بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَىٰ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:1]

It is reported by Ibn Abbas that one night, after praying the Isha salat, the Holy Prophet told his companions: “At dawn, tomorrow, a star will descend on the earth from the heaven. On whomsoever’s house it will come upon will be my heir, my successor, and he is the divinely commissioned guide.” The star descended on Ali’s house. The hypocrites began to whisper that in love of Ali the Holy Prophet had gone astray. On this occasion these verses were revealed. The Holy Prophet is mentioned as sahib (companion) because he was living among the people addressed in this verse.

“He does not speak of his own will” has also been mentioned in Deuteronomy 18: 18-:

“Then the Lord said to me (Musa) :”I will raise up for them a prophet like you, one of their own race, and I will put my words into his mouth. He shall convey all my commands to them.”

It is also mentioned in John 16: 18:

(Isa said): “However, when he comes who is the spirit of truth, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but will tell only what he hears; and he will make known to you the things that are coming.”

The Holy Prophet was always in communion with Allah. Whatever he said was the word of Allah and

his actions were the fulfilment of the divine will, yet at the time of the treaty of Hudaybiya his close companion had doubts about his prophethood despite many verses of the Quran which assert that which has been said in verse 2 to 4, and his reputation as the most trustworthy and truthful among the people of Makka. (See commentary of Fat-h: 1).

 

مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَىٰ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:2] (see commentary for verse 1)

وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:3] (see commentary for verse 1)

إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:4] (see commentary for verse 1)

عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَىٰ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:5]

To know who is the teacher of the Holy Prophet see commentary of verses 2 to 4 of Ar Rahman.

Shadidul Quwa, “the supreme in power”, is Allah. To translate and interpret it as the angel Jibrail is to belie the verses 30 to 38 of Baqarah (see commentary) and verse 75 of Sad, because Jibrail was one of the angels who prostrated themselves before Adam when Adam taught them “the names” they did not know. As mentioned in the commentary of the verses of al Baqarah, on the authority of well known Muslim scholars. (Refer to Durr al Manthur, Kanzul Ammal, Yanabi al Mawaddat, Riaz al Nuzra and Arjah al Mutalib), “the names” were-Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, Husayn. Even if “the names” are interpreted as wisdom, then too Jibrail cannot be the teacher of the Holy Prophet, as the Holy Prophet is the superior most prophet among all the prophets of Allah in wisdom and all other attributes. In verse 75 of Sad Allah asks Shaytan: “Are you arrogant, or are you one of the alin (the high ones)?” It means there were some servants of Allah described as alin (plural of ali) who were superior to Adam, therefore, exempted from prostrating themselves before Adam on account of their superiority over him. So it is proved that it is Allah who taught the Holy Prophet and from no mortal created being he received any kind of knowledge as mentioned in the commentary of Baqarah: 78 and other verses in connection with the interpretation of the word “ummi”.

 

ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَىٰ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:6]

Refer to the commentary of Bani Israil: 1 for mi-raj (ascension). The Holy Prophet held in view the entire universe from the highest position, where he found Jibrail. Then the Holy Prophet drew near to Allah “till a distance of two bows or still nearer.” The nearness described by “still nearer” cannot be imagined by human mind. It is the nearest nearness possible between the finite and the infinite. Arabic idiom qaba qawsayn indicate extreme nearness. “The drawn bows, with their chords touching,” make a circle of union, yet the Holy Prophet is not to be considered as totally absorbed into divinity. The nearness stands for the highest position of the Holy Prophet in the order of creation-the nearest to Allah. It was a custom among the Arabs that when two individuals joined their bows it implied that both of them were united or bound by an agreement to shoot their arrows simultaneously in one direction.

Fatadalla implies that the Holy Prophet brought himself low in utmost humility before the manifest glory of the Lord of the worlds to express his gratitude for the unique divine grace bestowed on him.

For all the details of ascension (mi-raj) see commentary of Bani Israil: 1.

