The Life of Muhammad (PBUH)

By: Allama Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi

Translation by: Abdullah al-Shahin

p. 228-246

 

At the beginning of establishing his state in Yathrib, the Prophet (a.s.) began sending deputies to kings and rulers inviting them to monotheism and to believe in Islam that Allah had determined as a perfect religion for all His people. The Prophet’s letters to those kings and rulers were the best form of media at that time. He warned Khosrau of Persia and Caesar of Rome who had possessed most of the world, and many prominent personalities of that time. He was certain that his religion would prevail over the whole globe and all the nations would enjoy its blessings.

The Prophet (a.s.) chose the deputies from among his companions and advised them saying, “Be loyal to Allah as to His people, for whoever is entrusted with any of people’s affairs, and then he is not loyal to them, Allah will keep him away from the Paradise. Set out and do not do as the messengers of Jesus son of Mary did.”

His companions asked, “O messenger of Allah, what they did?”

He said, “He (Jesus) asked them to do the same as I have asked you to do. As for those whom he sent to near places, they submitted and were pleased, but as for those whom he sent to far places, they hated the task and hesitated. Therefore, Jesus complained that to Allah.”[1]

Dr. Taha Husayn says, “Islam wants the caliphs and the governors to be loyal and be guards for people on their rights, properties, and interests to run them after consultation and agreement and to fulfil them neither haughtily, proudly, or selfishly, and to run them not as if they are masters preferred to the rest of people by any kind of preference, but as leaders whom people trust and see them reliable in running their affairs, and then they entrust them with these affairs optionally and satisfactorily but not forcedly and unwillingly. So whoever wants to refer to them in these affairs can refer to them, and if they find that they have erred, their duty requires them to go back to straightness, and if they find that they have deviated, their duty requires them to go back to the right path…in this way the Prophet (a.s.) acted until Allah chose him to his neighborhood.”[2]

The following are some of his letters to important personalities of that time.

1. To Khosrau

The Prophet (a.s.) sent Abdullah bin Huthafah as-Sahmi a deputy to Khosrau the king of Persia and give him this letter to deliver it to the king:

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad the messenger of Allah to Khosrau the great king of Persia. Peace be on whoever follows guidance and believes in Allah and His messenger. We bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone with no associate to Him, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger. I invite you by the invitation of Allah that I am the messenger of Allah to the whole people to warn whosoever lives, and that the word may be fulfilled against the disbelievers. Be Muslim and you shall be safe, and if you refuse, the sin of the Magi shall be on you…”[3]

When the Prophet’s deputy came in to Khosrau, Khosrau ordered his men to take the letter from him, but he refused except that he himself would deliver the letter to the king. The king responded and received the letter from the deputy. The king ordered the letter to be recited to him. When he heard “From Muhammad to the great king of Persia”, pride occupied him because the Prophet (a.s.) had begun his letter by his name before the name of the king. King Khosrau took the letter and tore it before having known what there was in it. He ordered the deputy to get out of his palace. When he came back to Medina, the deputy told the Prophet (a.s.) about what had happened, and the Prophet (a.s.) prayed Allah against King Khosrau saying, “May Allah tear his authority.”[4]

Allah responded to the Prophet’s prayer and the authority of Khosrau was torn up by the Muslim armies after no long.

2. To Caesar

The Prophet (a.s.) sent Dihyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbi a deputy to the king of Rome and gave him this letter to him. The letter reads:

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad son of Abdullah to Hercules the great of Rome. Peace be on whoever follows guidance. Then, I invite you by the invitation of Islam; believe in Islam and you shall be safe and Allah will reward you twice, but if you refuse, the sin of your people shall be on you. (Say: O People of the Scripture! Come to an agreement between us and you: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords beside Allah. And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims).[5]”[6]

When the King of Rome read the letter, Dihyah said to him, “O Caesar, the one, who sent me, is better than you, and the One Who sent him is better than him and than you. Listen submissively and then respond, and thus you shall be loyal (to Allah). If you do not submit, you shall not understand, and if you are not loyal, you shall not be just.”

The king said, “Here I am!”

Dihyah said, “Do you know that Jesus offered prayer?”

The king said, “Yes, I know.”

