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Request: Sura 9 Aya 1 to 129

بَرَاءَةٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:1]

Bara-at implies freedom from obligation and uncompromising severance of relations with the infidels. Please refer to the introduction of this surah.

 

فَسِيحُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ۙ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْزِي الْكَافِرِينَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:2] (see commentary for verse 1)

وَأَذَانٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ۙ وَرَسُولُهُ ۚ فَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:3]

The epithet “great” is only added to distinguish hajj from umra. Every hajj is called hajj al akbar and umra is called hajj al asghar. The verses of al Bara-at were recited on the occasion of hajj in 9 Hijra, when a large number of pagans were present in Ka-bah. From 10 Hijra their entry into Ka-bah had been totally banned. Allah and the Holy Prophet have severed all connections with the polytheists who had deliberately and persistently violated the pledges and acted treacherously.

 

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَنْقُصُوكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَمْ يُظَاهِرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ أَحَدًا فَأَتِمُّوا إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَىٰ مُدَّتِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:4]

Fulfilling all obligations even to non-muslims who had not proved traitors was enjoined as a cardinal principle. The Muslims were commanded to fight against those infidels who violated the pledges and acted treacherously, in order to destroy the power base of evil.

 

فَإِذَا انْسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِنْ تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:5]

The command to fight against the perfidious and treacherous group of infidels who persistently violated the treaties and tried to destroy peace and security, was to restore law and order in the society. The command was not general but only refers to particular groups of the Makkan idolaters who were notorious offenders. They used to harass the Muslims whenever they found them helpless and when overpowered prayed for amnesty by making treaties which they used to break before their ink was dried.

When war becomes inevitable it must be fought with vigour. It may take the form of slaughter, or capture, or siege or ambush, but even then there is room for repentance and amendment, and if that takes place forgiveness is enjoined for the establishment of peace and harmony.

 

وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّىٰ يَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ{6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:6]

The injunction to give asylum to those enemies who seek protection is to provide them opportunities for hearing the true message of Allah, so that they may see the light of reason and accept the true religion of Allah. It is the highest form of tolerance.

It is said that after hearing the verses of this surah from Ali ibn abi Talib some of the pagans asked him if they went to the Holy Prophet to know about Islam would they be killed? In reply Ali recited this verse.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Islam enjoins upon its followers to give people every kind of facility to hear and understand the word of Allah. No other scripture contains such a provision for those who do not believe in the faith it propagates. The pagans of Makka, the worst enemies of Allah, were allowed to enjoy protection so that they might first know the teachings of the religion of Allah and then decide about their future conduct.

 

كَيْفَ يَكُونُ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ عَهْدٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَعِنْدَ رَسُولِهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ عِنْدَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ فَمَا اسْتَقَامُوا لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُوا لَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:7]

More emphasis has been laid on that which has been said in the preceding verses about the fulfilment of promises and covenants and under what circumstances they can be treated as cancelled. The treacherous trend and tendency of the polytheists necessarily urged them to break pacts, destroy good faith, barter away the words of Allah for a petty price, and to have no regard for kinship or treaties with the believers. They had transgressed all bounds, therefore severance of relations with them became necessary, yet those who repented and came into the fold of the true faith were not only considered for forgiveness but accepted as brothers in faith.

At all events the believers have been reminded to safeguard themselves against evil with full awareness of Allah’s commands and laws.

 

كَيْفَ وَإِنْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ لَا يَرْقُبُوا فِيكُمْ إِلًّا وَلَا ذِمَّةً ۚ يُرْضُونَكُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتَأْبَىٰ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ{8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:8] (see commentary for verse 7)

اشْتَرَوْا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا فَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ سَاءَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:9] (see commentary for verse 7)

لَا يَرْقُبُونَ فِي مُؤْمِنٍ إِلًّا وَلَا ذِمَّةً ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُعْتَدُونَ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:10] (see commentary for verse 7)

فَإِنْ تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ ۗ وَنُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:11]

وَإِنْ نَكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ فَقَاتِلُوا أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ ۙ إِنَّهُمْ لَا أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنْتَهُونَ{12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:12]

The idolaters not only broke their pledge after giving their word but also reviled Allah’s religion. Against such specimens of faithlessness (leaders of infidelity) fighting has been enjoined.

According to the Holy Prophet, a-immatal kufr (leaders of infidelity) are also those who opposed and fought against the divinely commissioned Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt.

The Holy Prophet said:

“O Ali you will fight against three types of apostates-nakithin (oath-breakers), qasitin (wrongdoers), and marigin (strayed ones).”

Ali ibn abi Talib had recited this verse at the battle of Jamal and quoted the above noted prophecy of the Holy Prophet.

 

أَلَا تُقَاتِلُونَ قَوْمًا نَكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ وَهَمُّوا بِإِخْرَاجِ الرَّسُولِ وَهُمْ بَدَءُوكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۚ أَتَخْشَوْنَهُمْ ۚ فَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَنْ تَخْشَوْهُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:13]

In view of the shameless disregard of treaties by the enemy, their underhand plots to discredit the Holy Prophet and turn him out of Madina as he had been turned out of Makka, the believers have been asked to fight against the evil of polytheism and prove their sincere faith by test and trial, struggle and sacrifice. Allah shall punish them by the hands of those believers who have striven hard in the cause of Allah and have not allied themselves ever with any one save Allah and His Prophet.

It was Ali who worked wonders as yadullah (the hand of Allah) in all the battles fought by the Holy Prophet. See commentary of al Ma-idah: 54. When evil was destroyed (through Ali), many of those who were enticed by evil came into the fold of truth and righteousness-“Allah turns (in mercy) to whom He pleases.”

 

قَاتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنْصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُؤْمِنِينَ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:14] (see commentary for verse 13)

وَيُذْهِبْ غَيْظَ قُلُوبِهِمْ ۗ وَيَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:15] (see commentary for verse 13)

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَنْ تُتْرَكُوا وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنْكُمْ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَا رَسُولِهِ وَلَا الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:16] (see commentary for verse 13)

مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَنْ يَعْمُرُوا مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ شَاهِدِينَ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ بِالْكُفْرِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَفِي النَّارِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:17]

After the battle of Badr Ali asked Abbas, the uncle of the Holy Prophet, to tell him as to how could he come to fight against his own flesh and blood? Abbas replied: “You have pointed out our evil but have not taken into consideration our virtues-we maintained the Ka-bah, supplied water to the pilgrims, and set captives free.”

This verse says that good deeds earn no profit for a polytheist who opposes Allah and His Prophet.

Ya-muru (from amara-to inhabit or visit) as applied to a masjid implies-to keep in a good state or in repair as well as to make it function purposefully.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

It has been made clear that it is the light of spiritual teachings of Islam in the hearts and minds of the worshippers of Allah which keeps the place of worship alive, not the outward grandeur nor the frequent visits of the visitors who come to perform acts of worship as mere rituals. Islam teaches man to keep in mind the fact that the whole world is like a masjid where every moment and every activity should be in the service of Allah.

 

إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ ۖ فَعَسَىٰ أُولَٰئِكَ أَنْ يَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:18]

It is with reference to the superiority of Ahl ul Bayt, the ideal believers, as compared with those who boasted about their customary privileges that these verses were revealed.

Wahidi and Suyuti and other commentators have reported that one day Abbas ibn Abd al Muttalib and Talhah ibn Shaybah boasted with one another about their special privileges and honours. Talha said: “I am the keeper of the sacred Ka-bah and I have its keys in my charge.” Abbas said: “I am the trustee of the sacred well of Zamzam, and the privilege of supplying water to the pilgrims belongs to me.” Ali said: “I do not understand why you take pride in these things. I started saying my prayers seven years before you and I am a warrior who fights for the cause of Allah.” On that occasion verse 19 was revealed.