The nature of communion with Allah at their nearest point is incommunicable and incomprehensible to any one who is not from the Holy Prophet.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Verses I to 8 assert the infallibility of the Holy Prophet in his movement between the creator and the creation, similar to the movement of the star in its orbit. He neither deviates nor does or say anything other than what is revealed to him. The degree of his realisation and knowledge of all that which has been created is as perfect as the creator, save the finest span between the finite and the infinite.

The first degree of realisation he reached is the scene of istiwa in the highest part of the horizon which is the highest stage of the angelic force, at which appear the two arcs-the arc of creation and the arc of godhead-to meet each other. Here the Holy Prophet and Jibrail heard a voice (saying):

“Glory be to Me. I am the Lord of the angels and the spirits. My mercy subdues My wrath.”

Then moving further beyond the dualistic view, he entered the state of awaiting or pending (not terminated) between the finite and the infinite, joining point of the two arcs, after which comes the phase of aw adna where all dualistic considerations concerning the two arcs disappear. The whole becomes a circle wherein the absolute infinite manifests overall encompassment and penetration. At this stage of total submission and absorption, the Holy Prophet comes into direct communion with the infinite absolute and receives most important message which is known to him and his Lord.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

“It was in this state the command relating to wilayah or imamah with finality was revealed to the Holy Prophet.”

The Imam further said that “what he saw” has nothing to do with the ordinary sense of seeing but it refers to the realisation the cognitive self of the Holy Prophet achieved.

Hawa, in the sense of inclination, implies that the stars in their movement are inclined to either go up or down. As their movement is regular, it becomes a guidance for mankind. The Quran draws man’s attention to the conduct of the Holy Prophet which is nothing but carrying out the commands of Allah in letter and spirit-a guidance to mankind to find the right path in the darkness of worldly wanderings and temptations.

The assertion made in verses 2 to 4 concerning his life in this world is not restricted to any particular event, aspect or period but applies to his entire life from the day he came in this world to the day he departed. Ali ibn abi Talib in the Nahj al Balagha describes the infallibility and the unique excellences of the Holy Prophet in the highest form of style and substance ever thought or said by any one till today

 

وَهُوَ بِالْأُفُقِ الْأَعْلَىٰ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:7] (see commentary for verse 6)

ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّىٰ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:8] (see commentary for verse 6)

فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَىٰ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:9] (see commentary for verse 6)

فَأَوْحَىٰ إِلَىٰ عَبْدِهِ مَا أَوْحَىٰ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:10] (see commentary for verse 6)

مَا كَذَبَ الْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَىٰ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:11]

Eyes can see matter. Allah is the creator of matter. He Himself is not matter. No finite being can ever see the infinite. The Holy Prophet saw the manifestation of His glory and power in the heaven. The quality of glory the Holy Prophet saw there was different from any that is visible on the earth, so when he narrated what he saw to the dwellers of the earth, those among them who did not have the elementary knowledge of the spiritual existence disputed with him concerning what he saw during his ascension

 

أَفَتُمَارُونَهُ عَلَىٰ مَا يَرَىٰ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:12] (see commentary for verse 11)

وَلَقَدْ رَآهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَىٰ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:13]

The Holy Prophet saw Jibrail at sidratil muntaha beyond which neither any angel nor any other created being could pass. Then Jibrail told him: “I shall not take another step from here.” The Holy Prophet went ahead and that which happened there is mentioned in verses 8, 9 and 10.

 

عِنْدَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنْتَهَىٰ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:14] (see commentary for verse 13)

عِنْدَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَىٰ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:15]

In the region of bliss beyond sidratil muntaha the Holy Prophet saw the glory of the kingdom of Allah, and became fully aware of the wisdom governing it.

There were wonders both spiritual and sensible but the Holy Prophet, neither dazzled nor confounded, remained firm and self-possessed, engrossed in the unique experience of beholding the glory of the Lord. There was no visual delusion nor any intellectual or emotional disturbance.

