بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:1]

By ya ayyuhun nas (O mankind), the entire mankind, irrespective of sex, rank, age, colour, race and nationality, has been addressed. They are the children of a common ancestor, Adam, created by Allah as the first basic self (nafs). Nafs means “the self” as well as “the whole of a thing with its essence”. The first woman, Hawwa or Eve (see Genesis 2: 18, 21 to 26) was created from that single soul. All mankind descended from one original stock. The basic unity of mankind has been positively asserted in this verse. Therefore, all the peoples of the world are one family, a united brotherhood. They should safeguard themselves with full awareness of divine laws before their Rabb (Lord) whose love for His creatures manifests in the laws He has made for their own good. They must be ever vigilant in their duties towards Him and obey His laws. Then alone they will be able to live in peace and harmony in this world as a single community of Muslims (those who submit themselves to the will of their Lord).

Arham (plural of rihm) implies kinship. Kinship in Islam is regarded as one of the most important social institutions. One of the reasons for making the love of the Ahl ul Bayt (a self-generative good which encompasses all human activities) obligatory, as a recompense of prophethood, is to make man reflect the characteristics of his cherished ideals in practical life (Shura: 23).

Much has been said and practised by the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt to lay emphasis on the love of near relatives, brotherhood of mankind and peace and harmony in human society.

وَآتُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَبَدَّلُوا الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَمْوَالِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:2]

The Holy Prophet had shown conspicuous solitude for the poor and the young orphans who were deprived of their natural guardians.

Also refer to al-Baqarah: 220. In verses 11 to 16 of al-Balad to take care of the orphans and the poor has been described as a steep ascent (an uphill task). Again and again the Holy Prophet asked his followers to serve the needy and the orphans selflessly.

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا فِي الْيَتَامَىٰ فَانْكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ مَثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَعُولُوا {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:3]

If a man fears that he cannot; be fair to an orphan girl in regard to her dower and other conjugal rights, helpless as she is and in his charge, then he may, instead of taking the orphan-girls in marriage, marry women who are pleasing to him-two, three, or four, but not more; but if he thinks he cannot treat so many with equity, he must marry only one. Thus monogamy is the ideal; and polygamy is only allowed as a safeguard against greater social evils.

The so-called civilised ideologies have maligned the “permission to marry four women”, in complete disregard to all natural facts, overlooking the miserable conditions prevalent, in the world, before Islam. Islam, in fact, has provided a rational positive direction to the sexual anarchy and topsy-turvy man-woman relationship the human society had been living through till the advent of the Holy Prophet in Arabia, and continues to so live in societies where formal permission to marry more than one women does not exist.

Whatever Allah enjoins on mankind is in their own interest. It is the nature of man to raise questions, but those who sincerely make efforts, after trial and error, come to the conclusion that the divine injunctions alone can solve their problems.

The opinion of some of the anthropologists and sociologists of repute are given below:

“In general a gregarious life, a life in association, favours polygamy. The most civilised nations must have begun with polygamy, and, in reality, it has been thus everywhere and always. In the various civilised societies, living or dead, marriage has commenced by being polygamous. It is a law which has few exceptions.”

(Evolution of marriage-M. Letourneau)

“Monogamy far from being defended on the scope of its “naturalness” no anthropologist of note has even maintained that monogamic marriage was natural to male human being. The evidence is all the other way, and we learn on the best authorities that “as an institution polygamy exists in all parts of the world, and that it has flourished among the Hebrews, the Slavs, the Teutons, the Irish and the Indians, none of the Hindu law-givers ever restricting the number of wives a man is allowed to marry.” Polygamy was the rule in Biblical days, among the ancient Jews, and was permitted and even enjoined in certain cases by the Mosaic law. It is nowhere forbidden, except to “bishops” in the New Testament.”

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

“The practice of polygamy among the Vedic Indians is abundantly proved by direct references in the Rig Veda and other texts. The heroes and Brahmans of the epic are frequently represented as having several wives.”

(Hastings’ Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics).

“Woman is, by nature, a monogamist; man has in him the element of a polygamist.”

(Conduct and its disorders biologically considered-Dr. Mercier)

“Lifelong monogamy is perverse, and would prove harmful to our race. Were this institution ever really enforced-and fortunately this is almost never the case in reality-the race must decay.” (Professor Earnest Bergman) “The fact that polygamy has been practised is in itself a proof that the sexes do not exist in the uniform proportion. It is mischievously and foolishly thought, and implied in our social practice that the sexual needs of men and women are identical. Nothing is farther from the truth. A woman’s urgent need of man has, as its ultimate instinctive motive the bearing of the children; when that is achieved the desire for a man becomes quite a secondary matter. On the other hand, a man needs women for himself. Both desires are complementary and fulfil each other; they are not identical.”

(Macfarlane, the case for polygamy)

If he takes another woman, he shall not deprive the first of meat, clothes, and conjugal rights.

(Exodus 21: 10)

I gave you (David) your master’s daughter and his wives to be your own,

(2 Samuel 12: 8)

“And so it was understood by the leaders of Christendom at various times that there is no intrinsic immorality or sinfulness in plurality of wives. One of the greatest fathers of the Christian Church (St. Augustine) has declared that polygamy is not a crime where it is a legal institution of a country, and the German reformers, even as late as the sixteenth century, allowed and declared valid the taking of a second or even a third wife, contemporaneously with the first, in default of issue, or any other cause.”

(Ameer Ali-Life and Teachings of Muhammad.)

“In the definition which l have given (i.e. of marriage) I have not said, in compliance with the common opinion, ‘of one man with one woman’, lest I should by implication charge the holy patriarchs and pillars of our faith, Abraham, and the others who had more than one wife at the same time, with habitual fornication and adultery, lest I should be forced to exclude from the sanctuary of God as spurious the holy offspring which sprang from them, yes, the whole of the sons of Israel, for whom the sanctuary itself was made. For it is said (Deut. 22: 2): “A bastard shall not enter into the congregation of Jehovah, even to his tenth generation”. Either, therefore, polygamy is a true marriage or all children born in that state are spurious: which would include the whole race of Jacob, the twelve holy tribes chosen by God. But as such an assertion would be absurd in the extreme, not to say impious, and as it is the height of injustice, as well as an example of most dangerous tendency in religion, ‘to account as sin what is not such in reality’, it appears true that, so far from the question respecting the lawfulness of polygamy being trivial, it is of the highest importance that it should be decided.”

(John Milton-A treatise on Christian Doctrine)

“Before Islam, a woman was not free to contract her marriage. It was the right of the father, brother, cousin, or any other male guardian, to give her in marriage, whether she was old or young, widow or virgin, to whomsoever he chose. Her consent was of no significance. There was even a practice prevalent of marrying women by force. This often happened on the death of a man leaving widows. His son or other heir would immediately cast a sheet of cloth on each of the widows (excepting his natural mother), and this was a symbol that he had annexed them to himself. If a widow escaped to her relations before the sheet was thrown over her, the heirs of the deceased would refuse to pay the dower. This custom is described as the inheriting of a deceased man’s widows by his heirs, who in such cases would divide them among themselves like goods. There was no restriction as to the number of wives a man could take. The only limit was that imposed by his means, opportunity and inclinations. Unrestricted polygamy which was sanctioned by usage was freely rampant. This was exclusive of the number of slave girls which a man might possess.

The limits of relationship within which marriage was prohibited were narrow and defined only by close degrees of consanguinity. There can be no doubt that a man could not marry his mother, grandmother, sister, daughter or grand-daughter, and perhaps he was not allowed to marry his aunt or niece. But those among them “that followed the Magian religion could marry their own daughters and sisters.” An Arab was permitted to take as his wife his step-mother, cousin, wife’s sisters, and could combine in marriage two sisters or a woman and her niece. It is doubtful whether he could marry his mother-in-law or step-daughter. Unrestrained as an Arab was in the number of his wives, he was likewise absolutely free to release himself from the marital tie. His power in this connection was absolute and he was not required or expected to assign any reason for its exercise, nor was he under the necessity of observing any particular procedure. The word commonly used for this purpose was ‘Talaq’. It depended upon his discretion whether he would dissolve the marriage absolutely and thus set the woman free to marry or not. He might, if he so chose, revoke the divorce and resume marital connection. Sometimes an Arab would pronounce ‘Talaq’ ten times and take his wife back, and again divorce her and again take her back, and so on. The wife in such a predicament was entirely at the mercy of the husband, and would not know when she was free. Sometimes the husband would renounce his wife by means of what was called a suspensory divorce. This procedure did not dissolve the marriage, but it only enabled the husband to refuse to live with his wife, while the latter was not at liberty to marry again. The wife among the Arabs had no corresponding right to release herself from the marriage bond. But her parents by a friendly arrangement with the husband could obtain a separation by returning the dower if it had been paid, or by agreeing to forego it if not paid. Such an arrangement was called ‘Khula’, and by it the marriage tie would be absolutely dissolved.”

(Abdur Rahim-Muhammadan Jurisprudence.)

“Where polygamy exists, it is sometimes the chiefs who are permitted to have a plurality of wives. Besides, just as in the case of polyandry, almost everywhere it is confined to a very small part of the people, the majority being monogamous. It is so among all Muhammadan people, in Asia and Europe, as well as in Africa.’ ‘Ninety-five per cent of the Muhammadans of India, for instance, are said to be monogamists,’ and in Persia, it is reported, only two per cent of the population enjoy the questionable luxury of ‘plurality of wives.”

(Howard-History of Matrimonial Institutions.)

“He (Muhammad) restrained polygamy by limiting the maximum number of contemporaneous marriages and by making absolute equity towards all obligatory for the man. It is worthy of note that the clause in the Quran, which contains the permission to contract four contemporaneous marriages is immediately followed by a sentence which cuts down the significance of the preceding passage to its normal and legitimate dimensions. The former passage says: ‘you may marry two three of four wives but no more’. The subsequent lines declare: ‘But if you cannot deal equitably and justly with all, you shall marry only one.’ The extreme importance of this provision bearing especially in mind the meaning which is attached to the word equity (adl) in the Quranic teachings, has not been lost sight of by the great thinkers of the Muslim world.”

(Ameer Ali-Muhammadan Law)

“The Muhammadan law undoubtedly contemplates monogamy as the ideal to be aimed at, but concedes to a man the right to have more than one wife, not exceeding four, at one and the same time, provided he is able to deal with them on a footing of equality and justice. This is in accord with the scheme of Islamic legislation which sets up certain moral ideals to be gradually realised by the community, positively forbidding only such acts as must clearly be injurious to social and individual life at all times.”

(Abdur Rahim).

Verse 177 of al-Baqarah says that piety does not lie in turning the face to east or west-piety lies (among other deeds mentioned therein) in “freeing the slaves”, therefore, the application of what your right hands own” has become, step by step, beyond the bounds of possibility.

In verse 195 of Ali Imran the parenthetical phrase “one of you from the other” makes it clear that men and women are counter-parts to each other and of the same human status.

In the end we quote below verse 129 of this surah which is self-explanatory:

Howsoever you may try you will never be able to treat your wives justly. But do not incline (to one) exclusively and leave (the other) . suspended (as it were). Yet if you effect a reconciliation and safeguard yourselves with full awareness of divine laws, Allah is oftforgiving, merciful.

Concisely, Islam, in unequivocal terms, though indirectly, deprecates polygamy.

وَآتُوا النِّسَاءَ صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً ۚ فَإِنْ طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَنْ شَيْءٍ مِنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيئًا مَرِيئًا {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:4]

The translation itself contains the clear guidance. Payment of dowry, either a sum of money or other form of property, to the wife is no obligation, prescribed by the law, on the husband.

The right to receive husband’s wealth gives the woman an honourable status as a human being. Also refer to verse 7 of this surah.