 

أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ لَا يَسْتَوُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:19] (see commentary for verse 18)

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ{20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:20] (see commentary for verse 18)

يُبَشِّرُهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِرَحْمَةٍ مِنْهُ وَرِضْوَانٍ وَجَنَّاتٍ لَهُمْ فِيهَا نَعِيمٌ مُقِيمٌ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:21] (see commentary for verse 18)

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:22] (see commentary for verse 18)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آبَاءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ إِنِ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:23]

قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:24]

Islam does not preach asceticism. Man is allowed to involve himself in his earthly ties and comforts, profits and gains, so far as his involvement does not hinder him from walking on the right path of Allah, but when the call of duty to the Lord of the worlds is made he must sacrifice all his worldly possessions, children and interests in the service of Allah and His cause, which alone earns for him the blissful spiritual life of the hereafter, not the material gains he has obtained in this world.

 

لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٍ ۙ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ ۙ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنْكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُمْ مُدْبِرِينَ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:25]

Immediately after the conquest of Makka, the pagan idolaters, under the command of Malik bin Awf, organised a great gathering of 4000 soldiers near Hunayn which is on the road to Tayf from Makka to make plans for attacking the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet, with a force of 12000, marched towards Hunayn. For the first time the Muslims had tremendous odds in their favour. On leaving the narrow oasis of Hunayn the road enters winding gorges, suitable for ambuscades. As soon as the Muslim vanguard entered the hilly country, the enemy fell upon them with full fury and caused havoc with their arrows from their places of concealment. Many were slain, and many ran away from the battle as they had done in the battle of Uhad. Those who were acclaimed as the heroes of Islam, after the departure of the Holy Prophet from this world, were among the deserters.

Abu Qatada says:

“The Muslims took to flight. I was also among them. Suddenly I saw Umar ibn Khattab among those who were running away. I asked him: ‘What has happened?’ He said: ‘It is the will of Allah.'”(Sahih Bukhari Vol. 3, p. 45.)

According to some traditions Ali ibn abi Talib, Abbas ibn Abd al Muttalib, Abu Sufyan ibn Harith and Abdullah ibn Masud were the only four persons who stayed with the Holy Prophet. Some say there were ten persons who did not run away. Ali stood in front of the Holy Prophet and stopped every attack made by the enemy to slay him. The Holy Prophet called those who were deserting to come back. Some of them returned and joined Ali to launch a counter attack on the enemy. When Ali killed Abu Jarul, the standard bearer of the enemy army, a general retreat began to take place among the invaders, which soon turned into chaos and then flight. In this way a most crushing defeat was inflicted on the enemy.

After the battle, on the instructions of the Holy Prophet, the spoils of war taken by the Muslims, were returned to those who embraced Islam. Some refused to comply with his orders. In such cases the Holy Prophet compensated them.

When one companion protested that the Holy Prophet had not done justice in the matter of distributing the spoils of war, some people wanted to kill him, but the Holy Prophet stopped them and said: “Wait. Such people, on their own, one day will go out of the true faith, then the best of men among you will kill him.” And that man was killed by Ali in the battle of Nahrawan.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The believers who stayed with the Holy Prophet on the day of Hunayn also received the divine tranquillity (sakinah), along with the Holy Prophet. In verse 40 of this surah it is said that the companion of the Holy Prophet in the cave was deprived of this tranquillity.

 

ثُمَّ أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَنْزَلَ جُنُودًا لَمْ تَرَوْهَا وَعَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:26] (see commentary for verse 25)

ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:27] (see commentary for verse 25)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَٰذَا ۚ وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إِنْ شَاءَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:28]

The infidels are unclean both literally and metaphorically. It refers to their physical uncleanliness as well as to their impure hearts and souls. According to the holy Imams anything wet touched by an idolater should not be used unless properly purified.

When the unclean pagans were debarred from entering the sacred precinct of Ka-bah, the Muslims began to worry about the profits from trade and commerce, but Allah assured them that their welfare and economic position will not suffer. This actually happened.

 

قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّىٰ يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:29]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to this verse a disbeliever, or a polytheist, or an infidel (kafir) is he who (i) does not believe in Allah, nor in His oneness and unity, but associates other created beings as partners or co-equals with Him (ii) does not believe in the day of judgement (iii) does not follow what Allah and His Prophet have enjoined (iv) does not accept and submit to the true religion.

As the above noted negations are correlative and interrelated, one is the necessary consequence of the other. Apart from the corrupted and distorted beliefs of the people of the book (described in the succeeding verses) their denial and rejection of the true religion of Allah, Islam, is sufficient to put them in the category of disbelievers. The Jews and the Christians are the people of the book, and according to the jurists of the school of Ahl ul Bayt Zoroastrians are also included in the people of the book, because in verse 17 of al Hajj they have been grouped with the Jews and the Christians, and the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali also treated them in the same manner as the Jews and the Christians were treated.

Allah enjoins upon the believers to fight against the disbelievers and the people of the book until they are subdued and agree to pay jizyah (the root meaning is compensation) with willing submission to live under the protection of Islam, enjoying personal liberty of conscience, free to profess and practice their own faith, not interfering with the preaching and progress of Islam. They were exempted from military service, therefore in effect jizyah was a nominal compensation paid by them in return for the protection of their property and lives for which the Islamic government was responsible .

It was a necessary step that had to be taken in view of the treacherous attitude of the Jews and the pagans who had been harassing and creating chaos all the time during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. When defeated they readily made pacts to avoid the consequences of the defeat, but always jumped at every opportunity to kill the Holy Prophet and the believers and destroy the progress of Islam by breaking promises and covenants and hatching secret schemes.

 

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:30]

In these verses the corrupted and distorted beliefs of the Jews and the Christians have been pointed out, because of which they have been grouped with idolaters in the preceding verse.

Please refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 64.

 

اتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:31] (see commentary for verse 30)

يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَيَأْبَى اللَّهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يُتِمَّ نُورَهُ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:32]

False teachers and preachers try to distort the message of Allah by the false words (conjectures) of their mouths, so that they may put out the “light”, for they are people of darkness and ignorance, but Allah has perfected His light- light implies the light of guidance completed and perfected at Ghadir Khum by declaring the wilayah of Imam Ali (see commentary of Ma-idah: 67).

Through the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, Allah made His (true) religion a signal success. For the men of understanding the true teaching of Islam is the best code of law for human society. The ultimate triumph of Islam will be witnessed when Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al Mahdi al Qa-im, the last true successor of the Holy Prophet, will come in this world, with the permission of Allah, to unite the whole mankind as a single community, to live in peace and harmony, doing away with injustice, exploitation and polytheism, guided by the divine laws made by Allah. The divine laws have been perfected and completed and named Islam, after which the laws given to other people in the days of earlier prophets, preceding the Holy Prophet, became inoperative and subservient to Islamic laws. In theory and practice Islamic laws and teachings surpass all creeds. However much the polytheists and the hypocrites may try to stop the ultimate victory of Islam under the guidance of the living Imam, the al Qa-im, it is certain to take place. Verse 28 of Fat-h and verse 9 of Saff also give the glad tidings of the ultimate victory of Islam when al Qa-im comes in this world.

Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Abu Yula, Hakim, Suyuti, Tabarani, Darqatni, Abu Nu-aym, Khatib and Ibn Asakir and many others have accepted the fact of the ultimate rule of Imam Mahdi, who is the last of the twelve successors of the Holy Prophet from among his Ahl ul Bayt. Even the precursor of Wahabi sect, Ibn Taymiyah, has accepted as true all the traditions pertaining to the “reign of Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al Mahdi” (refer to his book “Majmu-atul Fatawa”.)

Also refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 124.

 

هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:33] (see commentary for verse 32)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ الْأَحْبَارِ وَالرُّهْبَانِ لَيَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلَا يُنْفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَبَشِّرْهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:34]

Gold and silver means wealth. Misuse of wealth and resources has been frequently condemned in the Quran. Treat yourself as the trustee of that which Allah has given to you. Do not acquire anything wrongfully or on false pretences, do not hoard or amass wealth for its own sake but use it freely for the good of the people; do not waste it for idle purposes or for ostentation. Pay zakat, khums and sadaqa. Abu Dhar al Ghaffari used to recite this verse before the rulers of his time. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 3, 177, 219 and 245; Ali Imran 116 and 180.

