بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

الرَّحْمَٰنُ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:1]

Refer to the summary of surah al Fatihah and commentary of verse 1 of al Fatihah for AR RAHMAN, the beneficent. For His all-embracing mercy or beneficence see Araf: 156.

 

عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:2]

It is the beneficent Lord who taught the Quran to the Holy Prophet. Allah is the teacher. The book is that which was taught. The book is the manifestation of the universal grace of Allah who Himself is its teacher; and according to the Quran the sole manifestation of His rahmaniyyat is the Holy Prophet. Refer to Anbiya: 107.

 

خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:3]

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 30 to 38; Hijr: 26 to 29 and Sajdah: 9. The first man, Adam, was created pure, free from sin. Verse 9 of Hijr says that Allah breathed His spirit (ruh) into man (Adam), so he reflected divinity which carried knowledge originating from the beneficent Lord as stated in verse 31 of al Baqarah-Allah taught Adam “the names” (the actuality of the panjatan),the source of knowledge of all things. According to verse 59 of An-am the knowledge of everything, wet or dry, is in the Quran. This is the man who has been referred to in verse 3. Sinning was introduced to man by Iblis after man’s creation. Allah asked the angels to prostrate before Adam after breathing His spirit into him. The prostration was not made before the body of Adam but before the spirit of Allah which carried life or existence (hayat), knowledge (ilm) and authority (qudrat). As the angels did not have the knowledge taught to Adam, the command to accept Adam’s superiority was just. It means that the integration of divine faculties in Adam took place because of the spirit of Allah which purified him. Adam was the grand sire of the thoroughly purified Ahl ul Bayt mentioned in Ahzab: 33.

The Holy Prophet said:

“I was the prophet of Allah when Adam was yet in the (womb) of water and clay.

It was my light (nur) which Allah created before all creation.”

Thus “man” (insan) referred to in this verse is the divinely conditioned, integrated and perfected being of the Holy Prophet. It was this original purity of the Holy Prophet which, when was invested with Adam, entitled him to receive obeisance from the angels. The Holy Prophet’s light passed through the progeny of Adam, manifested in the messengers and prophets of Allah, and reached Abdul Muttalib. Then it bifurcated into his two sons Abdullah and Abu Talib; and from Abdullah it manifested in Muhammad and from Abu Talib it manifested in Ali.

The Holy Prophet said:

“I and Ali are from one and the same light.”

Then again these two rays of the divine light were united, through Ali and Fatimah, and manifested in Hasan, Husayn and the nine Imams in their progeny mentioned in the commentary of Baqarah :124.

The light of the perfected man, the Holy Prophet, carried wisdom, purity and authority and manifested them in the chain of prophets as mentioned above. Verse 14 of Ala and verse 9 of Shams say: “He indeed will succeed who cleanses (purifies) himself.” So those who desire to attain success have to attach themselves to the thoroughly purified Ahl ul Bayt and follow their teachings and life pattern. Any deviation from them will lead to pollution, evil and wickedness. Bayan means intelligent speech, power of expression, capacity to understand clearly the relations of things and revelation in nature and to explain them. The revelation given to man through prophets is the highest example of bayan as verse 138 of Ali Imran asserts. The Quran (bayan) the Holy Prophet recited to mankind has no equal. Refer to Baqarah: 23; Yunus: 37 and 38; Hud: 13; Bani Israil: 88 and Tur: 34.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Man has been endowed with the faculties of contemplation and expression. The degree and the time of development of these endowments distinguishes one man from another. In prophets and their divinely chosen successors they are found in fully developed form from the day they are created. According to Najm: 1 to 10 the Holy Prophet, as the manifestation of the universal beneficence, precedes and surpasses all the messengers and prophets of Allah.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said that bayan is the greatest name of Allah, through which everything is known. It implies that man reflects whatever he receives from the divine source.

 

عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:4] (see commentary for verse 3)

الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْبَانٍ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:5]

The precise laws, made by Allah, governing the universe, bear witness to Allah’s wisdom and justice and also to His favours to His creatures. Man relies upon the laws operating the universe and, without fear of any arbitrary change, directs his activities in the light of knowledge he has acquired about its working. Although Allah has absolute power over all things yet it is His justice, a consequence of His beneficence (rahmaniyyat) that He makes no arbitrary changes in His laws, otherwise there would be chaos and disorder in the whole universe. This fact of order and harmony prevailing in the working of universe was made known to man at a time when only conjectures and superstitions prevailed. It gave stimulus and sense of direction to man to observe, contemplate and find out the laws operating the creation. Refer to the commentary of Jathiyah: 3 to 11.

Refer to Rad: 2; Anbiya: 33 and Ya Sin: 38.

