The Life of Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin
By: Bāqir Sharif al-Qarashi

P. 531 – 560
The Islamic world in the time of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, suffered ideological stagnation and dangerous collapse in cultural, scientific life, for the Umayyad government officially waged war against knowledge and deadened awareness, that it might stay on the throne of authority for a longer time, plunder the wealth of the community, and control its fate.

It is certain that there was no trace of Islamic sciences and beliefs in the time of the Imām, peace be on him. Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, witnessed that inactive ideological life and that ignorant community, so he began establishing his great school which was joined by a large group of religious scholars and jurists about whose biographies we will talk.

Anyhow, the community in that time did not witness a profit greater than that of the Imām, peace be on him. This is when he established his science school in its homeland and enlighten it with thoughts, sciences, and knowledge. Before we speak about the Imām’s school, students, and companions, we will mention some of his scientific affairs.

His Devotion to Proclaiming Knowledge

The great Imām thought that it was religiously incumbent on him to spread knowledge as well as he wanted with it to amuse himself which was full of worries and pain, hence he devoted himself to it. Shaykh Abū Zahra said: “He, namely the Imām, devoted himself to knowledge, study, and research, for he found in it the diet of his heart, and an amusement for his soul. He turned his soul away from permanent worries and pain, hence he sought hadith (tradition) and devoted himself to it.[1]”

The Imām dedicated himself to proclaiming knowledge among the people to the extent that it distracted him from everything.[2] His only concern was to enlighten the Muslims, train their natures, and to educate them with moral teachings of the tolerant Islamic message, that they might after him carry the torches of thought and light.

His Praising the Excellence of Knowledge

He, peace be on him, praised the excellence of knowledge and urged (the Muslims) to seek it when he said: “If men knew what was in seeking knowledge, they would seek it even through shedding blood and wading into the depth of the seas. Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, revealed to Dānyāl: ‘The most hateful servant with Me is the ignorant who disdains the scholars and leaves following them; the most lovable servant with Me is the pious who seeks plentiful reward, clings to the scholars, and follows the wise men.[3]”

Have you seen how the Imām glorified knowledge and urged (the Muslims) to seek it? He, peace be on him, believed that the community would have no life except through spreading knowledge among its members.

His Encouraging Scientific Movements

Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, played an important role in encouraging scientific movements. Though he had majesty and noble self, he attended the class of Zayd b. Aslam, hence Nāfi‘ b. Jubayr blamed him for this, saying: “May Allah pardon you. You are the master of the people, why do you come and sit with this slave (i.e. Zayd b. Aslam)?”

“Knowledge is sought everywhere,” replied the Imām.[4]

It is not an act of Islam that false differences withhold men from learning and making use of scholars everywhere.

His Honoring the Seekers of Knowledge

The Imām, peace be on him, honored the students of knowledge and raised their position. The historians said: “When a seeker of knowledge came to him, he received him warmly and said to him: ‘Welcome to the one whom the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, has recommended .’” Imām Abū Ja‘far, peace be on him, said: “When my father looked at the youths who sought knowledge, he brought them near to him and said to them: ‘You are welcome. knowledge is entrusted to you. You are the youths of the people, but you are about to be the elders of others.’[5]”

Teachings for Learners

The Imām, peace be on him, appointed moral instructions for learners, an example of them is these words of him: “He who laughs one time loses a bit of knowledge.[6]” Ibn Jamā‘a produced this tradition as evidence of that it is impermissible for a learner to laugh before his teacher.[7] This means that the learner should show politeness and respect toward his teacher.

Rights of Teacher

The Imām, peace be on him, legislated rights the like of which no organization of education and teaching has ever done. He, peace be on him, said: “The right of the one who trains you (sā’is) through knowledge is magnifying him, respecting his sessions, listening well to him, and attending to him with devotion. You should not rise your voice before him. You should never answer anyone who asks him about something, in order that he may be the one who answers. You should not speak to anyone in his session nor speak ill of anyone with him. If anyone ever speaks ill of him in your presence, you should defend him. You should conceal his faults and manifest his virtues. You should not sit with him in enmity or show hostility toward him in friendship. If you do all of this, Allah’s angels will give witness for you that you went straight to him and learned his knowledge for Allah’s sake, not for the sake of the people.”