Verse 35 describes the penalties to be suffered by those who misuse wealth-for such misuse is as much a spiritual sin as any other kind of disobedience to Allah’s will.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The reward of our good deeds and the punishment of our bad deeds, done in this world, shall be blissful or painful in the life of the hereafter in such a way that the life of hereafter shall reflect the actions done in this world.

 

يَوْمَ يُحْمَىٰ عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَتُكْوَىٰ بِهَا جِبَاهُهُمْ وَجُنُوبُهُمْ وَظُهُورُهُمْ ۖ هَٰذَا مَا كَنَزْتُمْ لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ فَذُوقُوا مَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْنِزُونَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:35] (see commentary for verse 34)

إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ۚ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنْفُسَكُمْ ۚ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:36]

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 189, 190 and 194 for the lunar months and the four sacred months-Dhilqad, Dhilhijj, Muharram and Rajab and the orders to fight the enemies of Allah; and particularly to al Baqarah: 84, 97 and 98 for the persecution of the Ahl ul Bayt by the Muslim rulers. In the month of Rajab Imam Husayn was forced to leave his home and in the month of Muharram he was martyred. For details see the biography of Imam Husayn, the King of Martyrs, published by this Trust.

 

إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ ۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ ۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:37]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The pagans of Arabia used to observe a year of 13 months after two years to combine the solar and lunar years, due to which they had to transfer the observance of Muharram to the succeeding month, Safar. This verse condemns their interference with that which Allah has ordained.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انْفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُمْ بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:38]

The reference is to the defensive expedition of Tabuk in 9 Hijra, to counter the aggression by the Byzantine empire. The people who hesitated to follow the call of Tabuk were deterred by:

(i) a very long journey in the heat of the summer,

(ii) the fear of losing the fruit harvest, which was ripe for gathering,

(iii) the dread of a highly organised, large and formidable foe.

They have been reminded that the comforts of this life are little as compared with the hereafter. Those who hesitated on account of clinging to worldly gains were suffering from a spiritual disease, therefore they have been warned of severe punishment if they failed to obey the Holy Prophet. If a nation receives favours and fails to deserve them, it will be replaced by another, as has often happened in history.

 

إِلَّا تَنْفِرُوا يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلَا تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:39] (see commentary for verse 38)

إِلَّا تَنْصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللَّهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَنَا ۖ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا السُّفْلَىٰ ۗ وَكَلِمَةُ اللَّهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:40]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 207. As has been mentioned therein, inside the cave, the companion of the Holy Prophet, Abu Bakr, was frightened and had started crying in anguish when he heard the voices of the enemy. Then the Holy Prophet said:

“Do not fear. Allah is with us.”

Compare this fear to the tranquillity of Ali described in the commentary of verse 207 of al Baqarah which was revealed to honour and glorify Ali. It also points out the fact that wherever in the Quran those who received tranquillity (sakinah) from Allah have been mentioned Abu Bakr must be excluded because his fear has been historically recorded and referred to in this verse. “His companion” (sahibihi) and the “second of the two” imply no merit. See verse 37 of Kahf in which out of the two “mutual companions” one was a believer and the other was a disbeliever.

 

انْفِرُوا خِفَافًا وَثِقَالًا وَجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنْفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:41]

In these verses the arts and excuses of the hypocrites (who either watched the battles as unconcerned spectators from a safe distance or took to flight when, in their opinion, defeat was certain) have been exposed. If there had been booty in sight or an easy walk-over, they would gladly have come. All their oaths were false, and by taking the false oaths they destroyed their souls. They planned to stay in Madina to plunder the city and enslave the women and children in the absence of the Holy Prophet. When the Holy Prophet came to know their plot, he left Ali in Madina as his deputy. In utter frustration the hypocrites spread the vile rumour that Ali was not found suitable to accompany the Holy Prophet in the battle of Tabuk because he had started disliking Ali. Ali at once went to meet the Holy Prophet outside the city and informed him about the vilifying whispers of the hypocrites. The Holy Prophet replied: “O Ali! You are to me as Harun was to Musa, save that prophethood has terminated with me. You are my successor. Your flesh is my flesh, your blood is my blood, you and me are created from one light.”

The expedition of Tabuk ended without a fight, because the enemy forces did not come to the battlefield.

 

لَوْ كَانَ عَرَضًا قَرِيبًا وَسَفَرًا قَاصِدًا لَاتَّبَعُوكَ وَلَٰكِنْ بَعُدَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الشُّقَّةُ ۚ وَسَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ لَوِ اسْتَطَعْنَا لَخَرَجْنَا مَعَكُمْ يُهْلِكُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:42] (see commentary for verse 41)

عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْكَ لِمَ أَذِنْتَ لَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَتَعْلَمَ الْكَاذِبِينَ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:43]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Like verse 2 of Fat-h, the companions are addressed here through the Holy Prophet. The manner, mode and trend of expression is the same as in verse 1 of Tahrim or verse 68 of Anfal. The Holy Prophet had the option of giving permission (Nur: 62), and there was no prohibitory order prior to his action. He did not want to expose the hypocrites on his own, unless Allah condemns them as He does here and in other places.

 

لَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَنْ يُجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:44]

The sure faith of the true believers has been compared with the doubt of the disbelievers. Doubt takes away all stability of character and conduct. Faith makes a man firm in action, and cool and collected in mind.

 

إِنَّمَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَارْتَابَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِمْ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:45] (see commentary for verse 44)

وَلَوْ أَرَادُوا الْخُرُوجَ لَأَعَدُّوا لَهُ عُدَّةً وَلَٰكِنْ كَرِهَ اللَّهُ انْبِعَاثَهُمْ فَثَبَّطَهُمْ وَقِيلَ اقْعُدُوا مَعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:46] (see commentary for verse 44)

لَوْ خَرَجُوا فِيكُمْ مَا زَادُوكُمْ إِلَّا خَبَالًا وَلَأَوْضَعُوا خِلَالَكُمْ يَبْغُونَكُمُ الْفِتْنَةَ وَفِيكُمْ سَمَّاعُونَ لَهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:47]

A large number of hypocrites were with the Holy Prophet in the expedition of Tabuk, although most of them stayed at Madina, not only to create disorder and dissatisfaction but also to give report of all that was taking place to their comrades in Madina. Even in 9 Hijra a large number of hypocrites were present among the believers and were actively plotting to undermine the divine mission of the Holy Prophet. They successfully persuaded many a companion to run away from the battlefields-not only in Uhad, in the beginning, but also in Hunayn, almost in the end, but history written by their associates and followers do not mention them at all after the departure of the Holy Prophet from this world.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

There were hypocrites who stayed in Madina and refused to go with the Holy Prophet in the expedition of Tabuk. After the battle of Hunayn they were plotting to kill him at the first available opportunity. At the time when he was passing through a low land, while returning from the Tabuk expedition, twelve hypocrites tried to carry out their plot but failed, because in that very moment when they were about to strike, a lightning flashed and they ran away. The Holy Prophet disclosed their names to Hudhayfa and asked him to keep them as a secret.

 

لَقَدِ ابْتَغَوُا الْفِتْنَةَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَقَلَّبُوا لَكَ الْأُمُورَ حَتَّىٰ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:48] (see commentary for verse 47)

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ ائْذَنْ لِي وَلَا تَفْتِنِّي ۚ أَلَا فِي الْفِتْنَةِ سَقَطُوا ۗ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:49] (see commentary for verse 47)

إِنْ تُصِبْكَ حَسَنَةٌ تَسُؤْهُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تُصِبْكَ مُصِيبَةٌ يَقُولُوا قَدْ أَخَذْنَا أَمْرَنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَيَتَوَلَّوْا وَهُمْ فَرِحُونَ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:50] (see commentary for verse 47)

قُلْ لَنْ يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلَانَا ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:51]

A true believer bravely faces the consequences of misfortune, and offers thanks when he receives blessings and bounties. In all events he relies upon Allah. For the best example of total dependence on Allah study the events of Karbala in the “King of Martyrs” published by this Trust.