Dihyah said, “So I invite you to the One Whom Jesus offered prayers for, and I invite you to the One Who has managed the creation of the heavens and the earth while Jesus was in his mother’s abdomen. And I invite you to this illiterate prophet whom Moses brought good news about and so did Jesus the son of Mary after him. Surely you have knowledge of that that does not need seeing or telling news. If you respond, you shall have this world and the afterworld; otherwise, you shall lose the afterworld and shall be participated in this world. Know well that you have a Lord Who destroys tyrants and change blessings.”[7]

The king asked the deputy, “Is there anyone from the people of this man who claims he is a prophet here?”

Abu Sufyan, who was not Muslim then, was among the attendants in the king’s meeting. The attendants referred to Abu Sufyan and said, “He is closer to the Prophet.”

Abu Sufyan came before the king who asked him (through his translator) the following questions:

“How is his ancestry among you?”

Abu Sufyan said, “He is of a high ancestry.”

The king asked, “Was anyone of his fathers a king?”

Abu Sufyan said, “No.”

The king asked, “Did you accuse him of lying?”

Abu Sufyan said, “No.”

The king asked, “Do the notables or the weak of people follow him?”

Abu Sufyan said, “The weak.”

The king asked, “Do they increase or decrease?”

Abu Sufyan said, “They increase.”

The king asked, “Do anyone apostatize after embracing his religion?”

Abu Sufyan said, “No.”

The king asked, “Did you fight him?”

Abu Sufyan said, “Yes.”

The King asked, “How was your fight against him?”

Abu Sufyan said, “The fight between us has its ups and downs; sometimes he wins and sometimes we win.”

The King asked, “Do he betray?”

Abu Sufyan said, “No?”

The king asked, “How about his reason and mentality?”

Abu Sufyan said, “We could not defeat him in reason or opinion.”

The king asked, “On what does he enjoin to you?”

Abu Sufyan said, “He enjoins on prayer, zakat, chastity, and to worship Allah alone with no partner, to be loyal to covenants, and to give trusts back to their owners.”

The talk went on between the King and Abu Sufyan who, at last, was angry and he said painfully, “Abu Kabsha[8] has become so important that the king of Rome began revering him.”

The king of Rome welcomed and regarded the Prophet’s deputy. He offered Islam to the Romans, but they refused to believe in it. Then, he wrote the Prophet (a.s.) a letter in which he declared his faith in Islam and the denial of the Romans. He said in his letter:

“To Ahmed the messenger of Allah whom Jesus had brought good news about, from Caesar the king of Rome. Your book has come to me with your messenger. I bear witness that you are the messenger of Allah. We find you in the Bible where Jesus the son of Mary has brought us good tidings about you. I invited the Romans to believe in you, but they refused, and if they obeyed me, it would be better for them. I wished I were near you to serve you and wash your feet.”[9]

The king of Rome announced his faith in Islam and that caused a deep influence in strengthening the morals of Muslims, besides that it found reverence to Islam in the Roman palace and in the church as well.

3. To al-Muqawqas

The Prophet (a.s.) sent Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah to al-Muqawqas the ruler of the Copts who was Christian. The letter to him reads in this way:

“From Muhammad the son of Abdullah to al-Muqawqas the great of the Copts. Peace be on whoever follows guidance. Then, I invite you by the invitation of Islam; believe in Islam and you shall be safe and Allah will reward you twice, but if you refuse, the sin of your people (the Copts) shall be on you. (Say: O People of the Scripture! Come to an agreement between us and you: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords beside Allah. And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims).[10]

The letter to the ruler of the Copts has been narrated in another way:

“From the messenger of Allah to the ruler of Egypt. Allah the Almighty has sent me as a messenger and revealed to me a Book, a clear Qur’an, and ordered me to give proofs and warning and to confront the unbelievers until they believe in my religion and until all people embrace it. I invite you to acknowledge the oneness of Allah. If you do, you shall be happy, and if you deny, you shall be wretched. With greeting.”[11]

When al-Muqawqas read the Prophet’s book, he said to Hatib, “What prevented him, if he was a prophet, from praying Allah against whoever opposed and exiled him from his country to another one?”

Hatib intelligently answered, “Do you not bear witness that Jesus the son of Mary is a messenger of Allah, so why did he, when his people took him and wanted to kill him, not pray against them that Allah might destroy them, until Allah raised him to Him?”