وَلَا تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَامًا وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:5]

Before handing over the property to an orphan, when he or she attains the age of majority, it must be positively ascertained that the orphan is not immature, because property, as a means of support and sustenance, is a thing to be valued, and not to be spent away wastefully or to be foolishly squandered; otherwise it should be managed by a guardian. The property of a ward should be managed in a profitable way by investing it in trade or industry so that from its profit the ward or wards may be properly maintained, without consuming the capital.

“Speaking to them (treating them) with kindness” could only be prescribed by a religion which has been completed and perfected by a kind and merciful Lord.

وَابْتَلُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغُوا النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُمْ مِنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَادْفَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوهَا إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَنْ يَكْبَرُوا ۚ وَمَنْ كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ ۖ وَمَنْ كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ حَسِيبًا {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:6]

The translation itself provides the clear directions.

لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ ۚ نَصِيبًا مَفْرُوضًا {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:7]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 180.

In Islam womanhood or childhood is no bar to the inheritance as it had been in the past, not only in Arabia but in many parts of the ancient world.

This Islamic law of inheritance is a land-mark in the history of legal and social reform. In pre-Islamic world wives, daughters and sisters were excluded altogether from inheritance.

In Islam both the men and women are given the right of inheritance. The cardinal principle of inheritance is to distribute the wealth among all near relatives, and not to let it accumulate in the hands of one person-a wise and effective check on concentration of wealth in few hands.

وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُولُو الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُمْ مِنْهُ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:8]

Distant and remote relatives, who are not legal heirs of the deceased, have also been accommodated in the most benevolent social order of the world-Islam.

وَلْيَخْشَ الَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُوا مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعَافًا خَافُوا عَلَيْهِمْ فَلْيَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْيَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:9]

The Holy Prophet said:

Those who have devoured the possessions of the orphans unjustly will breathe blazing fire on the day of resurrection. Such people must fear the situation if they were to leave weak children behind them. How concerned would they be for them? So they must safeguard themselves with full awareness of Allah’s laws, otherwise they will surely burn in hell.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا ۖ وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:10] (see commentary for verse 9)

يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِنْ كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ ۚ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ ۚ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ فَرِيضَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:11]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In these two verses the issue of distribution of wealth, left by the deceased, has been precisely settled, taking into consideration the interest of every individual related by blood. In view of al-Anfal: 75 and al-Ahzab: 6, the standard principle is to prefer those who are related by blood; and among such relatives the closer prevents the more remote in the chain of relation, and lineage is more eligible than the distant kinship; and among the distant kinship those closer to the lineage restrict the less-connected; and those who are paternally and maternally related are preferred over those who are either only paternally related Or only maternally related. (For details refer to fiqh).

By violating the Quranic law, those who took the power after the departure of the Holy Prophet, deprived Fatimah from his inheritance, although the Holy Prophet had bequeathed the garden of Fadak to his daughter, Bibi Fatimah Zahra. (Durr al-Manthur, Yanabi al-Muwaddah, Jawahir al-Tafsir, Kanz al-Ummal). Refer to the biography of Fatimah Zahra published by the Peermohammed Ebrahim Trust to know the full account of the issue of Fadak.

وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ ۚ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۚ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ ۚ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ وَإِنْ كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِنْ كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ ۚ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَىٰ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ ۚ وَصِيَّةً مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ{12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:12] (see commentary for verse 11)

تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ{13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:13]

In continuation of the preceding verses it is clearly pointed out here that the Quranic law cannot be subjected to human interference. Complying with the commandments of Allah and His prophet is the duty of the faithfuls, then alone they will enter the land of eternal bliss.

Those who either bring in “fabricated sayings” of the Holy Prophet or act on their own judgement to set aside the decrees of Allah (as had been done in the case of Fadak in complete disregard to the final decrees of Allah) shall go to hell.

وَمَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:14] (see commentary for verse 13)

وَاللَّاتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمْ فَاسْتَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةً مِنْكُمْ ۖ فَإِنْ شَهِدُوا فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِي الْبُيُوتِ حَتَّىٰ يَتَوَفَّاهُنَّ الْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لَهُنَّ سَبِيلًا {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:15]

Fahisha in its general significance is “an excess, an enormity, anything exceeding the bounds of rectitude”, but when particularised, signifies “adultery or fornication”, and, in this context, evidently means an act of adultery.

The evidence in the case of adultery must be, according to the law of Islam, ocular, not hearsay, conjectural or circumstantial. Every possible safeguard is taken against hasty and unfounded accusations. When four men testify that they saw with their eyes the actual carnal conjunction, punishments mentioned in this verse, can be inflicted.

For “or Allah provides some other way for them” (through His Prophet) refer to fiqh.

وَاللَّذَانِ يَأْتِيَانِهَا مِنْكُمْ فَآذُوهُمَا ۖ فَإِنْ تَابَا وَأَصْلَحَا فَأَعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ تَوَّابًا رَحِيمًا {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:16]

The crime, mentioned here, is adultery. Adhuhuma-hurt or punish both of them.

If they sincerely repent and reform, Allah accepts repentance because He is merciful.

Repentance has for its elements:-

(i) no premeditation but ignorance,

(ii) immediate realisation of the offence,

(iii) enlightenment of the heart,

(iv) detestation of the sin,

(v) a resolve to avoid it in the future,

(vi) an earnest craving for Allah’s forgiveness.

It is stated that a faithful commits a sin, inspite of the knowledge of the law, under the satanic influence, in a fit of passion or in a moment of forgetfulness.

Allah does not accept the repentance of those who continue indulging in sin until death draws near, nor of those who die disbelieving.

إِنَّمَا التَّوْبَةُ عَلَى اللَّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِنْ قَرِيبٍ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:17] (see commentary for verse 16)

وَلَيْسَتِ التَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّي تُبْتُ الْآنَ وَلَا الَّذِينَ يَمُوتُونَ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:18] (see commentary for verse 16)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَرِثُوا النِّسَاءَ كَرْهًا ۖ وَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُوا بِبَعْضِ مَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُبَيِّنَةٍ ۚ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِنْ كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَىٰ أَنْ تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَيَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:19]

In pagan Arabia, widows were divided amongst the heirs of a deceased as goods and cattle. The heir either married the widow to some one else and kept her dower, or refused to let her marry unless he was paid a handsome amount as a settlement, or else married her himself. Another manoeuvring was to harass the wives by imprisoning them in their houses in order that they might be forced to claim separation and thus to relinquish their dower or their inheritance. All such barbaric customs were swept aside by this verse.

If the wife is at fault, then it is she who must relinquish her dower, whole or in part, to obtain separation. For details refer to fiqh.

Understanding the biological handicaps of women, men should live with them with tolerance and justice, even if they do not love them, because men may not like a thing, yet Allah might have endued it with goodness. Love, justice, goodwill and fair treatment is the essence of the matrimonial code of Islam.

وَإِنْ أَرَدْتُمُ اسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَكَانَ زَوْجٍ وَآتَيْتُمْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ قِنْطَارًا فَلَا تَأْخُذُوا مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ أَتَأْخُذُونَهُ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُبِينًا {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:20]

It is prohibited to falsely accuse a woman of adultery to obtain a divorce by forfeiting her dowry. For details refer to fiqh.

وَكَيْفَ تَأْخُذُونَهُ وَقَدْ أَفْضَىٰ بَعْضُكُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَأَخَذْنَ مِنْكُمْ مِيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:21] (see commentary for verse 20)

وَلَا تَنْكِحُوا مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُمْ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَمَقْتًا وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:22]

It has been prohibited to marry the women who were the wives of one’s father.

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الْأَخِ وَبَنَاتُ الْأُخْتِ وَأُمَّهَاتُكُمُ اللَّاتِي أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَائِكُمْ وَرَبَائِبُكُمُ اللَّاتِي فِي حُجُورِكُمْ مِنْ نِسَائِكُمُ اللَّاتِي دَخَلْتُمْ بِهِنَّ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُونُوا دَخَلْتُمْ بِهِنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَحَلَائِلُ أَبْنَائِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَابِكُمْ وَأَنْ تَجْمَعُوا بَيْنَ الْأُخْتَيْنِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:23]

This verse contains the list of women whom one cannot marry. For details refer to fiqh.

For comparison refer to Leviticus 18: 6 to 18.

وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُمْ مَا وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَنْ تَبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ ۚ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:24] Muhsanat means well-guarded or protected. They are married women (free and slave), minors and insane females.

“Save those whom your right hands own” signifies “such married women as shall come in your possession as prisoners of war”. Such women, when not taken back on payment of ransom or through negotiation, are lawful as wives, even though their previous marriage has not been formally dissolved, provided the infidel woman becomes a Muslim.

Famastamta-tum bihi provides for a temporary marriage, known as muta. It has been specifically made lawful by the Quran and the Holy Prophet, therefore, this provision subsists as unrescinded.

One day, for no reason at all, and having no authority to amend a law given and practised by the Holy Prophet, the second caliph declared from the pulpit:

“Two mutas (temporary marriage and combining hajj with umra) were in force during the time of the Holy Prophet, but now I decree both of them as unlawful; and I will punish those who practise them.”

(Tafsir Kabir, Durr al-Manthur, Kashshaf, Mustadrak and others).

According to Tirmidhi even his son, Ibn Umar, refused to agree with his father’s action because it was made lawful by Allah and His Prophet, whose pronouncements could never be revoked by any one after him.

Therefore the Shia school of thought (Islam-original) holds both the mutas lawful. Ali ibn abi Talib reversed the uncalled-for innovation of the second caliph, and thereafter it was never again prohibited.

The Maliki school of thought also holds muta as lawful.

وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنْكُمْ طَوْلًا أَنْ يَنْكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِنْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ مِنْ فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِكُمْ ۚ بَعْضُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ ۚ فَانْكِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ وَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ مُحْصَنَاتٍ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحَاتٍ وَلَا مُتَّخِذَاتِ أَخْدَانٍ ۚ فَإِذَا أُحْصِنَّ فَإِنْ أَتَيْنَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ فَعَلَيْهِنَّ نِصْفُ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْصَنَاتِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ الْعَنَتَ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَأَنْ تَصْبِرُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:25]

Those who do not afford to marry a free believing woman and fear to fall into sin of adultery can marry a believing bondswoman, with the consent of her guardian and after paying the dowry to her.

“Allah knows best your faith” implies that a bondswoman may be more honourable with her Lord than her free husband.

If the married bondswoman is guilty of adultery inflict on her half the punishment enjoined for free women.

يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ سُنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:26]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

From Adam to Muhammad the right path unto Allah remained the same, so the tendency of man to rebel against the divine authority also did not change.

The Holy Prophet said:

“You will continue to walk on the path of earlier people of the book. If they had crept into the hole of a lizard, you will also do as they did.”

وَاللَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الشَّهَوَاتِ أَنْ تَمِيلُوا مَيْلًا عَظِيمًا {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:27]

Allah desires to bestow His grace on His creatures by showing them the right path, but those who are lost in the pleasures of the world wish to lead them astray, far away from true guidance.

يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُخَفِّفَ عَنْكُمْ ۚ وَخُلِقَ الْإِنْسَانُ ضَعِيفًا {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:28] (see commentary for verse 27)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:29]

Every believer’s property is his own-Islam gives the right to own private property.

Fairplay and honesty in trade has been emphasised, and dishonesty has been described as killing one another.

وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:30]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The punishment announced in this verse indicates the importance Islam gives to honesty and fairplay in trade and commerce. The breach of the law of property and murder are grave crimes, severely punishable; and whoso denies its validity is an infidel.