 

وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:6]

Refer to Rad: 15; Nahl: 48, 49 and Hajj : 18.

Prostration here means precise functioning of creation according to the laws made by Allah.

 

وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:7]

Balance refers to justice mentioned in verse 5. Justice is a divine attribute. Men must act justly to each other and observe balance in all their actions, not transgressing due bounds in anything.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The perfect man, as a model or epitome of the universal balance or scale, is the infallible measure by which right and wrong in human conduct is evaluated.

Abu Talib said:

“Muhammad is the scale of truth which measures accurately to the minutest possible practice of quantity and quality.”

Refer to the commentary of Shura: 17.

 

أَلَّا تَطْغَوْا فِي الْمِيزَانِ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:8] (see commentary for verse 7)

وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:9] (see commentary for verse 7)

وَالْأَرْضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلْأَنَامِ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:10]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The right to avail of the benefits and advantages emanating from the earth is given to every man by the beneficent (rahman) Lord. No one is deprived of the right. See commentary of “rahman” in al Fatihah: 1.

 

فِيهَا فَاكِهَةٌ وَالنَّخْلُ ذَاتُ الْأَكْمَامِ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:11] (see commentary for verse 10)

وَالْحَبُّ ذُو الْعَصْفِ وَالرَّيْحَانُ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:12] (see commentary for verse 10)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:13]

The question is directed towards the two species of rational creatures (human beings and jinn, other than mankind) accountable for their acts.

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 30 to 38.

Whenever the reciter reads this verse in this surah he or she must say: “Nothing of any bounty from You, O Lord, I belie.”

 

خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ مِنْ صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:14]

Refer to Araf: 12 and Hijr: 27.

 

وَخَلَقَ الْجَانَّ مِنْ مَارِجٍ مِنْ نَارٍ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:15] (see commentary for verse 14)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:16]

رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقَيْنِ وَرَبُّ الْمَغْرِبَيْنِ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:17]

Refer to Araf: 137 and Saffat: 5.

 

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:18]

مَرَجَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ يَلْتَقِيَانِ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:19]

Refer to Furqan: 53 and Fatir: 12.

 

بَيْنَهُمَا بَرْزَخٌ لَا يَبْغِيَانِ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:20]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to the Ahl ul Bayt the two streams refer to nabuwwah (prophethood) and imamah (divinely commissioned guides) which flow together and yet with a distinguishing line between them, assigning separate functions to each of them, so as not to create confusion. The Holy Prophet is the most perfect manifestation ofnabuwwah and Ali is the most perfect manifestation of wilayah or imamah, and Fatimah is the distinguishing line between them which connects both of them. According to a tradition related by Salman Farsi, Ibn Jubayr and Sufyan Sawri recorded by Ibn Marduwayh and Jalal al Din al Suyuti the two oceans are Ali and Fatimah and the Holy Prophet is the link between them, Hasan and Husayn are the pearls.

 

 

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:21] (see commentary for verse 20)

يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُمَا اللُّؤْلُؤُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:22] (see commentary for verse 20)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:23]

وَلَهُ الْجَوَارِ الْمُنْشَآتُ فِي الْبَحْرِ كَالْأَعْلَامِ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:24]

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:25]

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:26]

وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:27]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

All things in nature will pass away at their appointed time, but the only one that will endure for ever is the “face” of Allah. Refer to Qasas: 88. Face expresses glory, power, majesty, essence and all the noble attributes which we associate with the beautiful names of Allah. Refer to Baqarah: 122; Araf: 180 and Bani Israil: 110.

 

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:28]

يَسْأَلُهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:29]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In addition to the day of 24 hours of the earth, yawm includes all the divine days and periods mentioned in Ibrahim: 5, in which any development takes places which points to the evolutionary process working in the universe.

 

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:30]

سَنَفْرُغُ لَكُمْ أَيُّهَ الثَّقَلَانِ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:31]

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:32]

يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنْسِ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ تَنْفُذُوا مِنْ أَقْطَارِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ فَانْفُذُوا ۚ لَا تَنْفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلْطَانٍ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:33]

Refer to Anam: 129 to 134.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Verse 33 clearly recognises the possibility of man going beyond the zones separating the heavens and the earth if he acquires knowledge by observation and contemplation, mentioned in the commentary of verse 5, a theory considered impossible till the journey of man began in space.

If any attempt is made without knowing the laws made by Allah to govern the creation the consequence will be as mentioned in verse 35- failure, disaster and destruction.