 

قُلْ هَلْ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَا إِلَّا إِحْدَى الْحُسْنَيَيْنِ ۖ وَنَحْنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمْ أَنْ يُصِيبَكُمُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابٍ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ أَوْ بِأَيْدِينَا ۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوا إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ مُتَرَبِّصُونَ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:52]

“Two glorious things” are victory or martyrdom.

 

قُلْ أَنْفِقُوا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا لَنْ يُتَقَبَّلَ مِنْكُمْ ۖ إِنَّكُمْ كُنْتُمْ قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:53]

The hypocrites, who used to plot secretly against the Holy Prophet and his mission, sometimes made a show of spending in the cause of Allah, but their reluctant spending was not accepted because they did not believe and their prayers were not earnest-nothing is acceptable to Allah which does not proceed from a pure, believing and sincere heart.

 

وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَنْ تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ وَلَا يَأْتُونَ الصَّلَاةَ إِلَّا وَهُمْ كُسَالَىٰ وَلَا يُنْفِقُونَ إِلَّا وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:54] (see commentary for verse 53)

فَلَا تُعْجِبْكَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُهُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمْ بِهَا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَتَزْهَقَ أَنْفُسُهُمْ وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ{55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:55]

The wealth and the children of the hypocrites, in reality, were a snare, so the believers were advised not to envy them. Their wealth filled them with pride, obscured their understanding and led them to their destruction. Their children either perished like themselves or adopted the true faith which they had fought against.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Material gains and children without spiritual purification (essential for true belief and obedience to Allah’s laws and the teachings of the Holy Prophet which are the only means for achieving deliverance and obtaining eternal happiness in the life of the hereafter) become a source of torment and agony.

 

وَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُمْ لَمِنْكُمْ وَمَا هُمْ مِنْكُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:56]

لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَأً أَوْ مَغَارَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلًا لَوَلَّوْا إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:57]

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَلْمِزُكَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ فَإِنْ أُعْطُوا مِنْهَا رَضُوا وَإِنْ لَمْ يُعْطَوْا مِنْهَا إِذَا هُمْ يَسْخَطُونَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:58]

On the authority of Bukhari, Nisa-i and other traditionists, it has been reported in Tafsir Durr al Manthur that while the Holy Prophet was distributing some spoils of war a man from the Banu Tamim, Dhul Khuyasarah, came and said: “O Messenger of Allah, please do justice.” The Holy Prophet replied: “Woe to you. Who would do justice if I am doing injustice?” Umar bin Khattab said: “O Messenger of Allah, give me permission to kill him.” The Holy Prophet said: “Leave him alone. There are men like him among you whose observance of prayers and fasting will make you feel small, but one day they will go out of the faith as an arrow leaves the bow. They are called mariqin. There will be discord among the Muslims and these men will revolt under the leadership of a man with one breast like a woman.” Abu Sayeed Khudhri says: “When Ali killed such people in the battle of Naharwan, I was with him. I saw the slain body of the man described by the Holy Prophet lying on the ground.”

 

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ رَضُوا مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَقَالُوا حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ سَيُؤْتِينَا اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَرَسُولُهُ إِنَّا إِلَى اللَّهِ رَاغِبُونَ{59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:59]

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۖ فَرِيضَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:60]

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 273.

 

وَمِنْهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِيَّ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٌ ۚ قُلْ أُذُنُ خَيْرٍ لَكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:61]

“Among them” refers to the Holy Prophet’s companions and followers. Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 159; Nisa: 115 and Anfal: 13.

Refer to page 51 and know that to hurt or displease the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt is to hurt and displease Allah. It will earn a grievous punishment.

 

يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ لَكُمْ لِيُرْضُوكُمْ وَاللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُرْضُوهُ إِنْ كَانُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:62]

أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّهُ مَنْ يُحَادِدِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَأَنَّ لَهُ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدًا فِيهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْخِزْيُ الْعَظِيمُ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:63]

This verse refers to those who defied the Holy Prophet in his lifetime, and after his departure from this world opposed his declaration made at Ghadir Khum (refer to the commentary of Ma-idah: 67), and in his last moments refused to give him pen and paper (refer to hadith al qirtas in the commentary of Nisa: 65).

 

يَحْذَرُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ أَنْ تُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُورَةٌ تُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلِ اسْتَهْزِئُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْرِجٌ مَا تَحْذَرُونَ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:64]

Refer to the commentary of verse 48 of this surah about the twelve hypocrites who wanted to kill the Holy Prophet. They were afraid lest a surah would be sent down to identify them.

 

وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ ۚ قُلْ أَبِاللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنْتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِئُونَ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:65]

Hypocrisy is infidelity. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 8 to 20.

The true believers have been described in verses 71 and 72.

Tirmidhi, Nisa-i and other traditionists relate that the Holy Prophet said: “O Ali, none will love you save a believer and none will bear ill-will against you save a hypocrite.” It is also reported by them that in the lifetime of the Holy Prophet people used to identify the true believers by their love for Ali and the hypocrites by the ill-will they showed against Ali.

According to Fat-hul Bari (Sharha Sahih Bukhari), Musnad ibn Hambal, Tarikh al Tabari and others A-isha hated Ali so much that she did not like to mention his name whenever she wanted to make a reference to him, nor she liked any one mentioning his name. At last she organised a revolt against him, fought a battle at Jaml but lost it miserably.

 

لَا تَعْتَذِرُوا قَدْ كَفَرْتُمْ بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنْ نَعْفُ عَنْ طَائِفَةٍ مِنْكُمْ نُعَذِّبْ طَائِفَةً بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُجْرِمِينَ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:66] (see commentary for verse 65)

الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ ۚ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمُنْكَرِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَقْبِضُونَ أَيْدِيَهُمْ ۚ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَنَسِيَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:67] (see commentary for verse 65)

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ هِيَ حَسْبُهُمْ ۚ وَلَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُقِيمٌ {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:68] (see commentary for verse 65)

كَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْكُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَكْثَرَ أَمْوَالًا وَأَوْلَادًا فَاسْتَمْتَعُوا بِخَلَاقِهِمْ فَاسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِخَلَاقِكُمْ كَمَا اسْتَمْتَعَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ بِخَلَاقِهِمْ وَخُضْتُمْ كَالَّذِي خَاضُوا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:69] (see commentary for verse 65)

أَلَمْ يَأْتِهِمْ نَبَأُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ قَوْمِ نُوحٍ وَعَادٍ وَثَمُودَ وَقَوْمِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَأَصْحَابِ مَدْيَنَ وَالْمُؤْتَفِكَاتِ ۚ أَتَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ۖ فَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:70] (see commentary for verse 65)

وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:71] (see commentary for verse 65)

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَمَسَاكِنَ طَيِّبَةً فِي جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ ۚ وَرِضْوَانٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:72] (see commentary for verse 65)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:73]

The order is to strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites with arms as well as with words and arguments.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Here and in verse 9 of Tahrim the Holy Prophet has been commanded to fight against the hypocrites as was being done against the disbelievers, but no war was waged against the hypocrites during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, nor in the times of the first three rulers. The order did not remain unattended, but was carried out by Ali as the Holy Prophet’s true successor (see introduction of this surah to know that the command of Allah could only be carried out by the Holy Prophet himself or by one who was from him) in fulfilment of his prophecy that Ali would fight and destroy the nakithin (oath breakers), qasitin(deviators) and mariqin (apostates).

 

يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ مَا قَالُوا وَلَقَدْ قَالُوا كَلِمَةَ الْكُفْرِ وَكَفَرُوا بَعْدَ إِسْلَامِهِمْ وَهَمُّوا بِمَا لَمْ يَنَالُوا ۚ وَمَا نَقَمُوا إِلَّا أَنْ أَغْنَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۚ فَإِنْ يَتُوبُوا يَكُ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ يَتَوَلَّوْا يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَا لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:74]

Please refer to the commentary of verse 48 of this surah about the twelve hypocrites who plotted to kill the Holy Prophet when he was returning from Tabuk.