The Imām, peace be on him, established excellent programs for teacher’s rights against his students. Students should show sincerity and gratitude toward these rights of teacher who spares no effort to bring them out of the shadows of ignorance into the fields of knowledge and civilization, in order to develop their intellects, and

to enlighten their thoughts, hence they should show all kinds of thankfulness and gratitude toward him.

The Reward of Learner

The Imām, peace be on him, talked about the plentiful reward which Allah, the Exalted, would give to those who seek knowledge, saying: “When one leaves his house to seek knowledge, the seven earths will glorify him.[8]”

Free Education

The Imām, peace be on him, thought that it was necessary for scholars to spread and proclaim knowledge among people freely, and that it was permissible for them to take fee for it. In this connection, he, peace be on him, said: “He who conceals knowledge and takes fee for it, then his knowledge will never profit him.[9]”

Islam is distinguished from other religions and social schools by that it absolutely believes in knowledge, makes it incumbent on Muslims -men and women-to seek it, and prevents them from taking fee for it, and especially as it concerns teaching the Qur’ān. Ishāq b. ‘Ammār reported: “I told Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, that I had a neighbor who would teach the children to read and write, and he said to me: ‘When the child is sent to him, let him say to his family: ‘I teach the child to write and count and trade in teaching the Qur’ān[10], that my daily bread may be good.’[11]”

It is incumbent on the state to give salary to the teacher; it should spend on him in order to free him from need for people.

The Humbleness of Teacher

The Imām, peace be on him, urged teachers to cling to humbleness, self-negation, and not to show haughtiness toward men, he said to a teacher:

“If you teach men well and show no haughtiness toward them, Allah will increase you of His bounty. If you deprive them of your knowledge and show haughtiness toward them when they seek knowledge from you, it is incumbent on Allah to deprive you of knowledge and its splendor and remove your position from hearts.[12]”

The Center of his School

The Imām, peace be on him, took the Mosque of the Prophet as a center for his school and an institute for him; in its hall he delivered his lectures and researches.. It is worth mentioning that his lectures included jurisprudence, the interpretation (of the Qur’ān), the hadith, philosophy, theology, rules of conduct, and morals. We mentioned some of them in the previous researches. The historians said: “He delivered every Friday a general sermon in which he preached to people, induced them to renounce the world, and make them beseech the next world. The people would memorize and write his words.[13]” It is worth mentioning that his assembly was full of profits, hence ‘Abd Allah b. al-Hasan b. al-Hasan said: “My mother Fātima, daughter of al-Husayn, ordered me to join the assembly of my maternal uncle, ‘Ali b. al-Husayn. When I joined it, I gained profits of it, such as fear of Allah or knowledge.[14]”

The Scholars surrounded Him

The scholars, the jurists, and the reciters (of the Qur’ān) surrounded him; they accompanied him weather he was present or on journey. When he wanted to travel to the Sacred House of Allah, about a thousand scholars and reciters of (the Qur’ān) accompanied him.[15] They recorded his religious opinions and what he delivered before them, such as knowledge, excellent wise sayings, and morals.

His Students and his Companions

A large group of scholars and jurists, who spread knowledge throughout the Muslim world, graduated from the Imām’s school. We will mention their biographies as well as those of the Imām’s companions. I (the author) think that mentioning them will complete the research on the Imām’s character. They are as follows:

1. Abān Ibn ‘Ayyāsh

Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him among Imām al-Sajjād’s companions. Ibn al-Ghadāiri said: “He (Abān Ibn ‘Ayyāsh) belonged to the next generation. He narrated (traditions) on the authority of Anas b. Mālik and ‘Ali b. al-Husayn. He is a weak traditionalist, and no one pays attention to him. Our companions have ascribed to him the fabrication of the book ‘Salim Ibn Qays’.[16]” Ahmed b. Hanbal said: “His traditions are abandoned; the people abandoned his traditions a time ago.[17]”