 

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:34] (see commentary for verse 33)

يُرْسَلُ عَلَيْكُمَا شُوَاظٌ مِنْ نَارٍ وَنُحَاسٌ فَلَا تَنْتَصِرَانِ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:35] (see commentary for verse 33)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:36]

فَإِذَا انْشَقَّتِ السَّمَاءُ فَكَانَتْ وَرْدَةً كَالدِّهَانِ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:37]

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:38]

فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لَا يُسْأَلُ عَنْ ذَنْبِهِ إِنْسٌ وَلَا جَانٌّ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:39]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The final resurrection is not referred to in this verse, because on that day all the prophets and those to whom they were sent will be questioned as per verses 6 to 8 of Araf.

Verses 39, 41, 43 and 44 state that on the day of reckoning their tongues, hands and feet will bear witness against them as to their actions (Nur: 24). Every man will bear marks on his person, showing his classification (Araf: 48). The all-knowing Lord knows all, but to give every chance to the accused his record will be produced and shown to him (Kahf: 49 and Araf: 7). In this way their personal responsibility will be enforced.

 

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:40]

يُعْرَفُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ بِسِيمَاهُمْ فَيُؤْخَذُ بِالنَّوَاصِي وَالْأَقْدَامِ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:41]

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:42]

هَٰذِهِ جَهَنَّمُ الَّتِي يُكَذِّبُ بِهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:43]

يَطُوفُونَ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ حَمِيمٍ آنٍ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:44]

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:45]

وَلِمَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ جَنَّتَانِ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:46]

These verses describe the state of bliss the God-fearing will enjoy in a number of allegories.

The two springs are known as Tasnim and Salsabil.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

All sorts of fruits in pairs correspond to various aspects of (i) faith and (ii) good deeds.

VERSE 60:

This is the summing up of all the symbolism used to express the bliss of the eternal life in paradise, the best expression that can be given to the idea of equity.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Each blessing in the life of hereafter corresponds to some good done in this world. Ayyashi narrates from Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq that the standard principle stated in this verse applies to every man, believer or disbeliever. To whomsoever good is done, he must return it with good with more good if he wants to have an edge over the man who took the first step to do good to him. This principle is also operative between the creator and the created beings, save that the creator free from all needs, does not need any favours.

VERSE 62:

Whatever a dweller of paradise desires it will be made available to him or her-blessings and blessings, more and more, with no limitations.

Abu Basir asked Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq: “Will a pious believing couple remain united in the paradise if both the husband and wife desire so?” The Imam said: “If the quality of piety and faith of husband is better, he will have the option, and if the quality of the piety and faith of the wife is better, she will have the option. If one desires the other they will certainly live together.” There will be grades in the living conditions of the dwellers of paradise according to the quality of their faith and deeds. It is said that the people of higher regions will be allowed to visit the comparatively lower parts, but the residents of the lower parts will be unable to visit higher regions.

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:47] (see commentary for verse 46)

ذَوَاتَا أَفْنَانٍ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:48] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:49] (see commentary for verse 46)

فِيهِمَا عَيْنَانِ تَجْرِيَانِ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:50] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:51] (see commentary for verse 46)

فِيهِمَا مِنْ كُلِّ فَاكِهَةٍ زَوْجَانِ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:52] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:53] (see commentary for verse 46)

مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَىٰ فُرُشٍ بَطَائِنُهَا مِنْ إِسْتَبْرَقٍ ۚ وَجَنَى الْجَنَّتَيْنِ دَانٍ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:54] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:55] (see commentary for verse 46)

فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنْسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلَا جَانٌّ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:56] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:57] (see commentary for verse 46)

كَأَنَّهُنَّ الْيَاقُوتُ وَالْمَرْجَانُ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:58] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:59] (see commentary for verse 46)

هَلْ جَزَاءُ الْإِحْسَانِ إِلَّا الْإِحْسَانُ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:60] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:61] (see commentary for verse 46)

وَمِنْ دُونِهِمَا جَنَّتَانِ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:62] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:63] (see commentary for verse 46)

مُدْهَامَّتَانِ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:64] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:65] (see commentary for verse 46)

فِيهِمَا عَيْنَانِ نَضَّاخَتَانِ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:66] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:67] (see commentary for verse 46)

فِيهِمَا فَاكِهَةٌ وَنَخْلٌ وَرُمَّانٌ {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:68] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:69] (see commentary for verse 46)

فِيهِنَّ خَيْرَاتٌ حِسَانٌ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:70] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:71] (see commentary for verse 46)

حُورٌ مَقْصُورَاتٌ فِي الْخِيَامِ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:72] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:73] (see commentary for verse 46)

لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنْسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلَا جَانٌّ {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:74] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:75] (see commentary for verse 46)

مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَىٰ رَفْرَفٍ خُضْرٍ وَعَبْقَرِيٍّ حِسَانٍ {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:76] (see commentary for verse 46)

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:77]

تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذِي الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 55:78]
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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