The arsh or throne (the seat of divine authority) and Allah’s presence are figuratively localised in the highest heaven because human knowledge and imagination are unable to understand the dimensionless existence and sway of the eternal Lord of the worlds with the theories of time and space. Verse 255 of al Baqarah: says: “His throne (presence, wisdom and authority) extends over the heavens and the earth (whole universe)”. See commentary of Baqarah : 255. In the case of Musa it was but a prefigurament of the divine effulgence on this earth. See commentary of Ta Ha: 10 to 14; Qasas: 30; and also Exodus 3: 1 to 6 in the Old Testament. Through a fire in the bush Allah granted Musa a little manifestation of His glory on the mountain of Sinai. Refer to Araf: 143 for what took place when Musa saw the manifestation of divine glory. In case of the Holy Prophet it was divine glory in its full splendour in the highest heaven which he saw, understood and absorbed as verse 18 confirms.

 

إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَىٰ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:16] (see commentary for verse 15)

مَا زَاغَ الْبَصَرُ وَمَا طَغَىٰ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:17] (see commentary for verse 15)

لَقَدْ رَأَىٰ مِنْ آيَاتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرَىٰ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:18] (see commentary for verse 15)

أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ اللَّاتَ وَالْعُزَّىٰ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:19]

When the Holy Prophet was reciting verses one of the idolators recited: “There are the lofty idols, verily their intercession is sought.” See commentary of Hajj: 52 and 53 on page 743 for full details.

 

وَمَنَاةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الْأُخْرَىٰ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:20] (see commentary for verse 19)

أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الْأُنْثَىٰ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:21]

See commentary of Nahl: 57, 58, Zukhruf: 16, 17 and Tur: 39.

 

تِلْكَ إِذًا قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَىٰ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:22] (see commentary for verse 21)

إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنْتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُمْ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِنْ سُلْطَانٍ ۚ إِنْ يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الْأَنْفُسُ ۖ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ مِنْ رَبِّهِمُ الْهُدَىٰ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:23]

Refer to Araf: 71 and Yusuf: 40.

The false gods the idolaters worship are nothing but names they give to sticks or stones, ideas or men living or dead.

 

أَمْ لِلْإِنْسَانِ مَا تَمَنَّىٰ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:24]

Man’s desires are dictated by his whims and fancies, so he worships false gods and ideas and generates evil and disorder. The true source of guidance and light is Allah. He is the ultimate goal to which all persons and things (all existence) return. Sovereignty, from beginnings to end, exclusively belongs to Allah.

 

فَلِلَّهِ الْآخِرَةُ وَالْأُولَىٰ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:25] (see commentary for verse 24)

وَكَمْ مِنْ مَلَكٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ لَا تُغْنِي شَفَاعَتُهُمْ شَيْئًا إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَرْضَىٰ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:26]

There will be no intercession available to the disbelievers, but Allah has given permission to the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt to intercede and advocate on behalf of the believers. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 48. There are several verses in the Quran in which it is clearly stated that Allah gives permission of intercession to whom He pleases. So the theory of “no intercession at all” is unquranic and contrary to the will of Allah.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ لَيُسَمُّونَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ تَسْمِيَةَ الْأُنْثَىٰ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:27]

وَمَا لَهُمْ بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ ۖ إِنْ يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ ۖ وَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئًا {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:28]

فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْ مَنْ تَوَلَّىٰ عَنْ ذِكْرِنَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلَّا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:29]

ذَٰلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:30]

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:31]

الَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَائِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَاحِشَ إِلَّا اللَّمَمَ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ وَاسِعُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ ۚ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِذْ أَنْشَأَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ وَإِذْ أَنْتُمْ أَجِنَّةٌ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تُزَكُّوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ ۖ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:32]

Lamam stands for the intention (to sin) and the sins committed before coming into the fold of Islam, most likely to be forgiven after repentance and amended conduct. Allah’s attributes of mercy and forgiveness are unlimited. They come into action without our asking if we surrender our wills to Him. Our prayer helps us to surrender our wills to Him.

As Allah knows our inmost being, it is absurd to justify ourselves, either by pretending that we are better than we are, or by finding excuses for our misconduct. If we try to safeguard ourselves against evil with full awareness of the laws made by Him He will appreciate our striving and may forgive us.

 

أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي تَوَلَّىٰ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:33]

“He who turns back” refers to those who forsake the faith like those who left the Holy Prophet in the midst of danger and ran away from the battles of Uhad and Hunayn.

