بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

المر ۚ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ ۗ وَالَّذِي أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:1]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 1 for Alif, Lam, Mim-huruf muqatta-at.

For the “verses of the book” see commentary of al Baqarah: 2 and Aqa Mahdi Puya’s essay “the genuineness of the holy Quran”.

اللَّهُ الَّذِي رَفَعَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ۖ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ۖ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ۚ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:2]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Allah has created the universe. He is the sole sovereign. All laws pertaining to creation, legislation and administration are governed by His omnipotent, just and merciful will. There is no one, equal to Him, who shares in His absolute authority.

Please refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 29 and al Araf: 54.

Allah is the creator, the constant ruler and the continuous governor.

The whole universe exists and operates in accordance with the laws made, governed and regulated by the will of Allah.

وَهُوَ الَّذِي مَدَّ الْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنْهَارًا ۖ وَمِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ ۖ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:3]

In Ya Sin: 36; Zariyat: 49, and Rahman: 52 also it has been said that all created beings, including animals and plants have been created with reproductive apparatus-male stamens and female pistils, owing their existence to each other; and in the end they all fly (turn to or hasten to 3 Allah, because there is no refuge save in His mercy and there is no escape from His justice.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The followers of the school of Ahl ul Bayt believe that whatever the Holy Prophet said or did was in the light of revelations, for verse 15 of Yunus says that he followed nothing but what is revealed to him-there are several types of revelations, such as the verses of the Quran, or wahi not disclosed in spoken words, hadith qudsi; and all these governed his whole life. So the fabricated tradition that he was unaware of the necessity of fertilisation of the female date- palm, implying that he used to make mistakes whenever he used his own discretion, should be rejected outright.

وَفِي الْأَرْضِ قِطَعٌ مُتَجَاوِرَاتٌ وَجَنَّاتٌ مِنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَزَرْعٌ وَنَخِيلٌ صِنْوَانٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَانٍ يُسْقَىٰ بِمَاءٍ وَاحِدٍ وَنُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهَا عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فِي الْأُكُلِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:4]

There is uniformity in diversity, and variety in unity in the sense that all diversity is subject to certain uniform laws, and therefore every variety points out to uniformity which means unity-a proof of the absolute unity of the creator of the universe.

وَإِنْ تَعْجَبْ فَعَجَبٌ قَوْلُهُمْ أَإِذَا كُنَّا تُرَابًا أَإِنَّا لَفِي خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ الْأَغْلَالُ فِي أَعْنَاقِهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:5]

After seeing the signs in nature and in revelation, only an obstinate disbeliever denies the creator, and refuses to appreciate the process of raising the dead up again after being reduced to dust-he must know that He who has once created him has the power to create him again. Refer to Ya Sin: 78 and 79 wherein the reply to the disbelievers contains this argument.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

After knowing the process of creation and development, man is expected to marvel at the grandeur of the eternal and beyond the human comprehension powers of the creator, but no reasonable human being will deny the possibility of a new state of life in the process of development or evolution.

وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ قَبْلَ الْحَسَنَةِ وَقَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمُ الْمَثُلَاتُ ۗ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَىٰ ظُلْمِهِمْ ۖ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَشَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:6]

Unable to contest the positive arguments based upon reason and observation, the infidels resort to negative approach, and like the people of Nuh, Hud, Lut, Salih, Shu-ayb, and the followers of Firawn (in the times of Musa), mentioned in al Araf and Hud, ask for destructive signs-the divine punishment before the term of respite allowed by Allah in this life.

As a rule Allah allows time to follow guidance, but is severe in requital at the proper occasion.

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۗ إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُنْذِرٌ ۖ وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:7]

The Quran treats the miracles as subordinate to the moral and spiritual evidences and signs demonstrated by the Holy Prophet, who was sent as a warner.

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 118. “And for every people there is a guide.”

Thalabi in his Tafsir relates on the authority of Ibn Abbas that when this verse was revealed the Holy Prophet said: “I am the warner and Ali is the guide. O Ali, through you those who are guided will receive true guidance.”

This tradition has also been reported and confirmed by Ibn Marduwayh, Ibn Hatim, Tabarani, Ibn Asakir, Suyuti, Ahmad bin Hambal, Fakhruddin Razi and Abu Nu-aym.

Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir also said that “the warner” means the Holy Prophet and “the guide” means Ali and added “the authority to guide continues among us”. This verse also points to the continued existence of a “guide”, namely al Mahdi al Qa-im (refer to the commentary of al Bara-at: 32 and 33); and for “the true guides” refer to the commentary of Yunus: 35. The Holy Prophet is a warner for all people in all times, so the Imam (guide) in his progeny is also for all people in every age.

The enemies of the Ahl ul Bayt try to conceal their merits, and deny their divine rights, but Allah’s plan is always executed and His will invariably takes effect:

They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah wills to perfect His light, however the unbelievers may dislike it. (Saff: 8)

Allah had willed and thoroughly purified the Ahl ul Bayt (Ahzab: 33) and established them as the only truthfuls at the time of mubahilah (Ali Imran: 61).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

There are three interpretations of the last passage of this verse:

(i) The Holy Prophet is a warner and a guide for every nation.

(ii) The Holy Prophet is a warner and every nation had a guide.

(iii) The Holy Prophet is a warner and every nation has a guide.

In view of the above-noted tradition reported by a large number of Muslim scholars the last interpretation must be accepted.

اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَحْمِلُ كُلُّ أُنْثَىٰ وَمَا تَغِيضُ الْأَرْحَامُ وَمَا تَزْدَادُ ۖ وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ عِنْدَهُ بِمِقْدَارٍ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:8]

The female womb is just an example, a type, of extreme secrecy-whether the womb is bearing a male or female, one or more, whether it is to be born short of the standard time or to exceed the standard time. The most hidden things are clear to the creator’s knowledge. All things are regulated by Him in just measure and proportion.

Allah’s knowledge of the seen and the unseen is complete and perfect. His knowledge is the basis of the justice that will be done on the day of judgement. His knowledge encompasses all that which every individual does openly and secretly, and that which is taking place in the whole universe, and also the laws which govern the creation and its consequences, because he is the creator of all creation, all laws and all operations.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq said:

Ghayz is that pregnancy whose duration is less than 9 months; and ma tazdad is that which exceeds 9 months.

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْكَبِيرُ الْمُتَعَالِ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:9] (see commentary for verse 8)

سَوَاءٌ مِنْكُمْ مَنْ أَسَرَّ الْقَوْلَ وَمَنْ جَهَرَ بِهِ وَمَنْ هُوَ مُسْتَخْفٍ بِاللَّيْلِ وَسَارِبٌ بِالنَّهَارِ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:10]

Our most hidden thoughts and motives are known to Him at all times. Every person, whether he conceals or reveals his thoughts, whether he skulls in darkness or goes about by day, all are under Allah’s watch. His grace encompasses, and again and again protects, those who take the precaution from harm and evil.

Ma-aqqibat are the angels who descend, succeeding one another by turns, to keep safe every individual from misfortunes when that individual, in Allah’s will, is not to suffer death (Anam: 61).

Refer to Nisa: 79 and Anfal: 53 for “Allah never changes the condition of a people until they change it themselves.” Allah has given man intelligence and knowledge; He surrounds him with his grace and mercy. If, inspite of all this, man distorts his own will and goes against Allah’s will, Allah’s wrath will descend on him and the favourable position in which Allah has placed him will be changed. None of the things which he relies upon, other than Allah, can protect him. When once the punishment comes, there is no turning it back.

Imam Ali bin Husayn al Zayn al Abidin has said that the bounties, Allah bestows on any person, are never taken away, but in consequence of certain sins:

(i) Disobedience to the virtuous,

pride, ridiculing others,

(these result in withdrawal of bounties and turn the sinner into a hardened transgressor.)

(ii) Going to bed before praying Isha salat,

sleeping at the time of Fajr salat,

thinking lightly of the bounties of Allah,

complaining to others against Allah. (these reduce the means of sustenance to the minimum.)

(iii) Swearing false oaths,

uttering lies,

adultery,

obstructing the way of the Muslims,

false claims,

misappropriation of a trust,

not helping the aggressed and oppressed,

not preaching pursuance of good and abstinence from evil.

(these bring down calamities.)

(iv) Practising iniquity and wickedness,

legalising that which is forbidden,

obedience to the wicked and revolting against the virtuous,

drunkenness and gambling,

using jests and jokes to stimulate ridicule of others.

(these give an upper hand to the enemies.)

لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ ۗ وَإِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ سُوءًا فَلَا مَرَدَّ لَهُ ۚ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ وَالٍ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:11] (see commentary for verse 10)

هُوَ الَّذِي يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنْشِئُ السَّحَابَ الثِّقَالَ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:12]

Thunder is a beneficent force, created by Allah, and like the rest of creation praises and glorifies the creator. Man is advised to look to good, not to evil; to mercy, not to punishment; to the hope of abundant crops in the rain which comes behind the lightning clouds; and not to fear the fire in the thunder. “Thunder”, the name of this surah, is really a submissive instrument of good in Allah’s hand.

It was not beneficence but wrath that the polytheists attributed to their false gods. If man worships anything other than Allah (rulers, stars, powers of nature, spirits, self, power, wealth, talent, intellect-all created by Allah to serve man) his worship is both foolish and futile.

Without belief in Allah worship or prayer has no meaning at all. To call any created being directly for fulfilment of needs and desires has been prohibited, but to seek the medium of the approved intercessors is not forbidden.

“Seek the means of approach unto Him.” (Ma-idah: 35)

Also refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 48.

وَيُسَبِّحُ الرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَهُمْ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي اللَّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ الْمِحَالِ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:13] (see commentary for verse 12)

لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ إِلَّا كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ ۚ وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:14] (see commentary for verse 12)

وَلِلَّهِ يَسْجُدُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَظِلَالُهُمْ بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِ ۩ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:15]

Everyone, high or low, is a created being, and submits to the laws of the creator, whether willingly, as in the case of believers and all other beings in the universe, or unwillingly, as in the case of devils and rebels. Even the shadows, projections from other things and dependent on them for their existence are also subject to Allah’s laws and will.

Like verse 206 of al Araf, it is implied here also that action is influenced by thoughts and the feelings.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The absolute infinite reality is the real light- light of lights, by which every being comes into light and in evidence, refer to An Nur: 35. The finite beings differ from each other to the extent of their limitations in the order of existence. He who has the least limitations is nearer to the absolute; and the one, who has more limitations than he, is his shadow, but, in the order of existence, he also has his own shadow- the being who has more limitations than he has. Thus every lower being is the shadow of Us immediate higher being, following in its movement unto the perfect light.

قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۚ قُلْ أَفَاتَّخَذْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ أَمْ هَلْ تَسْتَوِي الظُّلُمَاتُ وَالنُّورُ ۗ أَمْ جَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ خَلَقُوا كَخَلْقِهِ فَتَشَابَهَ الْخَلْقُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:16]

For “the Lord of the heavens and the earth” see commentary of al Fatihah: 2.

See commentary of Ma-idah: 100; Anam: 50 for the good and the bad; the blind and the seeing.

أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَسَالَتْ أَوْدِيَةٌ بِقَدَرِهَا فَاحْتَمَلَ السَّيْلُ زَبَدًا رَابِيًا ۚ وَمِمَّا يُوقِدُونَ عَلَيْهِ فِي النَّارِ ابْتِغَاءَ حِلْيَةٍ أَوْ مَتَاعٍ زَبَدٌ مِثْلُهُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ وَالْبَاطِلَ ۚ فَأَمَّا الزَّبَدُ فَيَذْهَبُ جُفَاءً ۖ وَأَمَّا مَا يَنْفَعُ النَّاسَ فَيَمْكُثُ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:17]

Allah sends rain and He sends it to all, to each according to its measure. There are degrees and degrees among brooks, streams, lakes and rivers. So the rain of His mercy and knowledge and guidance which He sends is received by all but each responds according to one’s own capacity (see Aqa Mahdi Puya’s note in the preceding verse).

Water is pure, but froth and scum will gather according to local conditions. As the floods carry off the scum, so Allah’s mercy (guidance and knowledge) carries away man’s spiritual scum and purifies his soul. Like scum the frothy knowledge disappears but Allah’s truth endures. The ore is full of baser admixture, but the fire separates the gold (or useful metals) from the trash for ornaments or household utensils. So the fire of test and trial searches out the true metal in man and rejects the trash.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The parables in this verse refer to the process of creation of the finite beings from the infinite absolute; and to the momentary and transitory bearing and implication of ineffective, incompetent and parasitic things; and to the real and purposeful utility and durability of useful things. They also point out the course of divine revelations, and throw light on the reaction of man to it-they corrupt and misrepresent that which they have received, but whatever is divine and real remains and endures, and that which is unreal and corrupted disappears, as al Nahl: 96 says that what man has will pass, but what is with Allah will abide for ever.

لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُوا لِرَبِّهِمُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُ لَوْ أَنَّ لَهُمْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لَافْتَدَوْا بِهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ الْحِسَابِ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:18]

Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 91 and Yunus: 54.

أَفَمَنْ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَىٰ ۚ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:19]

Ibn Marduwayh says that “He who knows” refers to Ali ibn abi Talib.

الَّذِينَ يُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَنْقُضُونَ الْمِيثَاقَ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:20]

وَالَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَنْ يُوصَلَ وَيَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ وَيَخَافُونَ سُوءَ الْحِسَابِ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:21]

The Holy Prophet said:

(i) To worship Allah, pray the prescribed salat regularly.

(ii) Safeguard yourself against evil with full awareness of Allah’s laws and commands.

(iii) Do not associate any with Allah.

(iv) Love and take care of your family.

(Reported by Abu Ayyub Ansari)

وَالَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:22]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 3, 45 and 112.

“Repel evil with good” implies doing good to him who has done evil to you, or forgiving .he evil-doer and the aggressor, or giving the rightful share to him who has once deprived you of your legitimate rights, or accommodating him who has refused to co-operate with you, or to be polite with him who has been haughty to you, or to greet him who has abused you, or to seek forgiveness of Allah as soon as a sin is committed.

جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ يَدْخُلُونَهَا وَمَنْ صَلَحَ مِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ ۖ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَدْخُلُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ كُلِّ بَابٍ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:23]

In the eternal garden of bliss the righteous will be reunited with all those near and dear ones whom they loved, provided that they were righteous also, because in eternity nothing else counts. Refer to Yusuf: 101. The angels shall enter through many gates to convey glad tidings and “peace” from Allah.

سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِمَا صَبَرْتُمْ ۚ فَنِعْمَ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:24] (see commentary for verse 23)

وَالَّذِينَ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَنْ يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:25]

This is the opposite of that which has been stated in verses 21 to 24 of this surah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

It is applicable to the covenant taken at Ghadir Khum (refer to the commentary of Ma-idah: 67) and the “love of Ahl ul Bayt” mentioned in Shura: 23.

اللَّهُ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ ۚ وَفَرِحُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا مَتَاعٌ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:26]

Refer to al Bara-at: 38.

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُضِلُّ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَنْ أَنَابَ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:27]

Refer to the commentary of verse 7 of this surah.

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُمْ بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ۗ أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:28]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Refer to Anfal: 2. Tranquillity and fear are apparently opposite to each other. A true believer seeks tranquillity in the midst of conflicting desires of the worldly life and fears when he feels that there are many shortcomings in his submission to Allah. The remembrance of Allah produces these effects simultaneously in him and sets him free from all worldly worries.

Ali ibn abi Talib said:

“A true believer has no worry except about his failure to fulfil his duties to the Lord.”

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ طُوبَىٰ لَهُمْ وَحُسْنُ مَآبٍ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:29]

كَذَٰلِكَ أَرْسَلْنَاكَ فِي أُمَّةٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهَا أُمَمٌ لِتَتْلُوَ عَلَيْهِمُ الَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَهُمْ يَكْفُرُونَ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ ۚ قُلْ هُوَ رَبِّي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ مَتَابِ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:30]

Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Umayya asked the Holy Prophet to level the mountains and make rivers flow in their places so that they might cultivate corn. Then these verses were revealed.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Ya-asi actually means despair, but it is sometimes used figuratively in the sense of knowing, because he who gives up hope knows that what he had hoped will not take place. Despair is here synonymous with knowledge.

وَلَوْ أَنَّ قُرْآنًا سُيِّرَتْ بِهِ الْجِبَالُ أَوْ قُطِّعَتْ بِهِ الْأَرْضُ أَوْ كُلِّمَ بِهِ الْمَوْتَىٰ ۗ بَلْ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ جَمِيعًا ۗ أَفَلَمْ يَيْأَسِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ لَوْ يَشَاءُ اللَّهُ لَهَدَى النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا تُصِيبُهُمْ بِمَا صَنَعُوا قَارِعَةٌ أَوْ تَحُلُّ قَرِيبًا مِنْ دَارِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ وَعْدُ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:31] (see commentary for verse 30)

وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فَأَمْلَيْتُ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عِقَابِ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:32]

Refer to Anam: 10 and the punishment inflicted upon the people of Nuh, Hud, Lut, Salih, and Shu-ayb and also Firawn in the times of Prophet Musa, mentioned in Araf and Hud.