 

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ عَاهَدَ اللَّهَ لَئِنْ آتَانَا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ لَنَصَّدَّقَنَّ وَلَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:75]

Tha-laba bin Hatib was a very poor man. He used to come to the masjid daily for prayer and used to ask the Holy Prophet to pray for his prosperity. The Holy Prophet told him that the little he had for which he could give thanks to Allah was better than that abundance which would make him forgetful of his duties to Allah, and it was better to follow the messenger of Allah and lead a simple life. But he insisted and promised that he would observe all the commands of Allah if he became rich. After a few days a very rich cousin of his died and he inherited all his wealth. Then he began to enjoy the new-found wealth and stopped to visit the masjid, and when he was asked to pay zakat, he replied that to collect zakat from the Muslims is like charging jizya to the non-Muslims. Then these verses were revealed.

It shows the trend and tendency of the hypocrites. Please refer to the commentary of verses 12 and 13 of Mujadilah for the niggardliness of the companions who refused to pay a small amount of charity when it was commanded that before asking a question from the Holy Prophet they had to pay it. None complied with this command save Ali.

 

فَلَمَّا آتَاهُمْ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ بَخِلُوا بِهِ وَتَوَلَّوْا وَهُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:76] (see commentary for verse 75)

فَأَعْقَبَهُمْ نِفَاقًا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يَلْقَوْنَهُ بِمَا أَخْلَفُوا اللَّهَ مَا وَعَدُوهُ وَبِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:77] (see commentary for verse 75)

أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَاهُمْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:78] (see commentary for verse 75)

الَّذِينَ يَلْمِزُونَ الْمُطَّوِّعِينَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ إِلَّا جُهْدَهُمْ فَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنْهُمْ ۙ سَخِرَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {79}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:79]

اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ أَوْ لَا تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِنْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً فَلَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ {80}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:80]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Holy Prophet did not ever think of asking forgiveness for the hypocrites and the disbelievers. Verses 2, 3 and 4 of Najm have laid down the indisputable principle-he errs not, nor is led astray; nor he speaks of his own inclination; it is but revelation revealed. He followed nothing but the divine guidance.

To lay emphasis on the impossibility of awarding pardon to the hypocrites and the infidels Allah prevents the Holy Prophet in this verse from asking forgiveness for them, by using the word seventy which according to the usage of Arabic language implies indefinitely much.

 

فَرِحَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ بِمَقْعَدِهِمْ خِلَافَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَكَرِهُوا أَنْ يُجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَالُوا لَا تَنْفِرُوا فِي الْحَرِّ ۗ قُلْ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ أَشَدُّ حَرًّا ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَفْقَهُونَ {81}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:81]

These verses refer to the hypocrites who stayed in Madina and refused to go with the Holy Prophet in the expedition of Tabuk.

 

فَلْيَضْحَكُوا قَلِيلًا وَلْيَبْكُوا كَثِيرًا جَزَاءً بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ {82}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:82] (see commentary for verse 81)

فَإِنْ رَجَعَكَ اللَّهُ إِلَىٰ طَائِفَةٍ مِنْهُمْ فَاسْتَأْذَنُوكَ لِلْخُرُوجِ فَقُلْ لَنْ تَخْرُجُوا مَعِيَ أَبَدًا وَلَنْ تُقَاتِلُوا مَعِيَ عَدُوًّا ۖ إِنَّكُمْ رَضِيتُمْ بِالْقُعُودِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ فَاقْعُدُوا مَعَ الْخَالِفِينَ {83}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:83] (see commentary for verse 81)

وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰ أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ مَاتَ أَبَدًا وَلَا تَقُمْ عَلَىٰ قَبْرِهِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ {84}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:84]

The prohibition is-not to pray for any hypocrite or infidel that dies, nor to stand at his grave. To pray for the believers or to stand at their graves is permissible. It was in vogue during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet and had never been forbidden. The story that the Holy Prophet attended the funeral prayers of Abdullah bin Obayy is doubtful, firstly because he died after the revelation of this verse (al Mizan vol. 9 page 385) and secondly on account of what has been stated in the commentary of verse 80 of this surah.

 

وَلَا تُعْجِبْكَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَأَوْلَادُهُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُعَذِّبَهُمْ بِهَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَتَزْهَقَ أَنْفُسُهُمْ وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ {85}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:85]

Refer to the commentary of verse 55 of this surah.

 

وَإِذَا أُنْزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَجَاهِدُوا مَعَ رَسُولِهِ اسْتَأْذَنَكَ أُولُو الطَّوْلِ مِنْهُمْ وَقَالُوا ذَرْنَا نَكُنْ مَعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ {86}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:86]

The possessors of opulence, in their utter cowardice and extreme impudence, used to stay at home like womenfolk; and because of their habits of cowardice and hypocrisy their hearts were sealed. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 8 to 20.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The verses of this surah, the last revealed in Madina, indicate that the number of the hypocrites was steadily increasing, and continued to multiply during the next two years, particularly after the covenant the Holy Prophet took from all the Muslims at Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Ma-idah: 67). It was due to their influence and growing power that even the close companions refused to comply with the order of the Holy Prophet when he asked for pen and paper to write down his final directions. See commentary of Nisa: 65 for hadith al qartas. Ibn Sad says that they also refused to accept Usamah ibn Zayd as their commander when the Holy Prophet asked all his companions including Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab to go to war under his leadership.

The Holy Prophet said:

“You opposed his father as you are opposing him. In my opinion his father deserved command more than others, and likewise he (Usamah) is more dear to me than others”. (Sahih Bukhari vol.2, p.283)

The hypocrites did not suddenly disappear after the Holy Prophet, as the Muslim historians give impression in their books, but took total control in their hands, deprived Ali and Fatimah and their children, the progeny of the Holy Prophet, of their rights, persecuted them and killed them during their long reign.

 

رَضُوا بِأَنْ يَكُونُوا مَعَ الْخَوَالِفِ وَطُبِعَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ {87}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:87] (see commentary for verse 86)

لَٰكِنِ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ جَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الْخَيْرَاتُ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ{88}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:88]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 2 to 5.

 

أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ {89}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:89] (see commentary for verse 88)

وَجَاءَ الْمُعَذِّرُونَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ لِيُؤْذَنَ لَهُمْ وَقَعَدَ الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ سَيُصِيبُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {90}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:90]

The desert Arabs were of two classes. One of them, the weak-spirited, the timid-hearted, came to the Holy Prophet and gave him false excuses for their staying at home, and the other class, growing large everyday, consisted of hypocrites-see commentary of verse 86 and 87 of this surah.

 

لَيْسَ عَلَى الضُّعَفَاءِ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرْضَىٰ وَلَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ مَا يُنْفِقُونَ حَرَجٌ إِذَا نَصَحُوا لِلَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۚ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ مِنْ سَبِيلٍ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {91}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:91]

Those who can rightly be exempted from going to war are described in these verses.

There were seven men of the ansar who came to the Holy Prophet and told him that they did not have suitable provisions for going with him on the expedition of Tabuk. On hearing from the Holy Prophet that there was nothing left with him after providing others, they went away weeping.

 

وَلَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ إِذَا مَا أَتَوْكَ لِتَحْمِلَهُمْ قُلْتَ لَا أَجِدُ مَا أَحْمِلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ تَوَلَّوْا وَأَعْيُنُهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ حَزَنًا أَلَّا يَجِدُوا مَا يُنْفِقُونَ {92}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:92] (see commentary for verse 91)

إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَسْتَأْذِنُونَكَ وَهُمْ أَغْنِيَاءُ ۚ رَضُوا بِأَنْ يَكُونُوا مَعَ الْخَوَالِفِ وَطَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {93}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:93]

Refer to the commentary of verses 86 and 87 of this surah. These verses also refer to the hypocrites.