إِنْ تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُمْ مُدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:31]

One should keep away from the grave and deadly sins that have been forbidden, but any sin, however trivial, becomes deadly if done under the impression that “after all it is pardonable”; andisrar (obstinate persistence) makes it deadlier than the deadliest sins.

Sin, committed at the spur of a moment, or in a heat of passion without the thought of Allah in the mind, are pardonable; but if at any moment the thought of Allah comes into mind as a punisher or pardoner, while committing the sin, yet carried out, then the sin is grave and deadly, and therefore, unpardonable.

وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّهَ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:32]

Allah has preferred some people over others. There is no place for jealousy and covetousness. Yet each will be recompensed in the hereafter justly. There will be no discrimination in the matter of reward and punishment. In Allah’s sight, as responsible moral agents, both men and women are equal. Therefore, instead of coveting for what “the other” has one should invoke Allah for moral perfection and spiritual development.

وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَآتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدًا {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:33]

Mawaliya means legal heirs (as described in verses 11 and 12 of this surah).

“Those with whom your right hands have made a pledge” implies successors by covenant without prejudice to the right of the legal heirs.

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:34]

In verse 228 of al-Baqarah Allah says that women also have rights as men have but men are a degree above women. In this verse it is again stated that men are the guardians of women as He has made the male sex excel over the female sex. This is the will of an all-wise and almighty Lord.

The equality before law should not be confused with the equality of the complex of subjective and original qualities. Even the messengers and prophets of Allah are not equal in status due to their innate and endowed essence. “We have made some of these messengers to excel others”, says the almighty , Allah in verse 253 of al-Baqarah.

Qanitatun means devoted to Allah, therefore, a woman who obeys Allah must accept His command and acknowledge her duties she has to perform to please her husband who spends of his wealth to provide for her. She must also watch over his property and his interests, attend to his needs, and above all guard her chastity.

In case a perverse woman (wife) refuses to mend her ways (very common among the low-bred and ignorant women of easy virtue) then the husband can admonish her, and even stop sleeping with her, but if the corrective measures fail to refine her, he can take harsher steps to make her qanitatun (devoted and obedient to Allah).

To understand the true purport of this verse, it is essential to keep in mind verse 21 of al-Rum.

“Another of His signs is that He created out of you mates of your own kind so that you may find repose in them, and has instilled (ordained) love and kindness between you. Verily there are signs in this for those who reflect.”

In many verses it has been ordained to, treat women with kindness and to speak to them gently.

The Holy Prophet said:

“Never beat Allah’s handmaidens.”

“The best of you is he who is kind to his wife.”

There is not a single event of wife-beating or child-abuse in the lives of the Holy Prophet and his holy Ahl ul Bayt.

Fala tabghu alayhinna is a warning to the unscrupulous husbands not to seek an excuse for resorting to the conditional provision allowed to discipline the depraved women only.

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا إِنْ يُرِيدَا إِصْلَاحًا يُوَفِّقِ اللَّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:35]

If reconciliation between the husband and the wife cannot be made by themselves, the matter should be referred to the arbiters-one from the husband’s family and one from the wife’s family.

Reconciliation through compromise and settlement is better than separation (divorce). Allah desires harmony among the husband and wife. Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 227, according to which (unto Allah and the Holy Prophet) divorce is the most loathsome of the permissible acts.

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالْجَنْبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:36]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 215. The translation itself contains the clear instructions.

الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:37]

Those who are miserly and bid others to be so, and hide what Allah has given them, or spend of their wealth to show off have been condemned as unbelievers, the companions of Shaytan.

وَالَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۗ وَمَنْ يَكُنِ الشَّيْطَانُ لَهُ قَرِينًا فَسَاءَ قَرِينًا {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:38] (see commentary for verse 37)

وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَأَنْفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِهِمْ عَلِيمًا {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:39] (see commentary for verse 37)

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ ۖ وَإِنْ تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَاعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِنْ لَدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:40]

Allah is just. He not only rewards in full every good action but also lets goodness generate more goodness.

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ شَهِيدًا {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:41]

Shahid means a witness, and when ala follows shahid it means a raqib or muhaymin (a close watcher and a careful observer). Please refer to al-Baqarah: 143. Also refer to al-Rad: 43; al-Hud: 17; al-Nahl: 84 and 89. Allah shall bring, from among every people, a witness, and bring the Holy Prophet as a witness over those witnesses. It indicates that the Holy Prophet was present in the times of all the prophets. He is also a witness over the holy Imams. His spiritual and essential presence in all times to witness the performance of the divinely commissioned messengers and guides proves that he was fully aware of the revelations revealed to Allah’s messengers and the agency which communicated the revelations, so it is a blasphemy to say that he did not recognise angel Jibrail when he first came to him to convey Allah’s message. (Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 2).

The Holy Prophet said:

I existed as messenger of Allah even before the creation of Adam.

“Those who disbelieved and disobeyed the prophet” have been warned that in the hereafter they shall be punished just like the disbelievers. Those who persecuted, tortured and caused the death of the daughter of the Holy Prophet and her children (Ahl ul Bayt) come into the category of those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Holy Prophet. Please refer to the commentary of verses 8 to 20 on page 51.

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَعَصَوُا الرَّسُولَ لَوْ تُسَوَّىٰ بِهِمُ الْأَرْضُ وَلَا يَكْتُمُونَ اللَّهَ حَدِيثًا {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:42] (see commentary for verse 41)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا ۚ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:43] Sukara may mean the state of intoxication, or, according to Imam Muhammad bin Ali al-Baqir, slumber and sleepiness.

Junuban means the state of seminal pollution- after the emission of semen, either in waking or in sleep. A total ablution or bathing is obligatory before praying the salat. Physical cleanliness, in Islam, is a sine qua non for moral and spiritual purification. If water is unobtainable (or injurious to health) tayammum should be performed.

(For method of performing tayammum please refer to books on fiqh.)

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِنَ الْكِتَابِ يَشْتَرُونَ الضَّلَالَةَ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَضِلُّوا السَّبِيلَ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:44]

“A portion of the book” indicates that the Tawrat and the Injil were not whole or complete. Please refer to John 16: 12 and 13 (mentioned on page 79). Also refer to Matthew 15: 22 to 26 wherein Isa says that he was sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and to them alone, therefore, he had commanded his disciples not to take the road to gentile lands, nor enter any Samaritan town; but to go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel to preach the Gospel. (Matthew 10 : 5 to 7).

What Allah says about the Quran and the Holy Prophet is as follows:-

O People of the book! Now Our messenger has come to you, expounding to you much of that which you used to hide in the scripture, and passing over much. Now has come to you light from Allah and a plain scripture.

(Ma-idah: 15)

We have not sent you save as mercy for the worlds.

(Anbiya: 107)

We have sent you as a messenger unto mankind and Allah is sufficient as witness.

(Nisa: 79)

We have not sent you save as a bearer of good tidings and a warner unto all mankind, but most of mankind know not.

(Saba: 28)

وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِأَعْدَائِكُمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ نَصِيرًا {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:45]

The believers have been exhorted to depend upon Allah alone who is their guardian and protector .

مِنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَاسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَرَاعِنَا لَيًّا بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْنًا فِي الدِّينِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَاسْمَعْ وَانْظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ وَأَقْوَمَ وَلَٰكِنْ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:46]

Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 75 to 79 and 104.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ آمِنُوا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا مَعَكُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ نَطْمِسَ وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهَا أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّا أَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولًا {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:47]

Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 40 to 42, and for “sabbath” al-Baqarah: 65.

“Before We alter their faces” means disfigure their visages beyond recognition.

“Turn them towards their back” means (according to Imam Muhammad bin Ali al-Baqir) reverting the people of the book to their previous position when there was no divine guidance.

It is reported that there were Jews like Abdullah bin Salam and Kabul Ahbar who were sure that the Holy Prophet was the promised prophet but due to false pride had not openly embraced the true faith of Islam. On hearing this verse they openly became Muslim.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:48]

This verse makes clear the indescribable enormity of the sin of polytheism. The most loathsome heresy is shirk, giving to Allah a partner. The exposition of the existence of Allah should be set forth in such a way as always to emphasise His absolute unity.

“Giving currency to an innovation (in the sense of alteration and deviation) and praising those who follow it and condemning those who oppose it” is the starting point of shirk, in the opinion of Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al-Sadiq, according to Umdatul Bayan by Sayyid Ammar Ali.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۚ بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:49]

Those who falsely claim themselves purified are the liars. It is Allah who purifies whomsoever He wills as has been done through al-Ahzab: 33. The holy Ahl ul Bayt are the only people who have been thoroughly purified by Allah.

Any false claim about one’s own self or others in the matter of religious facts is like fabricating a lie against Allah, which is a manifest sin, severely punishable.

انْظُرْ كَيْفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ ۖ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِ إِثْمًا مُبِينًا {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:50] (see commentary for verse 49)

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا سَبِيلًا {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:51]

Jibt means sorcery and taghut means rebel or devil-also the names of the two idols the Quraysh worshipped. Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 256. The reference is to the Jews who, by going astray from the path of pure monotheism of Musa, had given currency to sorcery and devildom in order to form an alliance with the idolatrous Arabs. By siding with the pagans the Jews showed their preference for idolatry. Their tacit approval of idolatry has been pointed out in this verse. The Jews said openly that the pagans were better guided than the Muslims.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The words Jibt and taghut refer to any ungodly authority which claims inspiration, intuition or special communion with the unseen. This also applies to any temporal authority without the divine sanction.

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَنْ يَلْعَنِ اللَّهُ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ نَصِيرًا {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:52]

“Allah has cursed” indicates that cursing those who have gone astray (and by throwing the commandments of Allah and the teachings of the Holy Prophet to the winds inflicted pain and misery on the Ahl ul Bayt) is a godly act.

“And whosoever Allah curses, for him you shall not find a helper” means that neither their ostentatious good deeds, nor the invocations of blessings by their friends and followers on their behalf will save them from the eternal punishment.

أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:53]

The kingdom of Allah granted to the children of Is-haq was taken away from them after Isa, and was transferred to the children of Ismail. Refer to Matthew 21: 41 to 45.

So niggardly of spirit are the Jews that no one will be benefited if they happen to own a kingdom.

أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَا آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُمْ مُلْكًا عَظِيمًا {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:54]

It was the “house of Ibrahim” which was promised leadership in religion and greatness as a nation. Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 124 to know how the divine kingdom was transferred to the descendants of Ismail, the son of Ibrabim,-the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, whom Allah has given the book, the wisdom and a great kingdom.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to this verse the descendants of Ibrahim, through Ismail, have been given the book and the wisdom and the authority to guide and lead mankind, because they are foremost in total submission to Allah. Mankind has been enjoined to follow and obey them, even if they do not hold any defacto power, which the descendants of Ismail had for a very brief period in the times of the Holy Prophet and Ali ibn abi Talib. If authority means defacto temporal power, then there is no room for dividing the people into believers and unbelievers in verse 55.

فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ صَدَّ عَنْهُ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:55] (see commentary for verse 54)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:56]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Those who disbelieve Allah’s signs shall be cast into fire, and when their skin (jild) is burnt up, then Allah shall give them a new skin so that they may go on tasting the agony of punishment. The continuous torment or comfort will be physical as well as spiritual. The outer structure of the body communicates the feelings of pain or pleasure to the soul, and as the cognitive self is not changed, the renewed outer structure, though had not committed the sin, yet will be used to convey pain or pleasure to the unchangeable soul. None of the senses will ever be destroyed but will be made sharper to taste pain or pleasure. Refer to al-Qaf: 20 to 22. This verse refers to the continuity of a process, therefore, it negates the theory of transmigration of the soul-return of the departed soul to another body which has a soul of its own.