The ruler of the Copts was astonished at this argument and he said to Hatib, “You are a wise man (coming) from a wise man!”[12]

In ar-Rawdh, it has been mentioned that Hatib said to al-Muqawqas, “There was a man before claiming that he was the highest god (he meant the Pharaoh), but Allah destroyed him as the punishment of this life and the afterlife. Allah had avenged by him (on others) and then He avenged on him. So learn a lesson from others and do not let others learn a lesson from you.”

Al-Muqawqas said, “Here you are! Say what you want to say.”

Hatib said, “You have a religion that you should not give up except for what is better than it; it is Islam that Allah has made sufficient. This prophet invited people, but the severest of them against him were the people of Quraysh, and the most hostile to him were the Jews, and the nearest to him were the Christians. By my life, the good tidings of Moses about Jesus is not but like the good tidings of Jesus about Muhammad, and our call to you toward the Qur’an is not but like the call of the people of the Torah toward the Bible. Every prophet comes to a people from his nation, they have to obey him, and you are one of those who have attained this prophet, so you have to obey him…”[13]

Al-Muqawqas approved these words of Hatib that had a great influence on him. Al-Muqawqas sent to the Prophet (a.s.) some precious gifts among that was a bondmaid called Mariya whom the Prophet (a.s.) got married to and she bore him his son Abraham.[14] Among the gifts there was a physician to treat sick Muslims, but the Prophet (a.s.) asked him to go back to his country saying to him, “We are people that do not eat until we feel hungry and when we eat, we do not satiate (do not exceed in eating).”[15]

Al-Muqawqas sent the Prophet (a.s.) a letter saying in it,

“To Muhammad the son of Abdullah from al-Muqawqas the ruler of the Copts. Peace be on you. I have read your book and understood what you have mentioned in it and what you invited to. I have known that a prophet has remained. I thought he would appear in Sham. I was kind to your messenger…”[16]

Hatib went back to Medina with the gifts and the letter of al-Muqawqas. When the Prophet (a.s.) read the letter, he said, “He adhered to his rule, and his rule shall not last long.”

Al-Muqawqas with a delegation from Thaqif

A delegation from the tribe of Thaqif came to al-Muqawqas among whom was al-Mugheerah bin Shu’ba before being a Muslim. Al-Muqawqas asked them some questions about the Prophet Muhammad (a.s.). He asked, “What did you do to what he had invited you to (Islam)?”

They said, “No man from us has followed him.”

He asked, “What about his people”

They said, “The youth followed him and his opponents confronted him on many occasions.”

He asked, “What does he invite to?”

They said, “That we should worship Allah alone and give up what our fathers worshipped. He also invites to prayer and zakat and he enjoins on the retaining of kinship and the loyalty to covenants and he prohibits adultery, usury, and wines.”

Al-Muqawqas admired these values and said, “This is a prophet sent to the whole peoples. If he met the Copts and the Romans, they would follow him, for Jesus had ordered them of that. These attributes that you have described him (Muhammad) with were the attributes of the prophets before him. He shall prevail that no one shall be able to contend with him, and his religion shall prevail everywhere.”

These words struck the delegation of Thaqif like a thunderbolt. They said, “If all people enter (with him), we will not enter with him (in this religion).”

Al-Muqawqas said, “You are in the play.”[17]

Al-Muqawqas did not believe in Islam until the Muslim armies invaded and occupied his country that submitted to the rule of Islam then.

4. To Negus

The Prophet (a.s.) sent his cousin Ja’far with a group of his companions to Negus inviting him to Islam. The Prophet (a.s.) said in his letter to Negus,

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to great Negus, the king of Abyssinia. Peace be on you. I praise Allah Whom there is no god but He, the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Faith, the Guardian over all, and I bear witness that Jesus the son of Mary is the spirit of Allah and His word which He has bestowed on good, chaste, Virgin Mary and she bore Jesus. So He created him from His spirit and inspired him as He created Adam by His hand and inspired him. I invite you to the worship of Allah alone with no partner and the keeping on His obedience, and to follow and believe in me and in what has been revealed to me for I am the messenger of Allah. I have sent to you my cousin Ja’far with a group of Muslims. When they come to you, you submit and give up haughtiness. I invite you and your soldiers to Allah the Almighty. I have informed and been loyal, so respond! Peace be on whoever follows guidance.”[18]

Negus welcomed and revered the delegation. He put the Prophet’s letter on his eyes and announced his faith in Islam. He put the letter in a box of ivory. He sent the Prophet (a.s.) some precious gifts and a letter in which he declared his embracement of Islam. When the delegation went back to Medina, the Prophet (a.s.) became so pleased for Negus’s behavior towards the Muslims and his faith in Islam, and the Muslims’ morale was so high and firm for that. Negus sent a letter to the Prophet (a.s.) as a reply saying in it,

“Peace and Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you, O prophet of Allah. Peace be on you from Allah Whom there is no god but Him Who has guided me to Islam.

