بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

تَنْزِيلُ الْكِتَابِ مِنَ اللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:1]

The Quran is a complete book of wisdom and guidance revealed to the Holy Prophet by the almighty and all-wise Allah, who has absolute power to choose whomsoever He likes for receiving the revelation and conveying it to mankind.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

As per verse 3 of Dukhan the whole Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet in the night of Qadr, but he recited it to the people as and when commanded by Allah which is described as the gradual revelation. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 and my essay “The genuineness of the holy Quran.”

Worship, obedience and gratitude is due to Allah, and to establish them on the earth is the mission of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. To seek nearness to Allah man should use the true means of approach to Him. The true medium (wasilah) is the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, because by their wisdom and character they have proved that they alone are the superior most individuals in submission to Allah’s will and command. Islam prescribes goodness which is carrying out Allah’s commands in letter and spirit in every department of life at all times, in private and public, in thought and action, in minutest detail.

 

إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ فَاعْبُدِ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:2] (see commentary for verse 1)

أَلَا لِلَّهِ الدِّينُ الْخَالِصُ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَىٰ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَا هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ كَاذِبٌ كَفَّارٌ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:3]

Worship is due to none but Allah. Worshippers of material possessions and resources, power, intellect, leaders and ambition may pretend that they seek fulfilment of the goal of their life through these media which finally bring them nearer to Allah, but they are altogether on the wrong track.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

To take guardians beside Allah without His permission is strictly prohibited.

Verse 55 of al Ma-idah says:

Verily, your guardian is Allah and His messenger and those who believe and establish the prayer, and give the poor-rate while they are (in the state of ruku) bowing down.

(Refer to the commentary of Ma-idah: 55)

 

لَوْ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا لَاصْطَفَىٰ مِمَّا يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ ۖ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:4]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 255, Ali Imran: 2 and An-am: 101.

“He begets not, nor was He begotten”, says verse 3 of al Ikhlas. For begetting He should have a wife on whom He would have depended to have a son; and dependence is weakness or imperfection. If the son was a created being he would have been in any case inferior to Him, and an inferior being cannot help a supreme being. If the son was an uncreated being like Himself, then the conclusion is a doctrine of dualism or trinity which has been dealt with in the commentary of abovenoted verses.

Glory be to Allah. He is above such things. He requires no created beings to help Him. He is self-subsisting by whom all subsist.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

It is blasphemy, with no reason at all, to say that Isa was a son of God or an adopted son of God.

If Allah had a son, the Holy Prophet would certainly have been the first of (his) worshippers-says verse 81 of Zukhruf.

 

خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ يُكَوِّرُ اللَّيْلَ عَلَى النَّهَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّهَارَ عَلَى اللَّيْلِ ۖ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ۖ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ۗ أَلَا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفَّارُ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:5]

See commentary of An-am: 73.

His might or power is equalled by His mercy. He shall punish those who reject or belie His signs, and He shall forgive those who turn to Him in repentance and live a pious life thereafter.

 

خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَأَنْزَلَ لَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ ثَمَانِيَةَ أَزْوَاجٍ ۚ يَخْلُقُكُمْ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ خَلْقًا مِنْ بَعْدِ خَلْقٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ ثَلَاثٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُصْرَفُونَ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:6]

For “He created you from a single being”, see commentary of Nisa: 1; and for creation of pairs see commentary of An-am: 143 and 144 and Ya Sin: 71 to 73. For the gradual physical growth of man in several successive stages in the womb see commentary of Hajj: 5.

 

إِنْ تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنْكُمْ ۖ وَلَا يَرْضَىٰ لِعِبَادِهِ الْكُفْرَ ۖ وَإِنْ تَشْكُرُوا يَرْضَهُ لَكُمْ ۗ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۗ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:7]

Allah is free from all wants, and therefore man’s ingratitude does not affect Him. He cares for man, so man’s gratitude and service earn His pleasure, and man’s ingratitude and rebellion are displeasing to Him.

For “No bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another” see commentary of Baqarah: 48, 123 and 254; An-am: 165; Bani Israil: 15 and Fatir: 18.