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ لَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِلًّا ظَلِيلًا {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:57]

See the commentary of al-Baqarah: 25.

“Coolest of shades” means the blissful shadow of the divine attributes and the holy names referred to in verses 31, 32, 33, 37 of al-Baqarah. In view of verse 61 of Ali Imran, verse 33 of al-Ahzab and verse 23 of Al Shura, a believer must love and cherish the Ahl ul Bayt to deserve the rewards mentioned in this verse. Without love and attachment with the Ahl ul Bayt one cannot truly follow the right path, moreover, a person who does not pay the wages of prophethood (Shura: 23) is not a believer at all.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَنْ تَحْكُمُوا بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُمْ بِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:58]

Please refer to the commentary of verses 11 to 14 of this surah and our publication “Biography of Bibi Fatimah Zahra” to know how those who took power after the departure of the Holy Prophet violated the divine commands enjoined in this verse when the property of “Fadak”, bequeathed to his daughter by the Holy Prophet, was forcibly taken away from Bibi Fatimah Zahra.

Imam Muhammad bin Ali al-Baqir said:

Rendering to the owners what is held in trust (amanat) is one of the pillars of faith (Iman), be the owner a murderer of Imam Husayn.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ ۖ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:59]

“Obey Allah and obey the messenger and the ulil amr (those vested with authority through His messenger).”

The command to obey is infinite-total obedience in all material, religious and spiritual matters, therefore, as this verse clearly signifies, the ulil amr must also be as just, wise and merciful as Allah and the Holy Prophet are, and he who – administers the affairs of mankind should be the khalifatullah (vicegerent of Allah) and the waliallah (representative of Allah whom He chooses after equipping him with His wisdom). Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 30 to 39 and 124; and al-Ma-idah: 55 and 56 and 3 and 67 with reference to the event at Ghadir Khum; and al-Rad: 43; and al-Hud: 17. A careful study of the above references discloses that Ali, and after him, the remaining eleven Imams, in the progeny of the Holy Prophet, Ali and Fatimah, are the true successors of the Holy Prophet who have been referred to as ulil amr in this verse. So the Shias obey and follow the Holy Prophet and the twelve Imams.

It is irrational and senseless to accept any ruler as ulil amr, otherwise men like Yazid bin Mu-awiya will have to be included in the category of ulil amr; and no sane person would say that Allah has enjoined to obey men like Yazid (prototypes of whom were and are many and in abundance since the departure of the Holy Prophet till today) just as one obeys Allah and the Holy Prophet.

From the event of ashira (feast of the near relatives to carry out the divine command of “warn your tribe of near relatives”) to the day at Ghadir Khum, the Holy Prophet repeatedly announced the successorship of Ali, therefore, the first step a true Muslim must take to obey the messenger of Allah is to obey and follow Ali ibn abi Talib. Also refer to the “Right Path” and “Peshawar Nights”, published by the Peermohammed Ebrahim Trust or Zahra Publications, because the issue of ulil amr and wali has been discussed in depth in these books with authentic references from the well-known books of tafsir (exegesis) and hadith (traditions) written by the Muslim scholars.

Today the Muslim ummah (from Indonesia to Morocco) is in a quandary, because the theoreticians who directly or indirectly served the interests of the despotic rulers, have presented “the obedience to ruler” (even if he is an usurper, a rogue or a ruffian) as a fundamental of religion (known as the theory of ghlu and ghalba-violence and conquest) by misinterpreting this verse. Such theoreticians are their Imams. There is no way leading to emancipation from terror and exploitation if this theory is not rightly rejected once and for all. It is not possible unless the sincere Muslims submit to the teachings of the Ahl ul Bayt.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:60]

“What has been revealed to you” is the Quran, and “what had been revealed before you” are the Tawrat and the Injil.

It is reported that Kab bin Ashraff, a Jew, is compared to the taghut.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Taghut, in this verse, means a devil in human form. According to the Ahl ul Bayt, taghut invariably refers to any unauthorised claimant of power whom men may obey and follow. Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 256.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنْكَ صُدُودًا {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:61]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“What Allah has sent down to the messenger” means the Quran.

This verse refers to those who submit to the opinions of others in the matters of religion instead of obtaining guidance from the Quran and the teachings of the Holy Prophet. For example to rely on ijma (opinion of the unauthorised persons) to settle a religious issue, which is described to be the method of the hypocrites.

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَاءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:62]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

It refers to those who, by nature hypocrites, introduce unwarranted reforms and innovations, contrary to the teachings of the Quran and the Holy Prophet, to accommodate non-Islamic theories; and when evil consequences confront them, they say that it was done to bring good and amity.

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَعِظْهُمْ وَقُلْ لَهُمْ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ قَوْلًا بَلِيغًا {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:63]

Qawlan baligha means effective, chaste, rational, impressive and penetrating arguments.

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَحِيمًا {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:64]

It is the will of Allah that people should obey the Holy Prophet. If the sinners approach the Holy Prophet, he will speak on their behalf to Allah, because He has given him the authority to intercede on behalf of the repentant sinners; and on his (and his Ahl ul Bayt’s) recommendation. Allah forgives the sinners, as has been clearly mentioned in this verse. Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 48.

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:65]

The opening phrase of this verse (No, by your Lord) asserts that the decision of Allah is final and irrevocable. Allah has decreed that the Holy Prophet’s judgements, decisions and directions (concerning all material, spiritual, personal and public matters) should be accepted and carried out by his followers, else profession of their faith would not be genuine and sincere.

Fima shajara baynahum gives unlimited powers to the Holy Prophet.

Thumma la yajidu fi anfusihim seals the decisive nature of the Holy Prophet’s judgements, decisions and directions. No one has any right whatsoever to disagree with him in thought and action.

Yusallimu taslima implies total surrender to him without any reservation.

From the “feast of the near relatives” to the event at Ghadir Khum the Holy Prophet had clearly given his judgement, decision and direction (under the command of Allah) to his followers to follow Ali, after him, in all material, spiritual, personal and public matters. Please refer to the commentary of al-Ma-idah: 67.

The companions of the Holy Prophet, after him, in a great hurry, held conferences in Saqifa bani Sa-ida to choose his successor, by ignoring his clear directions, inspite of this verse. It was a deliberate scheme to deprive the Muslim ummah from the divinely decreed leadership of Ali and his descendants. By doing so they not only violated the commands of Allah and the directions of the Holy Prophet but also condemned the Muslim ummah to an everlasting perdition.

There are two groups of the Holy Prophet’s successors:

(1) The twelve Imams, the descendants of Ibrahim, Ismail and the Holy Prophet, well-known to the Muslim ummah, from Imam Ali ibn abi Talib to Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al-Mahdi (refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 124).

(2) The crafty rulers openly opposed and persecuted the twelve Imams and their families, friends and followers. Most of them were drunkards, gamblers and ruffians. To know the true colour of the Umayyid and Abbaside caliphs please refer to Hitti’s History of the Arabs or any important book of history written by a Muslim or a non-Muslim historian.

The sincere seekers of truth can easily select their Imams whom they want to follow from among these two groups.

It was the misfortune of the Muslim ummah that they made a wrong decision after the departure of the Holy Prophet. Even at the last moment he asked his companions to bring a sheet of paper and a pen so that he could write that which would prevent them from going astray, after him, but the people around him did not want him to commit his will in writing. One of them said:

“The book of Allah is sufficient for us.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Fat-hul Bari, Tabrani, Tarikh Ahmadi).

This declaration by one of the companions, who also observed that “the old man was in a delirium” was a wilful contravention of this and many such verses of the Quran, because we cannot say that he was an ignorant fool who was not aware of the book of Allah.

The above-noted tradition is known as hadith al-qartas.

We again invite our readers to study pages 1 to 7, the commentary of al-Baqarah: 30 to 39; 124, 248, 249, 251; al-Ma-idah: 67 and of many verses in this book to know the fact that Imam Ali was the only true successor of the Holy Prophet, and after Imam Ali, his descendants upto Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al-Mahdi.

وَلَوْ أَنَّا كَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَنِ اقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ أَوِ اخْرُجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ مَا فَعَلُوهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ مِنْهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُوا مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتًا {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:66]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Unquestioning obedience and devotion to the Holy Prophet has been again ordained in this verse, as done in the preceding verse.

Just like the Jews, the followers of the Holy Prophet used to back out of the battles whenever commanded to lay down their lives and go forth from their homes. The battles of Badr, Uhad and Khandaq bear testimony to this fact. For details refer to Tabari and other historians. The majority of the companions failed to submit to the will of Allah.

Obedience to the Holy Prophet is not restricted to any people or age but its application is universal, till the end of this world.

Verse 159 of Ali Imran says that the Holy Prophet had been gentle with the fresh converts who were guilty of disobedience and indiscipline at Uhad, because being weak in faith they might have gone back to infidelity.

In the end, it makes the Holy Prophet’s authority final and decisive- “and when you have resolved (come to your own decision) put your trust in Allah”.

As far as the “consultation” is concerned the Holy Prophet used to hear even Abdullah bin Obay whenever he came to give him his advice (before the battle of Uhad he advised the Holy Prophet not to go to Uhad but wait in Madina to fight against the Quraysh).

وَإِذًا لَآتَيْنَاهُمْ مِنْ لَدُنَّا أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:67]

The rewards mentioned in these verses are for those who unconditionally obey and follow the judgements, decisions and directions of the Holy Prophet, (which in fact is the will of Allah), in all ages, till the end of this world. They are with those who are blessed by Allah (study this verse in the light of the commentary of verse 65 of this surah).

Nabiyyin refers to the Holy prophet.

Siddiqin refers to Imam Ali ibn abi Talib, the first man who believed in the Holy Prophet, and never worshipped a ghayrallah, was free from the dirt of polytheism from his birth to the end. Hafiz Abu Nu-aym, Muwaffaq ibn Ahmed and Ibn Hajar Makki say that verse 119 of al-Tawbah (be with the truthfuls) refers to the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt.

Shuhada and salihin refer to Imam Hasan, Imam Husayn (the greatest martyr) and the holy Imams among the Ahl ul Bayt who are unanimously acknowledged as shuhada and salihin.

وَلَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:68] (see commentary for verse 67)

وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُولَٰئِكَ رَفِيقًا {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:69] (see commentary for verse 67)

ذَٰلِكَ الْفَضْلُ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ عَلِيمًا {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:70]

To be in the company of the Holy Prophet, Imam Ali ibn abi Talib and the holy Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt is the highest possible elevation, therefore, certainly this is the grace of Allah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In verse 40 of al-Naml, through the grace of Allah (bestowed on a person who had a partial knowledge of the book) the queen of Shiba was brought before Sulayman in the twinkling of an eye. It is therefore logical to state that as Allah has bestowed (all) His grace on the Holy Prophet (the complete knowledge of the whole book), he had the ability and power to effect extraordinary events (miracles) whenever he wanted to do so. Besides the Holy Prophet, in the light of al-Hud: 17 and al-Rad: 43, and Allah’s injunction for first recitation of surah Bara-at before the infidels of Makka by the Holy Prophet himself or by one who is from the Holy Prophet, Ali ibn abi Talib is the person who had the complete knowledge of the book, therefore he is also known as mazhar al-aja-ib. The “Imaman wa rahmatan (guide and mercy)” and “the witness between the Holy Prophet and the people is he who has the knowledge of the book” is Imam Ali (see commentary of al-Hud : 17 and al-Rad 43 for authentic references).

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا خُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ فَانْفِرُوا ثُبَاتٍ أَوِ انْفِرُوا جَمِيعًا {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:71]

Fight against your enemies to defend yourselves and your faith.

وَإِنَّ مِنْكُمْ لَمَنْ لَيُبَطِّئَنَّ فَإِنْ أَصَابَتْكُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ قَالَ قَدْ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيَّ إِذْ لَمْ أَكُنْ مَعَهُمْ شَهِيدًا {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:72]

These verses refer to the conduct of the hypocrites.