Your book has come to me, O messenger of Allah, concerning that which you have mentioned about Jesus. By the Lord of the heaven and the earth, Jesus is not different from what you have mentioned; he is as you have said. We have known what you have sent to us. We did welcome your cousin (Ja’far bin Abi Talib) and his companions. I bear witness that you are the messenger of Allah; truthful and confirming (of Allah’s decrees). I have paid homage to you and to your cousin and his companions, and submitted (become Muslim) at his hands to the Lord of the worlds.

I have sent to you my son Arha bin al-Adhkham bin Abjar. I do not own but myself and if you like me to come to you, I shall do O messenger of Allah, for I bear witness that all what you say is true. Peace be on you O messenger of Allah…”[19]

5. To the King of Ghassan

The Prophet (a.s.) sent Shuja’ bin Wahab to the king of Ghassan, al-Harith bin Abi Shimr inviting him to Islam and saying in his letter to him,

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad the messenger of Allah to al-Harith bin Abi Shimr. Peace be on whoever follows the guidance and believes in and accepts it. I invite you to believe in Allah alone with no partner to Him so that your authority may be preserved…”[20]

When the king of Ghassan read the Prophet’s letter, he became too angry and he said to the Prophet’s deputy, “Who can deprive me of my authority? I will march to him even if he is in Yemen.”

He ordered his armies to parade before the deputy and he said to him, “Tell your friend about the armies and the horsemen you are seeing and tell him that I will march to (fight) him.”

He wrote a letter to the king of Rome informing him that he had decided to fight the Prophet (a.s.). It happened that the Prophet’s deputy Dihyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbi was with the king of Rome who when read the letter replied to him to give up his intention. When Caesar’s reply reached al-Muqawqas, he was terrified. He sent for the Prophet’s deputy and treated him kindly. He offered him some presents and monies.[21]

6. To the king of Yamama

The Prophet (a.s.) sent Saleet bin Amr to the king of Yamama Hawtha bin Ali inviting him to Islam. He wrote him a letter saying in it,

“In the Name, of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad the messenger of Allah to Hawtha bin Ali. Peace be on whoever follows the guidance. Know well that my religion shall prevail everywhere, so be Muslim that you shall be safe, and I will make you the ruler over what you have in your hands now…”[22]

The Prophet’s deputy advised him too saying, “O Hawtha, a master is he who is endowed with faith and then is supplied with piety. Let the people, who have been happy by your reason, not be wretched by it. I enjoin you on the best of all that is enjoined on, and prohibit you from a prohibited thing; I enjoin you on the worship of Allah and prohibit you from the worship of Satan. In the worship of Allah there shall be the Paradise, and in the worship of Satan there shall be the Fire. If you respond, you shall gain what you wish and be safe from what you fear, but if you deny, there shall be between us and you terrible and horrible end.”[23]

The king of Yamama asked the deputy to give him some days to decide, and then he wrote a letter to the Prophet (a.s.) saying in it, “To the messenger of Allah; how good and fine is that which you invite to. I am the poet and orator of my people and all the Arabs revere my position, so grant to me some of the authority and I will follow you.”[24]

He thought that the Prophet (a.s.) wished for rule and authority. He did not know that the Prophet (a.s.) had been sent by Allah to spread the word of Islam and its high values.

When the deputy came back to Medina and informed the Prophet (a.s.) of what had happened, the Prophet (a.s.) said, “If he asked me for a bit from the earth, I would not give him. May he perish and perish all that in his hands.”[25] And it was really so. The Muslim armies occupied his kingdom and the banner of Islam was raised in it.