 

وَإِذَا مَسَّ الْإِنْسَانَ ضُرٌّ دَعَا رَبَّهُ مُنِيبًا إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ إِذَا خَوَّلَهُ نِعْمَةً مِنْهُ نَسِيَ مَا كَانَ يَدْعُو إِلَيْهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَجَعَلَ لِلَّهِ أَنْدَادًا لِيُضِلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ۚ قُلْ تَمَتَّعْ بِكُفْرِكَ قَلِيلًا ۖ إِنَّكَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:8]

Refer to the commentary of Yunus: 12 Nahl: 53 to 55 and Rum: 33.

 

أَمَّنْ هُوَ قَانِتٌ آنَاءَ اللَّيْلِ سَاجِدًا وَقَائِمًا يَحْذَرُ الْآخِرَةَ وَيَرْجُو رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ ۗ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ۗ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:9]

See commentary of Ali Imran: 113 to 117 and Ma-idah: 100.

As pointed out in the commentary of Fatihah: 7, it is necessary to know the way of life and teachings of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt to find out the right path and to walk on it. Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

” ‘Those who know’ refers to the Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt; and ‘those who do not know’ refers to the opponents of the Ahl ul Bayt; and the ‘men of understanding’ refers to the sincere devotees of the Ahl ul Bayt.”

Once Ali and Qambar were taking a walk in the city of Kufa after nightfall. Qambar stopped at the doorsteps of a house in which a man was reciting this verse, but Ali went ahead. After a few steps he turned and asked Qambar: “Why did you stop?” Qambar replied: “He is reciting the Quran in a very tender and melodious voice.” Ali said: “The sleep of a person whose mind and heart are ingrained with the conviction of faith is better than the adoration of a doubting hypocrite.”

It is reported by Qambar that he could not grasp the meaning of Ali’s observation, so he recorded the identity of that house in his mind and visited it the next day. He found out that it was the house of a hypocrite. Then he asked Ali as to how did he know what was hidden in the heart of the man? Ali said: “How could a guardian remain unaware of that which is concealed by the people in their hearts?”

The Holy Prophet said:

“I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.”

See the commentary of Baqarah: 105 to know that Allah chooses whom He pleases for His special favour; and commentary of Ma-idah: 35 which contains clear guidance for identifying and selecting the true means of approach (wasilah).

As for praying in the nights there are no equals to Ali, Fatimah, and Ali bin Husayn Zayn al Abidin in particular among the Ahl ul Bayt, save the Holy Prophet, according to the authentic books of history written by well-known Muslim scholars.

 

قُلْ يَا عِبَادِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ ۚ لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا فِي هَٰذِهِ الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةٌ ۗ وَأَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةٌ ۗ إِنَّمَا يُوَفَّى الصَّابِرُونَ أَجْرَهُمْ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:10]

For taqwa (fear to displease Allah which is akin to love) see commentary of Baqarah: 2, 177, and 189.

Sabiruna refers to those who remain steadfast in the face of relentless torture and persecution. Verse 177 of Baqarah also throws light on sabiruna. In all authentic books of history it has been clearly narrated that the Ahl ul Bayt, particularly Imam Husayn bin Ali, his relatives and friends, in Karbala and after Karbala, were subjected to torture and persecution, unparalleled in the history of mankind.

“Allah’s earth is spacious” refers to the political circumstances which may become unfavourable to the practice of the faith, and the true believer, who cannot safely exercise his religion in his native land, has to emigrate to a place of liberty and security.

It is said that on the day of judgement prayers, fasting, pilgrimage and alms-giving etcetera will be weighed and recompensed proportionately, but the recompense of patience, fortitude and forbearance shall exceed the reward of all good deeds, even martyrdom. It will be said to those who patiently suffered hardships in the cause of Allah:

“The martyrs suffered death only once, but you suffered persecution worse than death throughout your lives.”

 

قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ الدِّينَ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:11]

Refer to the commentary of An-am: 14.

This verse was revealed when the pagans of Makka asked the Holy Prophet as to why he was preaching a new religion opposed to idolatry and making his followers suffer persecution and miseries.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Not in the order of conversion of the Makkans, but the Holy Prophet was the first Muslim in the order of whole creation, mentioned in Ali Imran: 184.

 

وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:12] (see commentary for verse 11)

قُلْ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:13]

Refer to the commentary of An-am: 14 to 16.