أَفَمَنْ هُوَ قَائِمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ۗ وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ قُلْ سَمُّوهُمْ ۚ أَمْ تُنَبِّئُونَهُ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ بِظَاهِرٍ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ ۗ بَلْ زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مَكْرُهُمْ وَصُدُّوا عَنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:33]

Refer to Yusuf: 40.

لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَشَقُّ ۖ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ وَاقٍ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:34]

مَثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ أُكُلُهَا دَائِمٌ وَظِلُّهَا ۚ تِلْكَ عُقْبَى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا ۖ وَعُقْبَى الْكَافِرِينَ النَّارُ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:35]

Refer to Nisa: 57.

وَالَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَفْرَحُونَ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَمِنَ الْأَحْزَابِ مَنْ يُنْكِرُ بَعْضَهُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَلَا أُشْرِكَ بِهِ ۚ إِلَيْهِ أَدْعُو وَإِلَيْهِ مَآبِ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:36]

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ حُكْمًا عَرَبِيًّا ۚ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ بَعْدَمَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ وَلِيٍّ وَلَا وَاقٍ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:37]

The followers of the Holy Prophet are addressed through him.

Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 144.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَذُرِّيَّةً ۚ وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ بِآيَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۗ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ كِتَابٌ{38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:38]

The messengers of Allah were human beings but they acted exactly as they were directed by the divine commands.

يَمْحُو اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ ۖ وَعِنْدَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:39]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 2 and Ali Imran : 7.

Ummul kitab is the preserved tablet, the original of all divine decrees.

Ali ibn abi Talib said:

“If the forces of evil had exterminated the Quran, not leaving a single verse, I would have even then related every event that would happen till the day of judgement.”

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Our view of the universe is similar to the two records of the creation-partial and complete. The partial view is the subject of empirical investigation, liable to change. The complete view is the subject of spiritual investigation, unimpeachable and final.

وَإِنْ مَا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِي نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:40]

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا نَأْتِي الْأَرْضَ نَنْقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَا ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ لَا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكْمِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:41]

وَقَدْ مَكَرَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ فَلِلَّهِ الْمَكْرُ جَمِيعًا ۖ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ۗ وَسَيَعْلَمُ الْكُفَّارُ لِمَنْ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:42]

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا ۚ قُلْ كَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَمَنْ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتَابِ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 13:43]

See commentary of al Baqarah: 2 for “the book”, and Hud: 17 for “he who has the knowledge of the book.”

SUMMING UP

Surah ar Rad deals with the sovereignty, power, authority and wisdom of Allah. He is the creator of the universe and all that which is in it, the laws which govern and operate it, and the laws which (must) govern and operate the human life, individually as well as collectively. The disbelievers, instead of deriving advantage from the respite, are hastening unto the ultimate and eternal loss and deprivation (punishment) by refusing to believe in the day of judgement.

To every nation one or more messengers of Allah came as warners, and after the last messenger of Allah, there is a divinely appointed guide in every age to administer the affairs of the human society, as a true successor of the prophet .

Allah knows the seen and the unseen. Nothing is hidden from Him.

Angles are deputed to take care of and keep watch over every human being.

Bounties and favours, bestowed on any individual, are not withdrawn unless there are valid reasons.

Everything obeys Allah’s commands, praises Him and glorifies Him.

The blind disbelievers and the knowing believers are not equal.

Those who establish salat, spend in the way of Allah and exercise self-control earn Allah’s pleasure.

Those who do not fulfil the covenants made with Allah through His prophet are hypocrites, condemned for ever.

Allah is the rabbul alamin – the sustainer and cherisher of all that which has been created by Him.

Instead of receiving guidance from the (events of) history which has recorded the fact that people of yore witnessed the signs or miracles of Allah yet did not believe and were destroyed, the people in the times of the Holy Prophet, like their ancestors, again want to repeat history, but miracles are not demonstrated to provide enjoyment to the disbelievers.

Allah’s plan is His will which takes immediate effect. The preserved tablet or the mother book contains the will of Allah-His decrees.

The messengers of Allah lived among the people as human beings, subject to the laws made by Allah.

Imam Ali ibn abi Talib is “he who has the knowledge of the book”, and is therefore, along with Allah, a witness of the prophethood of the Holy Prophet.

Source:quran.al-islam.org


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