وَلَئِنْ أَصَابَكُمْ فَضْلٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ لَيَقُولَنَّ كَأَنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُ مَوَدَّةٌ يَا لَيْتَنِي كُنْتُ مَعَهُمْ فَأَفُوزَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:73] (see commentary for verse 72)

فَلْيُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يَشْرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَنْ يُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيُقْتَلْ أَوْ يَغْلِبْ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:74]

“In the way of Allah” implies taking part in the holy war with pure heart and clean motives, not for booty. A believing and devout warrior either wins a victory or gives his life to attain martyrdom, because ignominy of defeat is not for him. There is a mighty reward awaiting for him in the hereafter.

وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَلْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَلْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ نَصِيرًا {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:75]

The primary motive to fight should be to defend the cause of Allah and also to protect or liberate the oppressed among men, women and children.

The pagans of Makka were ungodly and oppressive. When in Makka the Muslims used to ask the Holy Prophet to fight against them, the Holy Prophet could not take the desired action because he did not receive any such command from Allah; but when the divine command to fight was revealed in Madina, most of the companions never came forward. They either watched the fighting from a safe distance or ran away from the battlefield. It was Ali who fought fearlessly and won victories in all the important battles-Badr, Uhad, Khandaq, Khaybar and many other wars.

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ الطَّاغُوتِ فَقَاتِلُوا أَوْلِيَاءَ الشَّيْطَانِ ۖ إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطَانِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:76]

The disbelievers were the soldiers of Shaytan, and as the craft of Shaytan was rendered ineffective, they were defeated and destroyed.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّوا أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً ۚ وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ ۗ قُلْ مَتَاعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:77]

Refer to the uncertain and hypocritical behaviour of the companions described in verse 75 of this surah. They were filled with fear of mortal men as though it were the fear of Allah and even more.

“Why did you O Lord, make war compulsory for us? Why did you not allow us to live a little more?”

These lamentations betray the hidden hypocrisy in their hearts which had tempted them to come into the fold of Islam for worldly gains and enjoyment of the pleasures of life, but when death loomed huge before their eyes they began to cry and wanted to stay safe in their homes.

أَيْنَمَا تَكُونُوا يُدْرِكْكُمُ الْمَوْتُ وَلَوْ كُنْتُمْ فِي بُرُوجٍ مُشَيَّدَةٍ ۗ وَإِنْ تُصِبْهُمْ حَسَنَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَإِنْ تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِنْدِكَ ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَالِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ الْقَوْمِ لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ حَدِيثًا {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:78]

Death is certain. It overtakes every mortal created being wheresoever he or she be, even in the safest of fortresses.

It is reported that in the year of hijrat the harvest in Madina was not as good as it used to be, therefore, the Jews availed the opportunity to attribute the bad harvest to the arrival of the Holy Prophet in order to create doubts in the minds of the newly converts. It has been made clear that everything is from Allah but what comes to us of good is verily from Allah and what comes to us of evil is from our own selves (our actions).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Please refer to the commentary of al-Fatihah: 5 pertaining to “action and reaction”.

Good and evil, blessings and punishment, are from Allah, but no distress afflicts a man unless he earns it by his own mistakes or blunders. Like bounties and blessings, misfortune also comes from the Lord but is earned by man through his own wrongdoing.

After the battle of Uhad the hypocrites held the Holy Prophet responsible for the fiasco which in fact was the result of not obeying his orders and running away from the battlefield. lt. was a misfortune they themselves caused to happen. To hold the Holy Prophet responsible for any thing means to hold Allah responsible.

The Holy Prophet was sent to the whole mankind as a messenger for all times. Also refer to al-Araf: 158; al-Anbiya.: 107; Saba: 28.

Matthew 10: 5, 6; and 15: 22 to 26 confirm that Isa was sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israil.

مَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِنْ نَفْسِكَ ۚ وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا {79}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:79] (see commentary for verse 78)

مَنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ ۖ وَمَنْ تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا {80}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:80]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Obedience to the Holy Prophet has been declared as obedience to Allah, therefore, it must be absolute and unconditional. Refer to the commentary of verses 59 and 64 to 69 of this surah and judge the statement of the companion who refused to bring the pen and paper on the pretext that the old man was in a delirium and the book of Allah was sufficient for the Muslims.

In the light of “nor does he speak of his own desire (Najm: 3)”, if any event, contrary to this divine declaration, is stated in Sahihs or Musnads or Tafsirs of the Muslim scholars, it should be rejected outright.

وَيَقُولُونَ طَاعَةٌ فَإِذَا بَرَزُوا مِنْ عِنْدِكَ بَيَّتَ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ غَيْرَ الَّذِي تَقُولُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَكْتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَ ۖ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا {81}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:81]

This refers to the hypocrites who professed obedience to the Holy Prophet in front of him, but when alone, conspired against him.

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِنْدِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا {82}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:82]

By using reason, objective observation and independent contemplation every intelligent person comes to the conclusion that the Quran is a book from Allah, free from all human conjectures and discrepancies.

وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ ۖ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنْبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {83}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:83]

In this verse Allah again invites people to refer to the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt (ulil azm-see the commentary of verse 59 of this surah) all their affairs and problems because they alone know the truth and are authorised to guide; and if they do not, surely they will go astray in the direction of Shaytan.

And had there not been Allah’s grace (fadl) and mercy (rahmat) present among the Muslims, they would also have lived in total darkness of infidelity. Fadl and rahmat stand for the Holy Prophet and Ali ibn abi Talib. In the “feast of the near relatives” when the Holy Prophet had said that he had been commanded by Allah to call them to His worship, therefore, who would, among them, testify to his prophethood and join him to support his mission and be his brother, lieutenant, and successor, it was Ali who stood up and offered his services unconditionally. Then the Holy Prophet said, “Verily Ali is my brother and my successor. From this day it has been made obligatory upon everyone to obey the authority of Ali.” (Ibn Jarir Tabari, Ahmed ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, Hakim in Mustadrak). So, from the “feast of the near relatives” to 11 Hijra Ali stood by the Holy Prophet and supported him in his divine mission. In 11 Hijra the Holy Prophet declared at Ghadir Khum that of whomsoever he was the lord-master Ali was his lord-master (see commentary of al-Maidah: 67).

Ibn Hajar Makki writes in Sawa-iq Muhiraqa that Fadl in verse 54 of al-Nisa refers to the Ahl ul Bayt, and Tabari in Majma ul Bayan confirms it.

Please refer to the commentary of al-Hud: 17 to know the authentic references which say that shahidun and imaman wa rahmatan (witness, guide and mercy) was Imam Ali ibn abi Talib. Also refer to the well-known books of history which clearly mention the decisive role Ali played in the battles of Badr, Uhad, Khandaq, Khaybar and many other wars, to confirm that it was Ali who had saved the Muslim ummah from total destruction. The Holy Prophet showed the right path and Ali guarded it.

Ali has been described as the “total faith” by the Holy Prophet in the battle of Khandaq; and after his decisive victory over Amr bin Abduwad which created terror in the hearts of a very large army of 12000 soldiers (refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 214 and 251) who en masse took to flight, the Holy Prophet declared that “one strike of Ali, on the day of Khandaq, is superior to all worship of both the worlds,” because if this one strike were not dealt there would have been no Muslims on the face of the earth.

فَقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفْسَكَ ۚ وَحَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَكُفَّ بَأْسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَشَدُّ بَأْسًا وَأَشَدُّ تَنْكِيلًا {84}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:84]

“So fight in the way of Allah” was revealed when the heathens of Makka attacked the Muslims in Madina for no reason at all. So powerful and invincible the anti-Islamic forces seemed to be that the Muslims refused to fight. Only seventy persons alongwith the Holy Prophet marched to the scene of battle, known as Badr al-sughra, but a sudden fright terrified Abu Sufyan and his men, and they went back to Makka.

مَنْ يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً حَسَنَةً يَكُنْ لَهُ نَصِيبٌ مِنْهَا ۖ وَمَنْ يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً سَيِّئَةً يَكُنْ لَهُ كِفْلٌ مِنْهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُقِيتًا {85}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:85]

He who takes part in a good cause (by deed, by prayer, or by encouragement) will surely have a share in the recompense; and similarly he who actively participates or abets an evil act will share the burden thereof.

This verse also implies tawalla (doing good, associating with the doers of good and remaining attached with them) and tabarra (avoiding evil and evildoers and expressing dislike for them).

وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُمْ بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا بِأَحْسَنَ مِنْهَا أَوْ رُدُّوهَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَسِيبًا {86}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:86]

The customary greeting in Islam is: “Assalamu alaykum-peace be on you”; while “wassalamu alaykam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu-and on you be peace and blessings of Allah”; replies another.

These gentle and cordial words of greeting each other have created a unique sense of brotherhood among the Muslims-master and servant, the rich and the poor, the learned and the unlettered, greet each other with the same dignity on both sides, leading to no loss of self-respect to either.

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۗ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حَدِيثًا {87}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:87]

See the commentary of al-Baqarah: 255 for “Allah, there is no god but He”.

Certain Makkans, professing Islam, obtained leave from the Holy Prophet to go back to Makka to fetch their merchandise, but they never returned; some joined the pagans and some went to Yemen. These verses refer to this brand of hypocrites.

فَمَا لَكُمْ فِي الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَاللَّهُ أَرْكَسَهُمْ بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَهْدُوا مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا {88}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:88] (see commentary for verse 87)

وَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاءً ۖ فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا {89}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:89]

Do not make the disbelievers and hypocrites your friends or allies. This verse also justifies the article of tabarra (avoiding evil and evildoers and expressing dislike for them).

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَاقٌ أَوْ جَاءُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَنْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُوا قَوْمَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ ۚ فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلًا {90}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:90]

Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 190 to 194 to know the Islamic injunctions regarding fighting in the way of Allah- when to fight defensive wars and when to desist from confrontation.

To destroy the aggressors, in order to dislodge the power base of infidelity, fighting has been ordained, but those who take refuge with a people allied to you, or those who, weary of fighting you or their people, come over to you and offer peace, there is no reason to fight them.

It is also true that out of their cunning and design some people wage war upon the Muslims with the help of the open and avowed enemies of Islam. If they do not keep away from you, nor offer peace, nor restrain their hands, seize them and destroy them wherever they are.

The tribes of Ghaftan and Asad were at peace with the Muslims, but when they returned to their people, they joined them to fight against the Muslims.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Fitna, in this verse, means war.

Ya-manukum, in my opinion, means giving assurance of security (not desiring it), as was the policy of the hypocrites.

سَتَجِدُونَ آخَرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَأْمَنُوكُمْ وَيَأْمَنُوا قَوْمَهُمْ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوا إِلَى الْفِتْنَةِ أُرْكِسُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَعْتَزِلُوكُمْ وَيُلْقُوا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوا أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكُمْ جَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانًا مُبِينًا {91}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:91] (see commentary for verse 90)

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَنْ يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً ۚ وَمَنْ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ يَصَّدَّقُوا ۚ فَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {92}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:92]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

If ma kana is translated as “unlawful” then the following exception (by mischance) is cut off, not included in its antecedent, therefore, this clause has been translated as in verse 60 of al-Naml, because the exception remains real; and the expression becomes more emphatic.

If a believer takes another believer’s life by mistake or mischance, the ransom or redemption (money) to be paid, in different cases, have been mentioned in this verse.