7. To the kings of Oman

In the eighth year of hijra, the Prophet (a.s.) sent Amr bin al-Aas to Ja’far and Abd the two kings of Oman inviting them to Islam and saying to them in his letter,

“In the Name, of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad the son of the slave of Allah and His messenger to Ja’far and Abd the sons of al-Julandi. Peace be on whoever follows the guidance. I invite you by the call of Islam; be Muslims and you shall be safe, for I am the messenger of Allah to the whole people to warn whosoever is alive and that the word may be fulfilled against the disbelievers. If you both acknowledge Islam, I will entrust you with (your very) authority, and if you refuse to acknowledge Islam, your authority shall be deprived of you and my horses (armies) shall cover your field and my prophethood shall prevail over your kingdom.”[26]

The task was successful and they both declared their faith in Islam willingly and satisfactorily and so the banner of Islam fluttered in Oman with no war or blood.[27]

8. To the people of Hajar

The Prophet (a.s.) sent a letter to the people of Hajar (Bahrain) saying in it:

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From the Prophet Muhammad the messenger of Allah to the people of Hajar; I praise Allah Whom there is no god but Him. I recommend you of Allah and of yourselves not to be deviate after you have been guided or to go astray after you have followed the right path. Your delegation has come and I did not receive them except with what pleased them. If I tried my right on you, I would drive you away from Hajar, but I pardoned your absents and preserved your presents, so remember the blessing of Allah on you.

It has been informed to me what you have done. Whoever of you does good shall not be blamed for the sin of a bad doer. When my emirs come to you, you should obey and support them in the matter of Allah and in His way. Whoever of you does a good deed shall not be deviant near Allah nor near me.”[28]

9. To al-Munthir bin al-Harith

The Prophet (a.s.) sent to al-Munthir bin al-Harith al-Ghassani the ruler of Damascus this letter saying in it,

“Peace be on whoever follows the guidance and believes in Allah. I invite you to believe in Allah alone with no partner to Him, and so your authority shall remain to you.”[29]

His letters to the notables

The Prophet’s invitation was not limited to the kings and rulers but it included famous chiefs and notables of the tribes. He sent his messengers to some famous chiefs in the Arabia.

Aktham bin Sayfi

Aktham bin Sayfi was one of the well-known wise men and chiefs of the Arabs. The Prophet sent him a messenger inviting him to Islam through this letter:

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad the messenger of Allah to Akhtham bin Sayfi; I praise Allah Who has ordered me to say: ‘there is no god but Allah’ and to enjoin people on it…and the whole matter is up to Allah; He created, made die, and will resurrect them and to Him is the return. He has educated you with the morals of the messengers, and you shall be asked about the great event; and certainly you shall come to know about it after a time.”

When he read the Prophet’s letter, he sent two men from the best men of his tribe to know well about the Prophet (a.s.) and his mission. When these two men arrived in Medina, they got the honor of meeting the Prophet (a.s.) who said to them, after they had asked him who and what he was and what his mission was,

“I am Muhammad bin Abdullah and I am the slave of Allah and His messenger.” Then he recited this verse, (Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and the doing of good (to others) and the giving to the kindred, and He forbids indecency and evil and rebellion; He admonishes you that you may be mindful).[30]”

The two messengers went back to their master after they had believed the Prophet (a.s.) and believed in his mission. When they told Akhtham about what they saw and heard, he said to his people, “O people, I see that he enjoins on the nobilities of character and forbids indecencies. So be, in this matter, heads and not tails, and be in it first and not last!”[31]

Then, his people announced their faith and embraced the religion of Allah collectively.

Ziyad bin Jumhoor

The Prophet (a.s.) sent one of his companions to Ziyad bin Jumhoor who was one of the notable personalities of the Arabs. He said in his letter to him,

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Muhammad the messenger of Allah to Ziyad bin Jumhoor; I praise Allah Whom there is no god but Him. I remind you of Allah and the Last Day. Let every religion that people have embraced be given up except Islam.”[32]

The Prophet (a.s.) sent many delegations to Some Arab personalities inviting them to Islam and he was confident that the Word of Allah must raise in the earth and Islam prevail allover the world. Prof. Muhammad Abdullah Anan says about these deputies and delegations,

“The Prophet’s delegations and letters were a wonderful act of diplomacy. In fact, it was the first act that Islam had achieved in this field. Those delegations were clear as a proof that this Arab Prophet’s soul was full of faith and courage, though he was not saved yet from the persecution of his people, and he had no considerable authority yet or forces that might be feared. He dared confidently and courageously to invite Caesar the emperor of Rome, the great king of Persia, and other contemporaneous kings and rulers to embrace a mission that was still in its cradle then.