The true state of matters concerning the hypocrites was known to Allah who knows what is hidden and what is manifest as has also been stated in verse 8 of al Jumu-ah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Verse 94 clearly asserts that the Holy Prophet witnesses the deeds of all people in all ages as Allah does. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 143 and also verse 105 of this surah and verse 78 of al Hajj. It also states that the Holy Prophet always received information from Allah through revelation and not through any human agency.

 

يَعْتَذِرُونَ إِلَيْكُمْ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ قُلْ لَا تَعْتَذِرُوا لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لَكُمْ قَدْ نَبَّأَنَا اللَّهُ مِنْ أَخْبَارِكُمْ ۚ وَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ {94}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:94] (see commentary for verse 93)

سَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ لَكُمْ إِذَا انْقَلَبْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ لِتُعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمْ ۖ فَأَعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ رِجْسٌ ۖ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ جَزَاءً بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ {95}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:95]

The hypocrites, because of their hard-heartedness and ignorance, were wicked and abominable. Refer to the commentary of verses 86 and 87 of this surah.

The believers have been asked not to accept their false oaths as true and be kind to them, because Allah is not pleased with those who disobey.

 

يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ لِتَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْ ۖ فَإِنْ تَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَرْضَىٰ عَنِ الْقَوْمِ الْفَاسِقِينَ {96}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:96] (see commentary for verse 95)

الْأَعْرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفْرًا وَنِفَاقًا وَأَجْدَرُ أَلَّا يَعْلَمُوا حُدُودَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {97}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:97] (see commentary for verse 95)

وَمِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنْفِقُ مَغْرَمًا وَيَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمُ الدَّوَائِرَ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَائِرَةُ السَّوْءِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {98}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:98] (see commentary for verse 95)

وَمِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَيَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنْفِقُ قُرُبَاتٍ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَصَلَوَاتِ الرَّسُولِ ۚ أَلَا إِنَّهَا قُرْبَةٌ لَهُمْ ۚ سَيُدْخِلُهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {99}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:99]

Now the reference is to the believing among the wandering Arabs of the desert.

 

وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ {100}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:100]

This verse clearly proclaims the equality of muhajirs and ansar in general sense. The preference given to one individual over another by Allah or the Holy Prophet was due to the degree of submission to Allah and taqwa (piety). So the argument put forward by Umar bin Khattab at the time of deciding the issue of taking hold of the reins of power in the conference hall of Saqifa bani Sa-ada by reciting this verse without wa after ansar to establish the superiority of muhajirs over ansar (if wa is dropped it means the ansarshould obey or follow the muhajirs) was unislamic or contrary to the teachings of the Quran. It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari that when Obay ibn Ka-ab pointed out this omission Umar replied that he always thought this verse to be a proof of the muhajir’s superiority over the ansar.

This verse and other verses like it in praise of the companions of the Holy Prophet, whether muhajirs or ansar, are applicable only to those who were sincere in faith. The hypocrites, who were also “companions” (sahabah) as per its definition laid down by the Muslim scholars, cannot be accepted as those praised by the Quran. So to say that all the companions, even the deserters, were true believers is illogical and contrary to historical facts.

All the commentators unanimously agree that “the first of the foremost” among women was Khadijah, wife of the Holy Prophet, and among men was Ali ibn abi Talib.

Hakim Nayshapuri, in his Mustadrak Alal Sahihayn, writes on page 22 of kitab al Ma-rafat:

“There is no difference of opinion among the historians that Ali ibn abi Talib was the first Muslim.”

Ibn Abd al Bar, Qartabi, Suyuti, Tabarani, Bayhaqi and others also have confirmed it.

Please refer to the event of dawat dhil ashirah on page 4. Among others refer to Tarikh Tabari vol. 2, page 63, for authenticity of the tradition, according to which Ali was the first Muslim, and his faith was not only accepted by the Holy Prophet but also he was declared by him, whose words were always revelation revealed (Najm: 4), to be his brother, lieutenant and successor-and on that day obedience to him was made obligatory by the Holy Prophet for all the believers. Whosoever raises the issue of his age either does not know that whomsoever Allah wills He makes him His representative even if he is a baby in the cradle (Ali Imran: 46-Isa was a messenger of Allah in the cradle just as he was a messenger of Allah in maturity), or with ulterior motives, wants to introduce some one else as the first Muslim.

The Holy Prophet said:

“Ali prayed with me seven years before the other Muslims. He is the siddiq al akbar (the greatest truthful) and the faruq al azam (the greatest distinguisher of truth from falsehood). Whoso claims either of these titles is a liar.”

 

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُونَ ۖ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ ۖ مَرَدُوا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ ۖ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُمْ مَرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍ {101}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:101]

وَآخَرُونَ اعْتَرَفُوا بِذُنُوبِهِمْ خَلَطُوا عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَآخَرَ سَيِّئًا عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ{102}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:102]

To condemn those, who did not go with the Holy Prophet on the expedition of Tabuk, several verses were revealed when he returned to Madina, because of which Abu Lababa Ansari and two other companions from among the ansar, certain of receiving punishment from Allah, tied themselves to the pillars of the masjid and said that they would continue to remain tied to pillars unto death until the Holy Prophet himself untied them as a gesture of forgiveness. The Holy Prophet untied them only when this verse was sent down to him.

On being loosed those three persons presented the Holy Prophet with gifts which he refused saying that he could not accept anything from them unless he received Allah’s command. Then verse 103 was revealed.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Holy Prophet’s prayer has been stated to be a source of security and assurance to those who pay zakat, khums and sadaqas, therefore there must be his representative, divinely commissioned like him, in all times, in every age, to pray for those who spend in the way of Allah as ordained by Him. Verse 104 confirms that it is Allah who receives alms and accepts repentance (when the Holy Prophet or his successor prays and recommends)-through the Holy Prophet or his appointed representatives and successors.

 

خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِمْ بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّ صَلَاتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {103}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:103] (see commentary for verse 102)

أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ يَقْبَلُ التَّوْبَةَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَأْخُذُ الصَّدَقَاتِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ {104}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:104] (see commentary for verse 102)

وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۖ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ {105}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:105]

“Act. Allah sees your deeds, and His messengers, and the believers.” Allah sees and knows the hidden and the manifest, the known and the unknown. So also the Holy Prophet is aware of every action-how, when and where it is carried out, in every age, through out the world. He is a witness over all people till the day of resurrection (Nisa: 41, Nahl: 84 and 89). This verse also says that there are some believers who have been entrusted and endowed with the same divine quality to witness the deeds of all men, at all times, in all places. They are those who, like the Holy Prophet, have been thoroughly purified (Ahzab: 33).

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

“Deeds of the believers are witnessed by the Imam of the age. Good deeds give him joy and satisfaction and bad deeds grieve him. Blessed are the believers who please their Imam.”

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse is in continuation of verse 103. The believers referred to in this verse are those successors mentioned in verse 55 of an Nur.

 

وَآخَرُونَ مُرْجَوْنَ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِمَّا يُعَذِّبُهُمْ وَإِمَّا يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {106}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:106]

وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا وَكُفْرًا وَتَفْرِيقًا بَيْنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَإِرْصَادًا لِمَنْ حَارَبَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ وَلَيَحْلِفُنَّ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ {107}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:107]

Abu Amir was a Christian monk. Before the arrival of the Holy Prophet in Madina, he used to tell the people of Madina that a promised prophet was about to appear, but when he came and conquered the hearts of the people, Abu Amir lost his position in the community and people completely forgot him. He went to Makka and encouraged and prepared the pagans to fight against the Holy Prophet. He took part in the battles of Uhad and Hunayn. Then he went to Hercules, the emperor of Byzantine empire, to raise an army to crush the Muslims. From there he wrote letters to his comrades (hypocrites in Madina) to build a masjid of their own, so that when he returned it could serve as a centre from where they could operate their plans against the Holy Prophet. At once the hypocrites built a masjid in Quba, a suburb of Madina, about 3 miles to the south-east, known as masjid dhirar (mischief). This place was selected because the Holy Prophet had rested in Quba for four days before entering the city on his emigration from Makka, and had built the first masjid there to which he frequently came to pray salat. It is said that offering of salat in this masjid is equal to one umrah.