 

قُلِ اللَّهَ أَعْبُدُ مُخْلِصًا لَهُ دِينِي {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:14] (see commentary for verse 13)

فَاعْبُدُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ الْخَاسِرِينَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَأَهْلِيهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ أَلَا ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ{15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:15]

This is not a command or permission but a reproach and warning.

He who gains the whole world and loses his own soul shall not be profited. He has given his soul in exchange of that which will surely land him in the midst of eternal damnation, because clear guidance came to him but he chose to go astray.

 

لَهُمْ مِنْ فَوْقِهِمْ ظُلَلٌ مِنَ النَّارِ وَمِنْ تَحْتِهِمْ ظُلَلٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ يُخَوِّفُ اللَّهُ بِهِ عِبَادَهُ ۚ يَا عِبَادِ فَاتَّقُونِ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:16]

وَالَّذِينَ اجْتَنَبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ أَنْ يَعْبُدُوهَا وَأَنَابُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَىٰ ۚ فَبَشِّرْ عِبَادِ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:17]

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 256 and Nahl: 36.

 

الَّذِينَ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقَوْلَ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ أَحْسَنَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَاهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمْ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:18]

أَفَمَنْ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِ كَلِمَةُ الْعَذَابِ أَفَأَنْتَ تُنْقِذُ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:19]

لَٰكِنِ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا رَبَّهُمْ لَهُمْ غُرَفٌ مِنْ فَوْقِهَا غُرَفٌ مَبْنِيَّةٌ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ لَا يُخْلِفُ اللَّهُ الْمِيعَادَ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:20]

Refer to the commentary of Ankabut: 58.

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَسَلَكَهُ يَنَابِيعَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يُخْرِجُ بِهِ زَرْعًا مُخْتَلِفًا أَلْوَانُهُ ثُمَّ يَهِيجُ فَتَرَاهُ مُصْفَرًّا ثُمَّ يَجْعَلُهُ حُطَامًا ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَذِكْرَىٰ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:21]

Refer to the commentary of Hajj: 5.

 

أَفَمَنْ شَرَحَ اللَّهُ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ فَهُوَ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۚ فَوَيْلٌ لِلْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ مِنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ{22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:22]

Refer to the commentary of An-am: 126.

It is reported that this verse was revealed in praise of Ali ibn abi Talib. “I and Ali are from one and he same light”, said the Holy Prophet, therefore, he and Ali never worshipped a ghayrallah(other than Allah) as mentioned in the commentary of Baqarah: 124.

Indirectly this verse is also applicable to those believers whose hearts have been enlightened with the truth according to the degree of their faith.

To identify the enlightened heart the Holy Prophet said:

“An enlightened heart shuns the desires connected with the temporary stay in this world and desires that which is associated with the permanent abode of the hereafter.”

The last part of the verse refers to Abu Lahab and his associates.

Just as there is spiritual progress for those who seek nearness to Allah, so there is more and more spiritual retrogression for those who close their hearts to the truth. Their hearts grow hardened, and they allow less and less grace of Allah to penetrate their souls.

The Holy Prophet said:

“Seek help from those of my adherents who have enlightened hearts, for Allah has bestowed His grace and mercy on them. Do not go near those whose hearts have grown hardened, for their souls have been destroyed by the wrath of Allah.”

Allah loves those who show love and kindness to His creatures and guides them unto the right path and goodness.

 

اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُتَشَابِهًا مَثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:23]

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2; Ali Imran: 7; Anfal: 2; Ibrahim: 4 and Nahl: 93.

For the revelation of the whole text of the Quran and also for its gradual revelation to the Holy Prophet see commentary of Baqarah: 2 and Aqa Puya’s essay “The genuineness of the holy Quran”. For mutashabihat see commentary of Ali Imran: 7; for the reaction of those who fear their Lord see commentary of Anfal: 2; and for those whom Allah leaves to stray see commentary of Ibrahim: 4 and Nahl: 93.

The gradual revelation of the Quran, although revealed in parts, during a long period of about 23 years, dealing with facts and events far removed from each other, is yet a book consistent with itself, and conformable in its various parts, with its teachings constantly reiterated in order to impress upon the minds of the people the unity of Allah, His attributes, the laws operating the nature, accountability, the day of resurrection, the day of judgement, and the reward for doing good and the punishment for doing evil.