Ayash bin Rabiyah, the step-brother of Abu Jahl and Harith, had become a Muslim before hijrat, but kept it a secret. One day, unnoticed, he left Makka to join the Muslims in Madina. His mother raised a hue and cry to bring back her son. Harith, at once, went after Ayash and caught him just on the outskirts of Madina. He convinced him that no one would harm him if he returned to Makka with him. When they came back, Ayash was

flogged and was thrown on burning sand, his hands and legs tightly tied with a rope. To escape torture he renounced his faith in Islam but avowed to kill Harith. As soon as he got a chance, he slipped out and reached Madina as a Muslim. It so happened that Harith also became a Muslim and lived in Madina. Ayash was not aware of this fact, therefore, when he saw Harith in Madina, he killed him to take his revenge. When people told him that he had killed a believer, he immediately went to the Holy Prophet and told him that he was ashamed of his act and pleaded for acceptance of his repentance. Then this verse was revealed

(Minhajus Sadiqin, Umdatul Bayan).

وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا {93}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:93]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse supports the meaning of wa ma kana li-muminin explained in the preceding verse-the killer of a believer cannot be a mumin.

This verse contains the law for the killer of a believer. If the punishment for the murder of an ordinary believer is eternal damnation, what will be the fate of the killers of the Ahl ul Bayt?

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَتَبَيَّنُوا وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ أَلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَامَ لَسْتَ مُؤْمِنًا تَبْتَغُونَ عَرَضَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَعِنْدَ اللَّهِ مَغَانِمُ كَثِيرَةٌ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كُنْتُمْ مِنْ قَبْلُ فَمَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَتَبَيَّنُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا{94}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:94]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

A contingent of the Muslim soldiers, appointed by the Holy Prophet, was passing through a field in which a shepherd was tending his sheep. Being a new convert to Islam, as soon as he saw the soldiers, he said, “Assalamu alaykum” but Usman bin Zayd killed him and took possession of his herd. In this verse Allah warns the Muslims to be discreet and careful when a person greets them in peace (says assalamu alaykum) and not to say: “you are not a believer’, in order to usurp the gains of earthly life.

Immediately after the departure of the Holy Prophet from this world, Khalid bin Walid, the commander of the Muslim army, mercilessly butchered a whole tribe of devout Muslims when he was sent to negotiate with Malik ibn Nuwayra. After killing Malik, Khalid bin Walid raped his widow and then killed her also. After that it became a routine for the Muslim rulers and commanders to kill, loot and plunder the Muslim communities for worldly gains.

لَا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۚ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً ۚ وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَفَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {95}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:95]

This verse was revealed when Kab bin Malik, Rawah bin Rabi, Hilal bin Umiyah and Abdullah bin Maktum, without reasonable cause, stayed at Madina and did not join the defensive expedition of Tabuk. Allah has exalted those in rank, who fight for the faith with their wealth and selves, over those who sit idle (holding back). For the soldiers of Allah there are higher ranks with Him.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Darajat is not a second object of faddalallah, but is in an adverbial position specifying the distinction in rank or degree, otherwise it would not be consistent with the objective ajran azima in the end of verse 95.

دَرَجَاتٍ مِنْهُ وَمَغْفِرَةً وَرَحْمَةً ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {96}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:96] (see commentary for verse 95)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنْتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا {97}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:97]

Mustad-afin are those who neither let their disbelief lose its grip over them nor try to find a way leading to the right path. Their abode is hell-an evil destination.

If the proper observation of the obligations of the faith is not possible in the land of one’s birth and dwelling, one can migrate to some other place on Allah’s wide and spacious earth.

إِلَّا الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلًا {98}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:98]

Those who are helpless (on account of physical weakness), and can neither contrive a plan nor do they know the way, have been promised mercy and forgiveness.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The holy Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt have pointed out that this principle is also applicable to the followers of other religions whose mental capacity, by nature, is too weak to grasp the truth of Islam, or unfavourable circumstances, beyond their control, keep them in darkness, provided they do good and do not wilfully make mischief in the land.

فَأُولَٰئِكَ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَعْفُوَ عَنْهُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا {99}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:99] (see commentary for verse 98)

وَمَنْ يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً ۚ وَمَنْ يَخْرُجْ مِنْ بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {100}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:100]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to the holy Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt verses 95 to 100 (pertaining to hijrat) not only deal with physical migration but also signify the spiritual stride one takes to reject the cognitive self (I or ego) so as to absorb oneself into the universal self, like the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, who alone can guide such a journey.

Whether there is gain or not in this act but attachment with the spiritual leaders to follow into their footsteps, for the sake of Allah, brings complete peace of mind to the”emigre” and makes the material loss insignificant.

وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُبِينًا {101}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:101]

This verse refers to salat ul khawf (offering of salat while facing an enemy in a battle) and salat ul qasr (offering of salat during a journey)- curtailing the salat (zuhr, asr and isha) by half. The journey should be for a lawful purpose and for not less than (nearly) 27 miles. For details refer to books o fiqh.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Laysa alaykum junah or la junaha (used in several verses of the Quran) signifies the negation of obligation, but the Holy Prophet had acted as if it was an obligation, as per verse 158 of al-Baqarah. So salatul khawf and salatul qasr must be prayed in its curtailed form.

The conditional clause (if you fear) pertains to the form of prayer to be offered when there is imminent danger of an enemy attack, because the first part of the verse has already dealt with the form of prayer prescribed for a traveller. It must also be noted that the conditional clause does not restrict the order (to curtail prayer) to the circumstances of fear, because there was “fear” at that time at all hours. It is like the phrase in verse 23 of this surah which does not restrict the prohibition.

وَإِذَا كُنْتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا فَلْيَكُونُوا مِنْ وَرَائِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَائِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا فَلْيُصَلُّوا مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ ۗ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ مَيْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنْ كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِنْ مَطَرٍ أَوْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَىٰ أَنْ تَضَعُوا أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ ۖ وَخُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا {102}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:102]

Verse 102 lays down the method of offering congregational salat when an attack by the enemy is imminent. Even in such moments of danger, prayer can not be put off. So pre-eminently important the duty of offering salat is in the code of Islam that it must be offered in every circumstance and at the appointed hours. The religion of a faithful is continually present with him. It brings the individual (his self) into closer touch with his Lord, and his self escapes from enslavement to freedom. On the 10th of Muharram in 61 Hijra, Imam Husayn, while offering the dhibhin azim (see commentary of al-Saffat: 107), translated the ordinance of this verse into action. For three days the Imam, his friends and relatives were without food and water. From all sides they were surrounded by the enemy. At dawn the Imam asked his son Ali Akbar to recite the azan. Tayammum was performed. The Holy Imam led the congregational fajr salat. The devotees who stood in front of the Imam to guard the prayers fell on the ground when arrows shot by the enemy hit them. In the evening, the holy Imam was alone, every pore of his body a bleeding wound, he slid over the burning sand of Naynawa from his horse, and prayed the asr salat. Swords, arrows, spears, daggers, lances, stones hit him from all directions. The sacred blood of Muhammad, Ali and Fatimah flowed (from the Imam’s body) in a stream over the sandy soil.

At Hudaybiyah the Muslims were fighting against the advance troopers of the infidels, commanded by Khalid bin Walid. The Holy Prophet asked Bilal to recite azan for zuhr prayers. When thesalat was completed Khalid regreted very much to have missed the golden opportunity of attacking the Muslims while they were praying, and decided not to do it again next time. Through this verse Allah asked the Holy Prophet to adopt the method mentioned in it in future under such circumstances.

Do not infringe the prescribed law of prayer in any of its details. When out of danger or not journeying pray the salat in its proper, regular form as duly prescribed.

Kitaban mawqutan means it must be offered at appointed hours in every circumstance. The obligatory prayers are unavoidable so far as man is in possession of his senses.

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا اطْمَأْنَنْتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۚ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَوْقُوتًا {103}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:103] (see commentary for verse 102)

وَلَا تَهِنُوا فِي ابْتِغَاءِ الْقَوْمِ ۖ إِنْ تَكُونُوا تَأْلَمُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَأْلَمُونَ كَمَا تَأْلَمُونَ ۖ وَتَرْجُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَرْجُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {104}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:104]

The conduct of the hypocrites in the battle of Uhad has been referred to in this verse. Please refer to the commentary of verses 151 to 168 of Ali Imran.

إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَا تَكُنْ لِلْخَائِنِينَ خَصِيمًا {105}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:105]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Bashir, Mubashshir and Bashr, the sons of Ta-ma of Ubayraq tribe, had stolen some items from the house of the uncle of Qatada, and concealed them in the house of a Jew. When the theft was detected they put the blame on the Jew. Although the Jews were actively hostile to the Holy Prophet, he upheld the cause of justice, acquitted the accused Jew, and announced the three Muslim brothers guilty of theft. Justice has to be strictly applied whether the crime is committed by a friend or a foe. It was a time when every individual was very important for the small community of the Muslims. The tribe of Ubayraq was a large clan. Yet the Holy Prophet put justice above the exigencies of diplomacy.

The plural pronoun in verse 109 makes it clear that in verse 106 the Muslims have been asked, through the Holy Prophet, to beg forgiveness of Allah for expecting favouritism from the Holy Prophet. Verse 108 refers to the men of the tribe of Ubayraq who went to the Holy Prophet to plead for the offenders. Verse 107 clearly lays down the principle that there should be no pleading for those who deceive their own selves, because Allah does not love the treacherous and the iniquitous. People may support such offenders in this world but on the day of judgement no one will be able to plead for them. They will burn in hell for ever.

Many Muslims respect Yazid (and despots like him) as the rightful caliph (khalifatullah) although he was a Shaytan in human form, who mercilessly killed and destroyed the beloved children of the Holy Prophet. His supporters argue that the Holy Prophet may ask Allah’s forgiveness for him and the despots like him. Verse 6 of al-Munafiqun says:

“Whether you ask forgiveness for them or do not ask, it is all the same; Allah will not forgive them.”

The verdict of Allah is clear. To imagine that the tyrants will be pardoned, inspite of the expressed decree of the almighty Lord, is the worst type of hypocrisy.

If man turns to Allah and remembers Him in any condition of fear, shame or hope, mindful of eternal joy and pain, it develops an inner preventive force to combat the urge and tendency to commit individual or collective crimes. Verses 110 and 11 I say that the door of repentance, in order to seek forgiveness, is open for those who hurt their own selves, not others. He who earns the wages of sin does so for himself. No one shall bear the burden of another. Verse 112 refers to the offenders of Ubayraq tribe and lays down the principle that he who commits a mistake or iniquity (even if Muslim) and ascribes it to one who is innocent (even if non-Muslim) is guilty of calumny and brazen sin.

Verse 113 refers to the subterfuge the people of Ubayraq employed to mislead the Holy Prophet. The “book and wisdom” was with the Holy Prophet at all times. There is no interval of time in His giving existence to the Holy Prophet and bestowing the “book and wisdom” on him. Verse 2 of al-Najm and verse 7 of al-Duha confirm it.

In Najm: 7 the fa implies that there is no lapse of time between finding and guiding a being.

Verse 114 refers to the event mentioned in verse 105. The hypocrites in their counsels mostly talked in whispers because they knew that they were supporting falsehood; and the faithful openly talked of charity and goodness in their gatherings.

وَاسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {106}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:106] (see commentary for verse 105)

وَلَا تُجَادِلْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ يَخْتَانُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا {107}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:107] (see commentary for verse 105)

يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمْ إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرْضَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا{108}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:108] (see commentary for verse 105)

هَا أَنْتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ جَادَلْتُمْ عَنْهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَمَنْ يُجَادِلُ اللَّهَ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلًا {109}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:109] (see commentary for verse 105)

وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ يَجِدِ اللَّهَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {110}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:110] (see commentary for verse 105)

وَمَنْ يَكْسِبْ إِثْمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكْسِبُهُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {111}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:111] (see commentary for verse 105)

وَمَنْ يَكْسِبْ خَطِيئَةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِ بَرِيئًا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلَ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُبِينًا {112}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:112] (see commentary for verse 105)

وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَهَمَّتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّا أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۖ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۚ وَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ ۚ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا {113}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:113] (see commentary for verse 105)

لَا خَيْرَ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنْ نَجْوَاهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَاحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {114}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:114] (see commentary for verse 105)

وَمَنْ يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا{115}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:115]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse clearly says that a true believer neither can oppose the Holy Prophet (his judgements, decisions and instructions) nor differ, deviate or depart from his teachings and commands. He has to obey and follow him in every walk of life, like those believers who are closely attached with him and whose way of life has become just like his way of life. Refer to the commentary of verse 65 of this surah.

If ijma means the conduct of the majority of Muslims which may have no connection with the teachings and commands of the Holy Prophet, then its introduction and application shall take them to hell.

Please refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 to 5 (on page 51); 97 and 98 (on page 105) to know how the companions of the Holy Prophet displeased him by disobeying his commands.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا {116}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:116]

Polytheism is an unpardonable sin. Although it does not affect His glory in the least, but by destroying the faculty of reason, it renders man incapable of any spiritual progress; therefore, a polytheist can never attain heavenly bliss.

إِنْ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِنَاثًا وَإِنْ يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطَانًا مَرِيدًا {117}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:117]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Inatha (females) refers to the historical motive of idolatry. In primitive ages man could not understand any productive action except the sexual relationship. The pagans thought that their idols were the daughters of God. The cult of goddesses had been almost universal, partly through the association of maternity. The goddess was the fountain and source of human life. Inatha also signifies inanimate things as trees, stones and wood.

Through verse 49 of al-Dhariyat (We created pairs of everything) the Quran guides the idolworshippers to get rid of their stupid delusion.

The idolworshippers, in fact, submit to Shaytan who, devoid of good, invites his followers to lawlessness, anarchy and evil.

لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ ۘ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبًا مَفْرُوضًا {118}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:118]

The accursed Shaytan’s share (determined in regard to time) implies his ability to lead man astray from the path of faith and truth.

“To alter Allah’s creation” means using created things for a purpose other than what they have been created to fulfil.

If khalq is interpreted as the system planned by Allah to operate His creation and legislation, it should not be stretched out of proportion so as to jeopardise the omnipotence of the divine authority.

“To slit the ears of animals” refers to the slitting the ears of animals by invoking the names of their gods and goddesses by the pagan Arabs, so that those animals could not be slaughtered or used for gainful purposes.

Whatever the promises Shaytan makes, whatever the desires he enkindles, and whatever the hopes he rouses in men, are no more than delusions. The abode of those who follow him is hell from which they will find no escape.

وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُبِينًا {119}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:119] (see commentary for verse 118)

يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا {120}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:120] (see commentary for verse 118)

أُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنْهَا مَحِيصًا {121}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:121] (see commentary for verse 118)

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ قِيلًا {122}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:122]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 25 and 266; and Ali Imran: 198.

لَيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ وَلَا أَمَانِيِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ۗ مَنْ يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا {123}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:123]

Mere wish and desire, shorn of good deeds, will not avail anything. Neither the Jews, nor the Christians, nor the Muslims are the favourites of Allah. Whosoever does good will be rewarded, and whosoever does evil will be punished. This is the Islamic law of requital. The proviso “and a believer” is vital, for without right faith (Islam) good deeds are meaningless.

So far as spiritual merits are concerned there is no difference between man and woman. Refer to Ali Imran: 195.

وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا {124}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:124] (see commentary for verse 123)

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۗ وَاتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلًا {125}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:125]

Submission to Allah (Islam) is the only religion approved by Allah.

Hanif means wholly devoted to the right path. Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 124 to understand why millata ibrahima hanifa has been repeatedly used in the Quran as identical to Islam. The mission of Ibrahim was universal while the teachings of Musa and Isa were restricted to the Jews.

Wajha literally means face. In the Quran it is used to refer to the distinctive aspects of a being. Man is recognised by his cognitive self; Allah is distinguished by His absolute universal excellence. See commentary of al-Baqarah: 112.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُحِيطًا {126}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:126]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 255.

وَيَسْتَفْتُونَكَ فِي النِّسَاءِ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ فِي يَتَامَى النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا تُؤْتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَنْ تَنْكِحُوهُنَّ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الْوِلْدَانِ وَأَنْ تَقُومُوا لِلْيَتَامَىٰ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِ عَلِيمًا {127}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:127]

The divine decrees concerning women have already been dealt with in verses 3 to 35 of this surah.

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 220 and al-Nisa: 4 for yataman nisa-the orphan women.

وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِنْ بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَنْ يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا ۚ وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ ۗ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الْأَنْفُسُ الشُّحَّ ۚ وَإِنْ تُحْسِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا {128}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:128]

Avarice is a part of man’s nature, but if one gives more as a present to the other as a favour (ihsan) and both safeguard themselves with full awareness of Allah’s laws (taqwa) there can be reconciliation between the dissatisfied pair of husband and wife, because peace is an excellent thing. It is reported that Khuwaylad, the ageing wife of Salma bin Nafi, who wanted to marry another woman after divorcing her, came to the Holy Prophet and said that she was prepared to forego her conjugal right if her husband did not divorce her. This verse was revealed on that occasion.

وَلَنْ تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ ۚ وَإِنْ تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {129}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:129]

Refer to the commentary of verse 3 of this surah.

Howsoever one may try one will never be able to treat one’s wives equally to fulfil the demands of justice, but one can at least avoid inclination to any wife exclusively so that the others may not be left suspended. One may not be able to observe perfect equality among one’s wives in respect of love and attachment, yet one is not, on that account, by any means warranted in showing voluntary favours exclusively to any wife to the utter neglect of the others. The lives of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt are a model, in this connection, to all Muslims. They did not even perform ablution in the house of the wife whose “turn” was terminated. In all events ihsan and taqwa are the best means to effect reconciliation and harmony.

وَإِنْ يَتَفَرَّقَا يُغْنِ اللَّهُ كُلًّا مِنْ سَعَتِهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ وَاسِعًا حَكِيمًا {130}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:130]

If both decide to separate in an approved and legal way, after all attempts at reconciliation have failed, Allah promises His grace and bounties for both of them.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ وَصَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ أَنِ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ وَإِنْ تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيدًا {131}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:131]

For “all that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah” see commentary of al-Baqarah: 255. The commands of the almighty, self-sufficient and glorious Lord are to be carried out most implicitly and in every little detail, which is only possible for those who safeguard themselves with full awareness of Allah’s laws.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The whole universe is administered by Allah’s laws, therefore, man who is a part of the whole, cannot be unmindful of the universal laws and act in contradiction to the operation of such laws, physical as well as spiritual, because he is not independent of their application. Only Allah, the creator of these laws, is independent and self-sufficient.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا {132}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:132] (see commentary for verse 131)

إِنْ يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَيَأْتِ بِآخَرِينَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ قَدِيرًا {133}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:133]

If mankind acts against the will of Allah (manifest in the laws made by Him) it shall be wiped out from the face of the earth, and He will replace them with other creatures. He does what He wills. Refer to al-Fajr: 6 to 13 and al-Shams: 11 to 15.

مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ ثَوَابَ الدُّنْيَا فَعِنْدَ اللَّهِ ثَوَابُ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا {134}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:134]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِنْ يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَىٰ أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا ۚ وَإِنْ تَلْوُوا أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا {135}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:135]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The translation of this verse contains the clear guidance of maintaining justice without fear or favour.

According to Ma-idah: 8, justice and taqwa go together inseparably. Shiba: 46 also urges man to stand for Allah individually and collectively.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا {136}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:136]

There is no phase of believer’s life which the religion of Allah, preached through a messenger par excellence, leaves untouched. Nothing that a believer does or even thinks lies outside the authority of Allah, His messenger and his Ahl ul Bayt. Therefore, belief in and obedience to Allah, His messenger and his successors (ulil amr-see commentary of verse 59 of this surah) has been ordained .

The religion of Allah, Islam, is a universal religion. So belief in all the messengers of Allah and the books revealed to them is also essential. See al-Baqarah: 136, 285; Ali Imran 84, and Nisa: 152.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ ازْدَادُوا كُفْرًا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ سَبِيلًا {137}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:137]

As has been mentioned in Ali Imran: 90 and 91, for those who backslide, having once come in to faith (like the Jews and the hypocrites in the life time of the Holy Prophet and after his departure), and go on wavering wilfully, there is no guidance. A painful doom awaits them. Bashshir (generally used for giving glad tidings) has been used here to ridicule the hypocrites contemptuously.

بَشِّرِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا {138}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:138] (see commentary for verse 137)

الَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِنْدَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا {139}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:139]

Instead of taking unbelievers as their friends (to seek favours from them) people should prefer believers who depend on the grace and glory of Allah and seek His nearness and protection (refer to al-Fatihah: 4).

وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِثْلُهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا {140}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:140]

In verse 68 of al-An-am also the believers in Allah have been advised not to sit in the company of scoffers and blasphemers, otherwise they will be no different from them. As the guilt of the infidels and the hypocrites is the same, the punishment will also be the same-eternal burning in hell.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

If the aim is to understand the truth, a meaningful discussion can be made with the critics of Islam as has been enjoined in verse 125 of al-Nahl.

الَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمْ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَكُنْ مَعَكُمْ وَإِنْ كَانَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ نَصِيبٌ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَنَمْنَعْكُمْ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ وَلَنْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا {141}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:141]

“Allah will never give the unbelievers a way over the believers”, is a divine promise to always keep an individual, among the believers, as the custodian of the true faith, who is from the Holy Prophet, and like him in purity of mind and soul. “I and Ali are from one divine light”, said the Holy Prophet. It points to the existence of an Imam in every age.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The last sentence of this verse lays down a vital decree of legislation which governs the social, economic and political life of the Muslim community.

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا{142}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:142]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 8 to 20.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Huwa khadi-uhum implies that He outwits them or requites them for their deceit. The literal meaning of khada is to deceive, but use of deception is not applicable to Allah. He gives the hypocrites and the unbelievers respite which ultimately cause their downfall.

The psychological state of some of the new converts has been discussed in the commentary of verses 8 to 20 of al-Baqarah.

Ali was the only one whose wajh (face) has been glorified by Allah because he never turned to any one or anything save Allah. Even today the Muslims acknowledge this unique merit of Ali by referring to him as karramallahu wajhahu (Allah generously honoured his face), whereas to others they refer to as radi-allahu anhu (may Allah be pleased with him).

مُذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ۚ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا {143}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:143] (see commentary for verse 142)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُبِينًا {144}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:144]

Refer to the commentary of verse 139 of this surah.

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا {145}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:145]

The hypocrites are the hidden enemies of Allah, His messenger and his Ahl ul Bayt; therefore, they will be more severely punished than the open enemies, the infidels.

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {146}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:146]

Those who sincerely turn repentant to Allah, amend, hold fast to Allah and make their religion pure for Allah are with the believers. Holding fast to Allah is not possible unless a wasila(approach) is available as per verse 35 of al-Ma-idah.

مَا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنْتُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا {147}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:147]

The most benign Allah is not like the vindictive deities of paganism. Mercy, compassion and loving kindness are part and parcel of His essence, while His retributive justice is only called forth by the handiwork of the rebellious creatures who follow the accursed Shaytan. He is responsive to gratitude.

