقسم المجرمون ما لبثوا غير ساعة ۚ كذلك كانوا يؤفكون

TRANSLATION:

And on the day when the Hour sets in the guilty will swear that they had remained only for an hour. That is how they were used to lying [in the world].

56

القرآن:

وقال الذين أوتوا العلم والإيمان لقد لبثتم في كتاب الله إلى يوم البعث ۖ فهذا يوم البعث ولكنكم كنتم لا تعلمون

TRANSLATION:

But those who were given knowledge and faith will say, ‘Certainly you remained in Allah’s Book1 until the Day of Resurrection. This is the Day of Resurrection, but you did not know.’

That is, in the Preserved Tablet. Cf. 56:78.

57

القرآن:

فيومئذ لا ينفع الذين ظلموا معذرتهم ولا هم يستعتبون

TRANSLATION:

On that day the excuses of the wrongdoers will not benefit them, nor will they be asked to propitiate [Allah].

58

القرآن:

ولقد ضربنا للناس في هذا القرآن من كل مثل ۚ ولئن جئتهم بآية ليقولن الذين كفروا إن أنتم إلا مبطلون

TRANSLATION:

Certainly we have drawn for mankind in this Qurʾān every [kind of] parable. Indeed if you bring them a sign,1 the faithless will surely say, ‘You are nothing but fabricators!’

That is, a miracle.

59

القرآن:

كذلك يطبع الله على قلوب الذين لا يعلمون

TRANSLATION:

Thus does Allah seal the hearts of those who do not know.

60

القرآن:

فاصبر إن وعد الله حق ۖ ولا يستخفنك الذين لا يوقنون

TRANSLATION:

So be patient! Allah’s promise is indeed true. And do not let yourself be upset by those who have no conviction.

Source:al-quran.info


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