Those who receive truth do it with tremor and not with apathy, which is a proof of their being moved by the word of Allah, so they are overcome by love and favour of Allah. They are soft of heart. Those who are hard-hearted are left by Allah to stray.

According to verses 1 to 5 of ar Rahman, at the time of creation of the Holy Prophet the knowledge of the Quran was given to him. The beneficent Lord taught him the Quran. The prophets of Allah were fully equipped, conditioned and educated before they were sent to guide the people. It is clearly stated in Maryam: 30 that Isa was given the Injil while he was in the cradle.

As stated in verse 114 of Ta Ha, the Holy Prophet was commanded to deliver the verses and the surahs of the book of Allah to the people as and when Allah directed him to do so. Verse 185 of al Baqarah and verse 1 of al Qadr clearly state that the whole Quran was sent down to the Holy Prophet in the night of Qadr.

For the present arrangement of the Quran refer to Aqa Mahdi Puya’s essay “The genuineness of the holy Quran.”

The Holy Prophet said:

“The sins of those who tremble in fear of Allah’s wrath drop, like dried leaves, from their record. On the day of judgement all eyes will be terrified and frightened save the eyes which did not see the forbidden things, had wept in fear of Allah’s wrath, and remained opened in remembrance of Allah.”

 

أَفَمَنْ يَتَّقِي بِوَجْهِهِ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ وَقِيلَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ ذُوقُوا مَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْسِبُونَ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:24]

To shield oneself by one’s face is to expose oneself fully to the punishment; it conveys a true picture of utter helplessness.

 

كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ فَأَتَاهُمُ الْعَذَابُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:25]

Refer to Nahl : 26; and commentary of verses of Araf, Yunus and Hud for the destruction of the people of Nuh, Hud, Salih, Lut, Shu-ayb and Firawn (in the time of Musa).

 

فَأَذَاقَهُمُ اللَّهُ الْخِزْيَ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:26]

Refer to al Baqarah: 114.

 

وَلَقَدْ ضَرَبْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:27]

Men can better understand high spiritual truths by parables and similitudes, and these are given abundantly in the Quran.

The object is, not merely to tell stories, but to teach lessons of wisdom.

 

قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا غَيْرَ ذِي عِوَجٍ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:28]

Refer to Kahf: 1.

 

ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا رَجُلًا فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ مُتَشَاكِسُونَ وَرَجُلًا سَلَمًا لِرَجُلٍ هَلْ يَسْتَوِيَانِ مَثَلًا ۚ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:29]

No man can serve two, still less numerous, masters.

The difference between polytheism (serving many masters who disagree and quarrel among themselves, making their servants suffer) and the gospel of tawhid (serving one master who is good, kind to his servants) is explained by the analogy of two men. The servant who serves one master concentrates his attention to his master only and is happy by discharging his duties efficiently.

 

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُمْ مَيِّتُونَ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:30]

All will die, good and bad alike. Even the prophets are not exempted. But there is a life after death. Every one will face the consequences of the good or bad he or she has done in this world.

 

ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عِنْدَ رَبِّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُونَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:31]

In the life of hereafter, the consequence of the life of this world, all the things about which people dispute in this world will be made clear in the presence of Allah; then the disputants will realise their folly.

 

فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ كَذَبَ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَكَذَّبَ بِالصِّدْقِ إِذْ جَاءَهُ ۚ أَلَيْسَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ مَثْوًى لِلْكَافِرِينَ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:32]

Refer to Anam: 21, 94, 145 and 158.

No offence is more heinous than belying the signs of Allah, in spite of the truth being made clear by continuous guidance.

In Matthew 12: 31 and 32, Isa says:

“Whosoever speaks a word against the son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever speaks against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age nor in the age to come.”

Nisa: 48 and 116 confirm that which has been said by prophet Isa.

 

وَالَّذِي جَاءَ بِالصِّدْقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:33]

“He who brings the truth” refers to the Holy Prophet, and it is unanimously accepted by the scholars of all sects that ‘He who testifies it’ refers to Ali ibn abi Talib. See commentary of Ali Imran : 52 and 53. Ibn al Maghazli writes the abovenoted interpretation in his Manaqibah on the authority of Mujahid. Hafizan ibn Marduwayh and Hafiz Abu Nu-aym have also recorded this tradition. Once the Holy Prophet asked his companions:

“Who among you would relate to me a distinguishing excellence of my cousin, Ali?”