By the time masjid dhirar was completed Abu Amir died in Syria. The hypocrites requested the Holy Prophet to consecrate it by praying therein. He did not, and after his return from Tabuk it was demolished.

 

لَا تَقُمْ فِيهِ أَبَدًا ۚ لَمَسْجِدٌ أُسِّسَ عَلَى التَّقْوَىٰ مِنْ أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ أَحَقُّ أَنْ تَقُومَ فِيهِ ۚ فِيهِ رِجَالٌ يُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَتَطَهَّرُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُطَّهِّرِينَ {108}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:108] (see commentary for verse 107)

أَفَمَنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيَانَهُ عَلَىٰ تَقْوَىٰ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانٍ خَيْرٌ أَمْ مَنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيَانَهُ عَلَىٰ شَفَا جُرُفٍ هَارٍ فَانْهَارَ بِهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ {109}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:109] (see commentary for verse 107)

لَا يَزَالُ بُنْيَانُهُمُ الَّذِي بَنَوْا رِيبَةً فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ إِلَّا أَنْ تَقَطَّعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {110}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:110] (see commentary for verse 107)

إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ {111}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:111]

The spirit of self-surrender in a true believer always keeps him ready to surrender his self and possessions to Allah without ever having in mind the idea of victory or martyrdom. He fights in Allah’s cause and carries out His universal will. In return Allah gives him everlasting bliss, eternal salvation and fulfilment of his highest spiritual hopes.

For the perfect example of a bargain between man and Allah refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 207, revealed when Ali slept on the bed of the Holy Prophet on the night ofhijrat.

The highest example of the entire surrender of selves, children and possessions to Allah is found nowhere save in Karbala. To know how Imam Husayn and his family and friends and relatives surrendered themselves and their children and possessions to Allah read our publication “The King of Martyrs”.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In the previous verses the trend and tendency of the hypocrites has been described. In this verse the qualities of the true believers are made known. Now there is no room to treat all the companions of the Holy Prophet as sailing in the same boat, in the ark of Nuh. There were two entirely different groups among the companions (sahabah), opposed to each other, in faith and character. As has been pointed out by the Holy Prophet only those who attached themselves with his Ahl ul Bayt, likened to the ark of Nuh, and followed them were in safe waters, and those who rejected them were drowned and lost.

“It is in praise of the Ahl ul Bayt”, Imam Ali bin Husayn al Zayn al Abidin has said, “for their success in many a trial and vicissitude, and for their patient and cheerful endurance of many a hardship that these verses were revealed.”

Sa-ihuna literally means those who journey in search of something. Fasting is a spiritual journey in search of Allah’s pleasure. It also applies to those who seek knowledge about Allah or any godly movement.

For amr bil ma-ruf and nahya anil munkar see commentary of Ali Imran : 101 to 115 (Aqa Puya’s note).

 

التَّائِبُونَ الْعَابِدُونَ الْحَامِدُونَ السَّائِحُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {112}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:112] (see commentary for verse 111)

مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قُرْبَىٰ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ {113}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:113]

Abu Talib followed the creed of Ibrahim, i.e. Islam. Abu Talib died as a Muslim before hijrat and this verse was revealed in 9 Hijra, therefore all the false traditions reported by the Muslim traditionists were fabricated by the enemies of Ali ibn abi Talib to present his father as an unbeliever.

Abd al Muttalib, the Holy Prophet’s grandfather, on his deathbed embraced Muhammad for the last time and then entrusted him to Abu Talib, saying: “Take care of this boy, nothing in our kindred is more precious than he.” Abu Talib affectionately brought him up, loved him fondly, made him sleep by his own bed-side and took him with himself wherever he went. History is a witness that, before Ali, it was Abu Talib who supported and assisted the Holy Prophet and his divine mission under all circumstances. In his sermons and poetry he praised his nephew as the messenger of Allah and expressed his faith in him and his belief in Allah.

When Abu Talib saw his son, Ali, praying with the Holy Prophet to worship Allah, he gladly approved the act of devotion performed by his son and advised him to follow the Holy Prophet, help and support him in his mission.

When the verse “warn your relatives” (Shu-ara: 214) was revealed, the dawat dhil ashira was arranged by the Holy Prophet in the house of Abu Talib. Abu Lahab, his other uncle tried his best to stop the Holy Prophet from delivering his speech but Abu Talib put his hands on Abu Lahab’s shoulders and made him listen to the Holy Prophet’s message, the message of Islam. He not only supported him in all his activities against the idolworshippers but also suffered untold hardships along with him when the pagans of Makka began the historic boycott of the Holy Prophet. They went in a body to Abu Talib, and adopting a threatening tone demanded of him to make his nephew desist from attacks on their gods. The Holy Prophet was present. He refused to do so. The Holy Prophet thought that his uncle, for fear of family feud, wanted to withdraw his protection, so he said to him that he solely depended on Allah, and turned to go away. Here it is reported by Abul Fida, Habib al Siyar and Asni-al Matalib that Abu Talib called him back and told him that he would stand by him against all his enemies and would protect him (in his mission) till his own death; because Abu Talib believed in his nephew’s convictions, and he accordingly made the Makkans understand that his nephew was really a messenger from Allah; and therefore they should take him as their spiritual leader and guide. Tabari and Ibn Hisham write that urged by Abu Sufyan, the heads of the different families of idolworshippers decided to break off all connections with the Holy Prophet and his relatives. In the seventh year of bi-that a covenant was written-not to have any sort of intercourse with the Holy Prophet and his kinsmen, neither to sell to nor to buy anything from, nor to contract matrimonial alliance with them-and signed and sealed and was kept in the Ka-bah. Abu Talib then took the Holy Prophet and the Banu Hashim to his quarters known as Shib abi Talib. This fortress was also beleaguered occasionally by the idolworshippers of Makka, to enforce the boycott in all its rigour. Abu Talib feared even night attacks and was on his guard for the safety of the Holy Prophet, and often changed his bed-site as a precaution against sudden violence. This state of affairs lasted for about three years. Finally the Holy Prophet told Abu Talib that Allah had shown His disapproval of the covenant against him, and had sent worms to eat out every word of the document placed in the Ka-bah, excepting His own name written thereon. Abu Talib, believing his nephew as the receiver of revelations from Allah, unhesitatingly went to the idolworshippers and told them what the Holy Prophet had spoken; and added that if what he was telling was found true, they would be bound to withdraw their boycott and lay aside their enmity towards the Holy Prophet and his kinsmen; if proved false, he would withdraw his protection. They all agreed and at once went to inspect the document. Only the name of Allah was there and nothing more. They said that it was an enchantment of the Holy Prophet, but, at the persistence of Abu Talib the boycott was withdrawn. It is clear that only a believing man could do what Abu Talib did.

In the tenth year of bi-that, some months after the withdrawal of the interdict Abu Talib died at the age of 87 years. Abu Talib’s attitude towards the Holy Prophet as well as some of his preserved verses prove, says Abul Fida, that he believed in the Holy Prophet as the true messenger of Allah and in his religion, Islam. He died actually in the faith with the kalimah on his lips. Some of his well-known verses are noted below:

(i) I believe that Muhunmad’s faith is the best of all the religions of the universe.

(ii) Do you not see that we have found Muhammad, a prophet like Musa; he is already predicted in previous scriptures.

(iii) To exalt him He (Allah) derived his name from His own; He as the highest is called Mahmud while He named him Muhammad.

The status of Abu Talib in Islam was the same as that of “Mumin min ali Firawn” (a believer from among the people of Firawn) mentioned in verses 28 to 45 of al Mumin who had concealed his faith to protect Musa-an instructive parallelism between Muhunmad and Musa. The enemies of Ali fabricated false traditions to give the impression that his father had not embraced Islam. In a malicious, nevertheless stupid, way they had tried their best to take revenge from Ali for having killed in various battles their fathers, the idolworshippers and hypocrites of Makka and Madina.