This intelligent diplomacy the Prophet (a.s.) undertook in addressing the kings of his time was not useless in all, and the Prophet (a.s.) undoubtedly did not expect that those powerful kings would respond to his mission while he was still struggling to spread it among his own people and tribe. However, those delegations were a complementary act to the prophetic mission where the old world that the Prophet (a.s.) turned to in his mission was based on very weak bases that were about to collapse in a time or another, besides that the old religions were loaded with corruption and weakness. Therefore, the Islamic mission, in its newness, simplicity, and powerfulness, was a phenomenon deserving to be studied and inquired into, and it was difficult for those of deep insight to perceive from behind this new mission powers that warned of explosion. And really that explosion was very soon that just a few years after those delegations Islam prevailed over the Arabia and the flow of the Islamic conquests moved to the heart of the Roman and the Persian empires, and the Arabs, the children of this new religion and the carriers of the Muhammadan mission, began working so rapidly in establishing the great Islamic state.”[33]

The Prophet’s sending of deputies and delegations to the foreign countries and the local chiefs in the Arabia had a deep and active influence on the development of the Islamic state and it had a great influence in terrifying the great powers that were enemies to Islam. The meetings and clubs of Quraysh began talking about that and their fear of the Prophet and Muslims grew more and more.

[1] Sharh ash-Shafa, vol. 1 p. 641, Kanzol Ummal, vol. 5 p. 226, as-Seerah al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3 p. 272.
[2] Al-Azhar Magazine, vol. 8, 9, the year 1384 AH, Mars 1965 AD.
[3] Al-Bidayah wen-Nihayah, vol. 4 p. 269, Inimitability of the Qur’an, p. 110.
[4] Al-Kamil fit-Tareekh, vol. 2 p. 80, Tareekh al-Ya’qubi, vol. 2 p. 61.
[5] Qur’an, 3:64.
[6] As-Seerah al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 275, Kanzol Ummal, vol. 2 p. 225, Subhul A’sha, vol. 6 p. 376, Mushkilul Aathaar by at-Tahawi, vol. 2 p. 397, al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, vol. 3 p. 384, Ahkam al-Qur’an by al-Jassas, vol. 3 p. 241.
[7] Ar-Rawdh by as-Suhayli, vol. 2 p. 355.
[8] It means ‘the father of the ram’. They referred to the Prophet (a.s.) by this surname that was of a man from Khuza’ah who rejected the worshipping of idols and therefore they likened the Prophet (a.s.) to him, or it is said that Abu Kabsha was the Prophet’s maternal grandfather.
[9] Sahih of Muslim, vol. 5 p. 163, as-Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol. 9 p. 122.
[10] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by al-Halabi, vol. 3 p. 249.
[11] Futooh ash-Sham by al-Waqidi, vol. 2 p. 23, Jamharatur-rasa’il, vol. 1 p. 38.
[12] Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 1 p. 362, as-Seerah al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3 p. 250.
[13] Sharh al-Mawahib, vol. 3 p. 348, Zad al-Ma’ad, vol. 3 p. 691.
[14] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3 p. 250, Kanzol Ummal, vol. 3 p. 321.
[15] Makateeb ar-Rasool (letters of the Prophet), p. 101.
[16] At-Tabaqat al-Kubra by ibn Sa’d, vol. 1 p. 26, as-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3 p. 281.
[17] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by Zayni Dahlan, vol. 2 p. 174.
[18] Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 1 p. 63, al-Bidayah wen-Nihayah, vol. 3 p. 83.
[19] The Collection of the Political Documents at the time of the Prophet and the Caliphate, p. 27.
[20] Tareekh at-Tabari, vol. 2 p. 292, al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, vol. 3 p. 50.
[21] At-Tabaqat al-Kubra by ibn Sa’d, vol. 1 p. 261.
[22] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3 p. 386, Subhul A’sha, vol. 1 p. 329.
[23] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by Zayni Dahlan, vol. 2 p. 177.
[24] At-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 9 p. 262.
[25] Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, vol. 3 p. 440.
[26] Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, vol. 3 p. 440.
[27] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3 p. 284, at-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 1 p. 262.
[28] Al-Kharaaj by Abu Yousuf, p. 75, Futooh al-Buldan, p. 80.
[29] A’lam as-Sa’ilin, p. 102.
[30] Qur’an, 16:90.
[31] Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 1 p. 213.
[32] Ibid., p. 215.
[33] Mawaqif Hasimah (decisive situations), p. 208.
Source: maaref-foundation.com


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