“I shall,” said Ammar Yasir.

“Do, then,” said the Holy Prophet. Ammar recited this verse.

“True is that which you have recited,” said the Holy Prophet.

Imam Ali said:

“I am the siddiq al akbar (the greatest truthful) and I am the faruq al azam (the greatest distinguisher), and none shall claim these titles other than me, save a liar.”

Ibn Abbas said:

“When on the night of ascension the Holy Prophet visited the kingdom of Allah in the heavens, He told him: ‘Go and inform your followers what you have seen here’. The Holy Prophet asked: ‘Who would testify my statement?’ Allah replied: ‘Ali will testify.'”

“These are those who safeguard themselves against evil” and verses 34 and 35 refer to the other believers in the truth who also are entitled to be called muttaqin according to the degree of their sincerity in the faith.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse is applicable to all the prophets and their testifiers. Among them the most distinguished are:

(i) Mumin ali Firawn,

(ii) Mumin ali Yasin,

(iii) Ali ibn abi Talib, the superior most among them.

Any view expressed by any commentator, not supported by the sayings of the Holy Prophet, should be rejected outright.

 

لَهُمْ مَا يَشَاءُونَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:34]

لِيُكَفِّرَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ أَسْوَأَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَهُمْ أَجْرَهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:35]

أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِكَافٍ عَبْدَهُ ۖ وَيُخَوِّفُونَكَ بِالَّذِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:36]

وَمَنْ يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ مُضِلٍّ ۗ أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِعَزِيزٍ ذِي انْتِقَامٍ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:37]

وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ ۚ قُلْ أَفَرَأَيْتُمْ مَا تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَادَنِيَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ هَلْ هُنَّ كَاشِفَاتُ ضُرِّهِ أَوْ أَرَادَنِي بِرَحْمَةٍ هَلْ هُنَّ مُمْسِكَاتُ رَحْمَتِهِ ۚ قُلْ حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ ۖ عَلَيْهِ يَتَوَكَّلُ الْمُتَوَكِّلُونَ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:38]

See commentary of Muminun: 84 to 89 and Ankabut : 61 according to which even the disbelievers, if asked, would admit that Allah is the creator of the heavens and the earth.

The believers put their trust in Allah-see Yusuf: 67 and Ibrahim: 11.

 

قُلْ يَا قَوْمِ اعْمَلُوا عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِكُمْ إِنِّي عَامِلٌ ۖ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ {39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:39]

See Hud 93 and 121.

 

مَنْ يَأْتِيهِ عَذَابٌ يُخْزِيهِ وَيَحِلُّ عَلَيْهِ عَذَابٌ مُقِيمٌ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:40]

إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ لِلنَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَلِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۖ وَمَا أَنْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِوَكِيلٍ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:41]

See An-am: 108.

 

اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنْفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا ۖ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَىٰ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:42]

See commentary of An-am 60 and Sajdah: 11.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

To a certain extent there is affinity between sleep and death. In the state of sleep, the cognitive self disassociates itself from the conscious world of senses but not from the body altogether, as the working of sub-conscious, unconscious or superconscious does not cease. The dreams are said to be the expression of any of them. The dreams of the prophets were the manifestation of the superconscious which revealed the unseen to them.

 

أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُفَعَاءَ ۚ قُلْ أَوَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يَمْلِكُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَعْقِلُونَ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:43]

قُلْ لِلَّهِ الشَّفَاعَةُ جَمِيعًا ۖ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:44]

For the doctrine of intercession (shafa-at) refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 48 and 123 and other references mentioned therein.

 

وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ اشْمَأَزَّتْ قُلُوبُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:45]

To those who are not true monotheists the mention of Allah, or His commandments, is hateful. As soon as the Holy Prophet departed from this world, the hypocrites at once turned hostile to his Ahl ul Bayt in spite of the several verses of the Quran which establish their superior merits and their authority and the declarations of the Holy Prophet (from dawat dhil ashira to Ghadir Khum), and became the self-imposed leaders of the people.