According to Minhajul Sadiqin Uthman bargained with Abdullah bin Ubay for a camel load of merchandise if Abdullah would take upon himself the sins of Uthman. After giving the merchandise Uthman put a stop to alms giving relying upon Abdullah’s undertaking. Then these verses were revealed. If we accept Islam, we must accept it whole-heartedly and not look back to pagan superstitions. No man can bargain about spiritual matters, for he cannot see what his end will be in the hereafter. It is the unchangeable law of Allah in every age that no bearer of burden can bear the burden of another. See commentary of Baqarah: 48, 123, 254; An-am: 165 ; Bani Israil: 15 ; Fatir: 18 and other such verses.

 

وَأَعْطَىٰ قَلِيلًا وَأَكْدَىٰ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:34] (see commentary for verse 33)

أَعِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ الْغَيْبِ فَهُوَ يَرَىٰ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:35] (see commentary for verse 33)

أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِي صُحُفِ مُوسَىٰ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:36] (see commentary for verse 33)

وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ الَّذِي وَفَّىٰ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:37] (see commentary for verse 33)

أَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:38] (see commentary for verse 33)

وَأَنْ لَيْسَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَىٰ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:39] (see commentary for verse 33)

وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُ سَوْفَ يُرَىٰ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:40] (see commentary for verse 33)

ثُمَّ يُجْزَاهُ الْجَزَاءَ الْأَوْفَىٰ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:41] (see commentary for verse 33)

وَأَنَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ الْمُنْتَهَىٰ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:42]

وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ وَأَبْكَىٰ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:43]

وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَمَاتَ وَأَحْيَا {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:44]

وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالْأُنْثَىٰ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:45]

مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ إِذَا تُمْنَىٰ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:46]

وَأَنَّ عَلَيْهِ النَّشْأَةَ الْأُخْرَىٰ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:47]

وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ أَغْنَىٰ وَأَقْنَىٰ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:48]

وَأَنَّهُ هُوَ رَبُّ الشِّعْرَىٰ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:49]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In astronomy, Sirius is the highest star, also called day star, in the firmament. It was worshipped by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and the pagan Arabs. Allah is the creator, the Lord-nourisher of the most magnificent creation, therefore worship is due to Him alone.

 

وَأَنَّهُ أَهْلَكَ عَادًا الْأُولَىٰ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:50]

For the people of Ad see Araf: 65 to 72; for the people of Thamud see Araf: 73 to 79; and for the people of Nuh see Araf: 59 to 64.

 

وَثَمُودَ فَمَا أَبْقَىٰ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:51] (see commentary for verse 50)

وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا هُمْ أَظْلَمَ وَأَطْغَىٰ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:52] (see commentary for verse 50)

وَالْمُؤْتَفِكَةَ أَهْوَىٰ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:53] (see commentary for verse 50)

فَغَشَّاهَا مَا غَشَّىٰ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:54] (see commentary for verse 50)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَىٰ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:55]

There is a similar query in surah ar Rahman. Every gift man has is from Allah and to save him from the just punishment of his sins, He sent messengers and prophets to warn him.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The minutest functions in the universe are subject to Allah’s sovereignty, so the whole universe is before him in a single view at every moment.

 

هَٰذَا نَذِيرٌ مِنَ النُّذُرِ الْأُولَىٰ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:56]

أَزِفَتِ الْآزِفَةُ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:57]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to Ibn Arabi it may refer to the advent of Imam Mahdi al Qa-im. See commentary of Bara-at: 32 and 33, Fat-h: 28 and Saff: 9.

 

لَيْسَ لَهَا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَاشِفَةٌ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:58]

أَفَمِنْ هَٰذَا الْحَدِيثِ تَعْجَبُونَ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:59]

وَتَضْحَكُونَ وَلَا تَبْكُونَ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:60]

وَأَنْتُمْ سَامِدُونَ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:61]

فَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ وَاعْبُدُوا ۩ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 53:62]

Prostration is compulsory after reciting this verse.

 
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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