لَا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ الْجَهْرَ بِالسُّوءِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ إِلَّا مَنْ ظُلِمَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا {148}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:148]

Islam bans all forms of calumny and slander, and interdicts the utterance likely to defame others unless it be for justifiable reason or to distinguish truth from falsehood-as done in verse 159 of al-Baqarah and verse 87 of Ali Imran wherein Allah, His servants and His angels curse those who conceal the clear signs and the guidance. Therefore, the followers of Muhammad and aliMuhammad curse the enemies of Allah and of His messenger and his Ahl ul Bayt.

إِنْ تُبْدُوا خَيْرًا أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ أَوْ تَعْفُوا عَنْ سُوءٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِيرًا {149}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:149]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا {150}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:150]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 136 and 177.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Holy Prophet was sent to mankind for all times. To say that his authority came to an end after his departure and thereafter the book of Allah is sufficient for us, is a declaration of revolt against Allah and His messenger.

أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا {151}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:151] (see commentary for verse 150)

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ أُولَٰئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {152}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:152] (see commentary for verse 150)

يَسْأَلُكَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَنْ تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَابًا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ ۚ فَقَدْ سَأَلُوا مُوسَىٰ أَكْبَرَ مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ فَقَالُوا أَرِنَا اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ ۚ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَعَفَوْنَا عَنْ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ سُلْطَانًا مُبِينًا {153}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:153]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 51 and 55.

وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَهُمُ الطُّورَ بِمِيثَاقِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا لَهُمُ ادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ لَا تَعْدُوا فِي السَّبْتِ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُمْ مِيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا{154}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:154]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 58, 63, 65.

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِمْ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَكُفْرِهِمْ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَقَتْلِهِمُ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ ۚ بَلْ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {155}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:155]

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 61, 87.

وَبِكُفْرِهِمْ وَقَوْلِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ بُهْتَانًا عَظِيمًا {156}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:156]

The Jews not only disbelieved in Isa but also spoke dreadful calumnies of Maryam, going to any length in accusing her of immorality. In the ancient Jewish “Life of Jesus” (the Toldoth Jeshu) it is written that she was seduced by Joseph, the son of Pandera, because she was under the impression that he was her betrothed. For this outrageous slander Allah had sealed their hearts (refer to the preceding verse).

وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِنْ شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُمْ بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا {157}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:157]

The Jews boast and brag that they had slain Isa, but neither they slew him nor they crucified him. Allah raised him unto Himself. For details please refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 55, which clearly expose the myth of crucifixion and resurrection of Isa.

Wama salabuhu (nor they crucified him) has been misinterpreted by the Ahmadi commentators. They say: “The words of the Quran do not deny the fact that Jesus was nailed to the cross and that he was wounded but did not die; and that he was taken away by a faithful disciple who put him in an open grave from where he escaped unnoticed; because he had prayed throughout the night before his arrest to be saved from the accursed death; and again reminded his Lord on the cross by saying: ‘O Lord, my God, why has Thou forsaken me?”

The commentary of Ali Imran: 55 also deals with the conjectures of the Ahmadi commentators. They rely on the book corrupted by the Christian church and do not accept the clear words of the Quran (nor they crucified him).

As has been proved, on the authority of Christian books, in the commentary of Ali Imran: 55, it was another man who actually suffered the agony of crucifixion; and as recorded in the 80th psalm and in Daniel’s vision Isa was raised to heaven.

Isa was ruhullah (spirit of Allah), therefore, he was not forsaken. A man forsaken by Allah cannot be His prophet.

بَلْ رَفَعَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا {158}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:158] (see commentary for verse 157)

وَإِنْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلَّا لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا {159}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:159]

The Jews will ultimately believe in Isa and the Christians will recognise his true position when he will come down from heaven to assist and support Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al-Mahdi as a Muslim, and pray salat behind him. Islam will be the religion of the whole world. Then Isa will die and the Muslims will offer his funeral prayer. (Minhajus Sadiqin and Umdatul Bayan).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt have said that Isa would come in this world again. The whole world will embrace Islam and believe in Isa and Al Mahdi, the representative of the Holy Prophet. All disputes will disappear before the death of Isa.

Imam Ali ibn abi Talib has said:

Whoever dies sees me; be he a believer or a hypocrite. To see Ali means to witness the truth. The personal pronoun (whoever) refers to Isa, or to one who dies, or both, because an authentic tradition of the Ahl ul Bayt says that Isa, a witness over all the people of the book, since the beginning to the end, will at last die. Therefore the pronoun refers to both.

فَبِظُلْمٍ مِنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَاتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا {160}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:160]

The Jews corrupted the Tawrat, opposed Isa and plotted to kill him, and, in the days of the Holy Prophet, dissuaded many pagans from embracing Islam and hatched plots in league of the hypocrites to hinder the mission of the Holy Prophet by saying that he was not the promised prophet although they knew about his promised advent in their book (see al-Baqarah; 40).

Usury has been forbidden in the religion of Allah (see commentary of al-Baqarah: 275), and also in Tawrat:

You shall fear your God, and your brother shall live with you; you shall not charge interest when advancing him money nor add interest to the payment due for food supplied on credit.

(Leviticus 25: 36 + 37)

Yet they always practised usury for usurping other’s wealth unjustly. Their long and unbroken record of wrongdoing will land them in hell to suffer painful torment forever.

وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا {161}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:161] (see commentary for verse 160)

لَٰكِنِ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ ۚ وَالْمُقِيمِينَ الصَّلَاةَ ۚ وَالْمُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أُولَٰئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {162}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:162]

For rasikhuna fil ilm refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 7.

Verse 49 of al-Ankabut says that the Quran is in the hearts or chests of those who have been endowed with divine knowledge. It is a gift of Allah. No mortal had taught or tutored such men described as rasikhuna fil ilm in this verse. The Holy Prophet, Ali, Fatimah and the Imams in their progeny, historically, had never been taught and tutored by any individual or group, yet the Holy Prophet is the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. They are the fountainhead of wisdom and indisputable authority on any branch of knowledge, physical as well as spiritual. Although the other human beings have also attained distinction in knowledge and learning but the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt are the ultimate in awareness of all the divine laws governing the whole universe.

Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 136, 177 and 285; Ali Imran: 84, and Nisa: 136 and 152 for belief in all the messengers of Allah and the books given to them.

The Quran clearly states that all the infallible prophets and the messengers of Allah were the bearers of glad tidings and warners in order that there be no plea for mankind against Allah after these messengers had come to them with His commandments and guidance. Although the essence and origin of all revelations were similar, yet, as some of the prophets have been exalted over others (Baqarah: 253), the final message, the Quran, revealed to the last and the most superior messenger of Allah, the Holy Prophet, is complete and perfect in all dimensions and in its scope and application.

Several of the prophets are mentioned by name in the Quran while others are not. “For every people there was a messenger”, says verse 36 of al-Nahl and also verse 24 of al-Fatir. All the messengers of Allah gave the glad tidings of the advent of the Holy Prophet. See commentary of al-Baqarah: 40. For kallamallah see commentary of al-Baqarah: 253.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Grammatically wal muqimin, like wal rasikhun, is in possessive and objective case, whereas wal mutunuz zakat and wal muminun are in nominative case. All commentators agree that in certain circumstances by giving the form of the possessive and objective case to the verb and the nominative case vice versa, it will receive a distinction for the sake of emphasis. According to a tradition A-isha observed that this is one of the mistakes committed by the scribes who wrote the Quran under the supervision of a committee appointed by Uthman but she and other companions, who used to criticise the government for less important issues did not object to it.

For awhina see commentary of al-Fatihah: 7.

The word Kama implies that in essence the revelation revealed to the Holy Prophet was similar to that which was revealed to other prophets and that he had the experience of all the specific forms and the manners of the revelations used separately for the earlier prophets (see commentary of al-Baqarah: 253). Qaba qawsayni aw adna (two bows or nearer) in verse 9 of al-Najm puts the Holy Prophet on the highest pedestal of the nearest nearness to Allah.

The well-known Persian poet Rumi says:

The holy name of Ahmed bears all the names of the prophets. Since the hundred-per-cent (out-and-out) has come, the lesser than that is certainly with us.

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا {163}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:163] (see commentary for verse 162)

وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ ۚ وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا {164}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:164] (see commentary for verse 162)

رُسُلًا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا {165}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:165] (see commentary for verse 162)

لَٰكِنِ اللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ أَنْزَلَهُ بِعِلْمِهِ ۖ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَشْهَدُونَ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا {166}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:166]

Allah’s testimony is the convincing force of the Quran, which represents His knowledge.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّوا ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا {167}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:167]

The translation of these verses are clear, and therefore should be carefully studied and kept in mind as a warning so that we may safeguard ourselves with full awareness of divine laws and commandment, obey and follow the teachings and sayings of the Holy Prophet, without ever deviating from his path.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَظَلَمُوا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقًا {168}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:168] (see commentary for verse 167)

إِلَّا طَرِيقَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا {169}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:169] (see commentary for verse 167)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الرَّسُولُ بِالْحَقِّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَآمِنُوا خَيْرًا لَكُمْ ۚ وَإِنْ تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {170}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:170] (see commentary for verse 167)

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ ۚ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ۖ وَلَا تَقُولُوا ثَلَاثَةٌ ۚ انْتَهُوا خَيْرًا لَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا اللَّهُ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۘ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا {171}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:171]

Please refer to the commentary of al-Fatihah: 7; al-Baqarah: 255; Ali Imran: 2, 45 to 63 for ghulu and taqsir, trinity, Maryam and Isa, and oneness and omnipotent authority of Allah.

لَنْ يَسْتَنْكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَبْدًا لِلَّهِ وَلَا الْمَلَائِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ ۚ وَمَنْ يَسْتَنْكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعًا {172}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:172] (see commentary for verse 171)

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْتَنْكَفُوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا فَيُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا {173}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:173]

The basis of reward and punishment has been made clear in these verses. [DILP Note: The original text had split this verse into two, and therefore, this commentary applied to verses 173 and 174.]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بُرْهَانٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُبِينًا {174}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:174]

According to the Ahl ul Bayt burhan (the finest, strongest and most valid evidence which necessarily implies truth and veracity as its consequence or concomitant) is the Holy Prophet.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Nuram mubina (a manifest light) is similar to imamum mubin in verse 12 of Ya Sin. Please refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 2 to know how they explain each other. In verses 35 to 38 of al-Nur it is stated that Allah guides unto His light (nur) whom He wills. The light is lit in the houses Allah has allowed to be exalted and His name remembered in them, when His praises are sung morning and evening by men whose attention is never drawn to the worldly gains, nor do they ever cease to remember Him. The light of guidance can never reach any man except through such men. They are the Holy Prophet and his holy Ahl ul Bayt, particularly chosen by Allah after thoroughly purifying them (Ahzab: 33).

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al-Sadiq said:

Through us (the Ahl ul Bayt) Allah is recognised and worshipped.

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِهِ فَسَيُدْخِلُهُمْ فِي رَحْمَةٍ مِنْهُ وَفَضْلٍ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَيْهِ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا {175}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:175]

Refer to commentary of al-Baqarah: 256 and Ali Imran: 103.

يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَالَةِ ۚ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ ۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِنْ كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ۚ وَإِنْ كَانُوا إِخْوَةً رِجَالًا وَنِسَاءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ ۗ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَضِلُّوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ {176}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:176]

The law of inheritance mentioned in this verse is in continuation of verse 12 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Kalalah means one who has no parents or children, in which case it implies the existence of brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts and their children.

In verse 12 of this surah kalalah implies the maternal relations, whereas, here, it refers to the paternal relatives.

Walad stands for an issue and not for a son only.

Source:quran.al-islam.org

 


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