 

وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إِلَّا عَنْ مَوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَا إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ ۚ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لَأَوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ {114}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:114]

Refer to the commentary of Anam: 75 to 84.

 

وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِلَّ قَوْمًا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَاهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ مَا يَتَّقُونَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ {115}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:115]

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۚ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مِنْ وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ {116}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:116]

لَقَدْ تَابَ اللَّهُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ فِي سَاعَةِ الْعُسْرَةِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا كَادَ يَزِيغُ قُلُوبُ فَرِيقٍ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ بِهِمْ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ {117}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:117]

Taba means to return penitently to Allah-it refers to man when he stops sinning, turns repentant to Allah and adopts piety; and it refers to Allah when He admits the penitent to His mercy.

Likewise ghafara means to forgive when it refers to sinners, but when it is used for the sinless or the innocent it means to bestow more blessings and rewards.

The mahajirs and the ansar who followed the Holy Prophet in the expedition of Tabuk, known as the “hour of distress” have been referred to in this verse as those whom Allah has admitted to His mercy. In addition to the excessive heat and a long journey, provisions and water were so scarce that two men had to share a date between them. Some wavered for a short time because of anticipated hardships of the journey, long-continued drought and overpowering heat, but finally Allah’s grace gave them strength to conquer even that incipient weakness. From the beginning to the end the Holy Prophet’s mission was a trial for the believers.

 

وَعَلَى الثَّلَاثَةِ الَّذِينَ خُلِّفُوا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا ضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ أَنْفُسُهُمْ وَظَنُّوا أَنْ لَا مَلْجَأَ مِنَ اللَّهِ إِلَّا إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ لِيَتُوبُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ {118}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:118]

The reference is to three ansar, named Ka-ab ibn Malik, Hilal ibn Umayyah and Mirara ibn Rabi, who did not accompany the Holy Prophet on the expedition of Tabuk. In view of the verses which condemned such type of persons, they went to the Holy Prophet on his return and asked for his forgiveness, but were excluded from the brotherhood of the true believers and the life of the Muslim community. They were asked to wait for Allah’s revelation. They wept and prayed for pardon. After 50 days this verse was revealed.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَكُونُوا مَعَ الصَّادِقِينَ {119}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:119]

AI Baqarah: 2 and Ali Imran: 138 clearly say that the Quran is a guidance for the pious, but for all others it is a narration. Verse 177 of al Baqarah (see commentary) and verse 15 of al Hujurat describe the genuinely truthful with whom people have been commanded to remain attached.

In the light of the commentary of al Baqarah: 177 and al Hujurat: 15 we come to the conclusion that the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt are the genuinely truthful.

By “the truthful” is meant the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. The authentic books concur in reporting that this verse refers to the Ahl ul Bayt. See Hafiz Abu Nu-aym; Muwaffaq ibn Ahmad; and Ibn Hajar in his Saw-iq al Muhriqah, chap. 11, p. 90.

Fakhruddin al Razi in his Tafsir vol. 16, p. 220 and 221 accepts that only the sinless (ma-sumin)can be the truthful mentioned in this verse, but in order to include his heroes he says that all those who follow the right path are also the truthful. It cannot be, because Allah Himself has thoroughly purified some of His chosen servants (Ahzab: 33) so that other believers may remain attached with them as has been commanded in this verse. If all those who follow the right path are the truthful then who will remain attached with whom?

Polytheism is the worst falsehood. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 124 to know that whoso has worshipped a ghayrallah (other then Allah) at any time in his life cannot inherit the imamah bestowed on Ibrahim. Allah had promised to bestow wilayah or imamah on those descendants of Ibrahim who, like Ali ibn abi Talib, had never worshipped any ghayrallah-a karramallahu wajhahu, and only Ali is known as the karramallahu wajhahu, the genuine truthful-and the Imams among the thoroughly purified Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet. No one, therefore, except those mentioned in Ahzab: 33 and Ali Imran: 61, is the truthful.

 

مَا كَانَ لِأَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُمْ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ أَنْ يَتَخَلَّفُوا عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَرْغَبُوا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ ظَمَأٌ وَلَا نَصَبٌ وَلَا مَخْمَصَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَطَئُونَ مَوْطِئًا يَغِيظُ الْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّ نَيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُمْ بِهِ عَمَلٌ صَالِحٌ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ {120}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:120]

Again, the reference is that of Tabuk, but the lesson is general. The Muslims must not hold their own interests or lives dearer than the Holy Prophet, nor desert him in the hour of danger. Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 121 to 128, 140 to 142, 144, 151 to 156, 159 and 166 to 168 and Anfal: 16 and verses 25 and 26 of this surah to know about those who deserted the Holy Prophet in the battlefields.

 

وَلَا يُنْفِقُونَ نَفَقَةً صَغِيرَةً وَلَا كَبِيرَةً وَلَا يَقْطَعُونَ وَادِيًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُمْ لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ{121}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:121]

وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنْفِرُوا كَافَّةً ۚ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِنْ كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنْذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ {122}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:122]

Fighting is inevitable, and where a call is made by the Holy Prophet or a righteous Imam from among his Ahl ul Bayt, it should be obeyed. The students and teachers are soldiers of the jihad in their spirit of obedience and discipline.

A suitable group from among the believers should devote themselves to theoretical and practical studies in religion (the din of Allah is a complete and perfect code of life-no economic, political, social or natural branch of knowledge is outside its scope).

Imam Ali said:

“O people strive hard more to discover and collect knowledge than to make money and amass wealth. A community which learns and has command over the true knowledge of the religion of Allah (the laws governing the universal plan of creation) and applies it to regulate individual and collective life, becomes truly great.”

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ يَلُونَكُمْ مِنَ الْكُفَّارِ وَلْيَجِدُوا فِيكُمْ غِلْظَةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ{123}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:123]

When conflict becomes inevitable, the first thing is to clear our surroundings of all evil and destroy its power base. The last portion of this verse refers to taqwa-to safeguard oneself against evil with full awareness of Allah’s laws. Generally it applies to all the pious believers but in view of that which has been stated in the commentary of al Baqarah: 2 and 177 and Ali Imran: 138 and verse 119 of this surah a particular group of muttaqin has been singled out in this verse. The Quran is a guidance only for the pious, and for others it is a narration as has been said in verse 2 of al Baqarah and 138 of Ali Imran.

 

وَإِذَا مَا أُنْزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ أَيُّكُمْ زَادَتْهُ هَٰذِهِ إِيمَانًا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَزَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَهُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ {124}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:124]

Refer to the commentary of al Fatihah: 5 (action and reaction) and al Baqarah: 8 to 20 for those in whose hearts is a disease.

 

وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ فَزَادَتْهُمْ رِجْسًا إِلَىٰ رِجْسِهِمْ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ {125}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:125] (see commentary for verse 124)

أَوَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُمْ يُفْتَنُونَ فِي كُلِّ عَامٍ مَرَّةً أَوْ مَرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ لَا يَتُوبُونَ وَلَا هُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ {126}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:126] (see commentary for verse 124)

وَإِذَا مَا أُنْزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ نَظَرَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ هَلْ يَرَاكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفُوا ۚ صَرَفَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ {127}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:127] (see commentary for verse 124)

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ {128}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:128]

The “mercy unto the worlds” is grieved when any one among his followers rushes headlong towards ruin (disbelief). He is most kind and merciful to the believers, so the believers should also be always mindful not to grieve him by their disobedience to his teachings and by not paying attention to his instructions. Whether the Muslims follow his commands or turn away (as most of them did) Allah is sufficient for him. Allah is all in all. His grandeur is figured by a lofty throne. See commentary of al Baqarah: 255.

فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُلْ حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ ۖ وَهُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ {129}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:129]
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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