 

قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ فَاطِرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ عَالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ أَنْتَ تَحْكُمُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِكَ فِي مَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:46]

وَلَوْ أَنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لَافْتَدَوْا بِهِ مِنْ سُوءِ الْعَذَابِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ وَبَدَا لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يَكُونُوا يَحْتَسِبُونَ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:47]

Refer to the commentary of Rad: 17.

 

وَبَدَا لَهُمْ سَيِّئَاتُ مَا كَسَبُوا وَحَاقَ بِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:48]

فَإِذَا مَسَّ الْإِنْسَانَ ضُرٌّ دَعَانَا ثُمَّ إِذَا خَوَّلْنَاهُ نِعْمَةً مِنَّا قَالَ إِنَّمَا أُوتِيتُهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ ۚ بَلْ هِيَ فِتْنَةٌ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ{49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:49]

Refer to the commentary of Yunus: 12; Nahl: 53 and 54, Rum: 33 and verse 8 of this surah.

 

قَدْ قَالَهَا الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ فَمَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:50]

فَأَصَابَهُمْ سَيِّئَاتُ مَا كَسَبُوا ۚ وَالَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ سَيُصِيبُهُمْ سَيِّئَاتُ مَا كَسَبُوا وَمَا هُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:51]

Refer to Nah1: 34.

 

أَوَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:52]

Refer to Qasas: 82 and Rum: 37.

 

قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ{53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:53]

Imam Ali has said that there is no better verse than this to give heart, joy and confidence to a believer for the availability of divine mercy.

Allah is just, but He is not merciless. His justice is always tempered with His mercy. He has made mercy incumbent on Himself (An-am: 12, 54), He invites man to seek His pardon (Nisa: 106), He wipes out sins (Ankabut: 7), provided the sinner turns repentant to Him and thereafter remains on the right path.

Every surah of the Quran, except al Bara-at, begins with the first verse of al Fatihah. Refer to the introduction of al Fatihah and the commentary of al Fatihah: 1 to 4 to understand the true interpretation of this verse.

 

وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنْصَرُونَ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:54]

The sinners must turn to Allah in repentance before they meet their Lord for the final reckoning, because once the decree is passed the punishment will begin from which there will be no escape. Pardon will be available to those who repent and surrender themselves to the mercy of Allah.

 

وَاتَّبِعُوا أَحْسَنَ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ بَغْتَةً وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:55]

The best among the created beings sent down to the people is the Holy Prophet with the book of Allah. The Holy Prophet, on several occasions, made known to the people that Ali and he were from one an the same light, so they should follow and obey him (see hadith al thaqalayn and other traditions, the commentary of al Ma-idah: 67, Ali Imran: 61, Ahzab: 33, Baqarah : 124, and recall to memory the commentary of several verses so far read), and after Ali, the holy Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt. They are the best among the whole mankind in all ages. To follow the best chosen by Allah, we must identify and discard those who are ordinary and weak in faith.

 

أَنْ تَقُولَ نَفْسٌ يَا حَسْرَتَا عَلَىٰ مَا فَرَّطْتُ فِي جَنْبِ اللَّهِ وَإِنْ كُنْتُ لَمِنَ السَّاخِرِينَ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:56]

All disbelievers, sinners and hypocrites who not only belie the signs of Allah but mock at them will be screaming with regrets and woes but all will be in vain.

 

أَوْ تَقُولَ لَوْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ هَدَانِي لَكُنْتُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:57]

أَوْ تَقُولَ حِينَ تَرَى الْعَذَابَ لَوْ أَنَّ لِي كَرَّةً فَأَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:58]

بَلَىٰ قَدْ جَاءَتْكَ آيَاتِي فَكَذَّبْتَ بِهَا وَاسْتَكْبَرْتَ وَكُنْتَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:59]

وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ تَرَى الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ وُجُوهُهُمْ مُسْوَدَّةٌ ۚ أَلَيْسَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ مَثْوًى لِلْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:60]

As spotless white is the symbol of joy and honour (Ali Imran: 106), so black or darkness is the symbol of sorrow and disgrace (Yunus: 26 and 27). The blessed and the cursed will be identified on the day of judgement by their joy and sorrow, honour and disgrace, respectively.

 

وَيُنَجِّي اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا بِمَفَازَتِهِمْ لَا يَمَسُّهُمُ السُّوءُ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:61]

Refer to Yunus: 62.

 

اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:62]

لَهُ مَقَالِيدُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:63]

قُلْ أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ تَأْمُرُونِّي أَعْبُدُ أَيُّهَا الْجَاهِلُونَ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:64]

وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:65]

The gospel of unity, renewed in Islam with utmost emphasis and full force, has been the message from Allah since the arrival of Adam in this world.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

There is a general statement in this verse, addressed to people through the Holy Prophet. It implies that if the motivating drive behind any work done is not the service of Allah, it bears no fruit in the life of hereafter, because when any other than Allah is associated the main purpose of the deed is lost.

 

بَلِ اللَّهَ فَاعْبُدْ وَكُنْ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:66]

وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ وَالْأَرْضُ جَمِيعًا قَبْضَتُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَالسَّمَاوَاتُ مَطْوِيَّاتٌ بِيَمِينِهِ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ{67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:67]

Refer to the commentary of An-am: 92; Ibrahim: 48; Anbiya: 104 and Hajj: 74.

The authority of Allah is not like unto any device made by man. If man fails to see beyond his own devices, he will never understand the omnipotent power of Allah. The whole earth will be no more to Him than a thing that will be crushed in the hallow of His hand, nor will the heavens with their vast expanse be more than a rolled up scroll in His right hand, the hand of power and will. This is, of course, figurative. Allah is not a creature of flesh and blood, with hands and fingers.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Those who associate others with Allah in authority have no idea of the absoluteness of His power or authority. Verse 92 of An-am and 74 of Hajj also have the same meanings. No one has any intrinsic power. Allah is the supreme authority. His authority will manifest itself on the day of resurrection to all creatures. All those who thought they had power or authority will appear before Him in abject submission. The state of the day of resurrection will be free from the laws of space and time and dimensional barriers (Anbiya: 104).

 

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَىٰ فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنْظُرُونَ{68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:68]

Sa-iqa implies “a swoon”, loss of all consciousness of being, and cessation of the normal functioning of the powers of feeling. With the first trumpet the living on the earth will die, and the souls of the dead will become unconscious. The exception, according to Ahl ul Bayt, refers to martyrs. There will be a new heaven and a new earth as stated in Ibrahim: 48. The new earth will be illuminated by the divine light, not by the sun or the moon. With the second trumpet they will stand in the new world before Allah, then the judgement will begin.

See commentary of Bani Israil: 13, 14 and 71; Ya Sin: 65. Kitab means the record of deeds.

 

وَأَشْرَقَتِ الْأَرْضُ بِنُورِ رَبِّهَا وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ وَجِيءَ بِالنَّبِيِّينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:69] (see commentary for verse 68)

وَوُفِّيَتْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا عَمِلَتْ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:70]

وَسِيقَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ زُمَرًا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوهَا فُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُهَا وَقَالَ لَهُمْ خَزَنَتُهَا أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ رُسُلٌ مِنْكُمْ يَتْلُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِ رَبِّكُمْ وَيُنْذِرُونَكُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَٰذَا ۚ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ وَلَٰكِنْ حَقَّتْ كَلِمَةُ الْعَذَابِ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:71]

Refer to Yunus: 33.

 

قِيلَ ادْخُلُوا أَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:72]

وَسِيقَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا رَبَّهُمْ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ زُمَرًا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوهَا وَفُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُهَا وَقَالَ لَهُمْ خَزَنَتُهَا سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ طِبْتُمْ فَادْخُلُوهَا خَالِدِينَ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:73]

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي صَدَقَنَا وَعْدَهُ وَأَوْرَثَنَا الْأَرْضَ نَتَبَوَّأُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ نَشَاءُ ۖ فَنِعْمَ أَجْرُ الْعَامِلِينَ {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:74]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

As verse 70 of Qasas says Allah’s is all praise, first and last.

 

وَتَرَى الْمَلَائِكَةَ حَافِّينَ مِنْ حَوْلِ الْعَرْشِ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ وَقِيلَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 39:75]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse refers to the absolute sovereignty of the Lord of the worlds to whom alone belongs all praise and glory. See commentary of Baqarah: 255. According to the Ahl ul Bayt the throne (arsh) refers to absolute wisdom of the Lord and those who surround the divine wisdom on its outskirts are the angels and His chosen friends.
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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