2. Abān Ibn Taghlub

b. Rabāh, Abū Sa‘id al-Bakri al-Jarriri. He was among the great scholars and one of the eminent Muslim thinkers. He defended the Imāms of the members of the House, peace be on them, memorized their knowledge and inheritance, hence he was the honest guard of their jurisprudence. We will mention some of his affairs:

His Birth and Childhood

He was born in Kūfa, but the sources have not mentioned the year of his birth. He grew up in Kūfa, which was the capital of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, and whose assemblies was full of their remembrance, their laudable deeds, and their outstanding merits. Hence Abān loved and followed them to the extent that he became among the chosen Shi‘ites and one of their eminent scholars. He studied at the Greatest Mosque (al-Jāmi‘ al-A‘zam), which was one of the most important religious institutes and schools in that time.

His Scientific Position

Abān was among the most prominent and mindful Muslim scholars in that time. The biographers said: “He was advanced in the sciences of the Qur’ān and the hadith, literature, language, and grammar.[18]”

When he went to Medina, he was charged with the scientific seminars, the sitting place of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, was voided for him, the jurists and scholars surrounded him in order to make us of his scientific wealth. This indicates his high scientific position.

His Narrations from the Imāms

Abān was one of those who safeguarded the knowledge of the pure Imāms, peace be on them, hence he reported on the authority of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, Imām Abū Ja‘far al-Bāqir, peace be on him, and Imām al-Sādiq, peace be on him.[19]” He narrated thirty thousand traditions on the authority of al-Sādiq, who, peace be on him, said to Abān b. ‘Uthman: “Abān b. Taghlub reported thirty thousand traditions on my authority, so narrate them on his authority.[20]” Salim b. Abi Hayya said: “I was with Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sādiq), peace be on him. When I wanted to leave him, I saw him off and said to him: ‘I want you to supply me (with traditions).’ So he said: ‘Go to Abān b. Taghlub, for he has heard many of my traditions. When he narrates them to you, you narrate them on my authority.’[21]”

The Imāms honored Him

The Imāms honored and magnified Abān b. Taghlub, for he had scientific wealth as was as he was endowed with fear of Allah, piety, and cling to the religion. When Abān visited Imām al-Sādiq, peace be on him, he (Imām al-Sādiq) received him, shook hands with, embraced him, welcomed him, and ordered a cushion to be brought to him.[22]” Imām Abū Ja‘far al-Bāqir said to him: “Sit in the Mosque of Medina and give the people religious opinions, for I like your sitting among my followers (Shi‘a).[23]” This hadith shows that Abān had the ability to give religious opinions to the people. Imām Abū ‘Abd Allah al-Sādiq said to him: “Sit with the people of Medina, for I like your sitting among our followers ((Shi‘a).[24]”

The Imāms, peace be on them, honored and magnified this great scholar, who delivered their knowledge, walked on their path, and followed their behavior.

His Reliability

The biographers agreed that Abān was reliable, honest, and truthful in narrating the hadith. None criticized him in this respect,but some people criticized him for his love for the members of the House(ahl al-Bayt),peace be on them,an example of them is al-Jawzjāni, who said:“He(Abān)was straying with a dispraised doctrine.[25]” Another example of them is al-Dhahabi, who said: “He (Abān) was a firm Shi‘ite, but he was truthful, so his truthfulness is for us, and his innovation is against him.” He added: “How is it possible to regard an innovator as trustworthy while the bound of trustworthiness is justice and mastery? How is an innovatorjust?

“The answer to this question is this: Innovation is of two kinds: A small innovation, such as the immoderate Shi‘ism or Shi‘ism without immoderation and deviation, so this (innovation was wide-spread) among the next generation and those who followed it, and was accompanied by religion, piety, and truthfulness. If the hadith narrated by these (people) is refused, a group of the Prophet’s traditions would be missing, and this would be manifest corruption. Then there is the great innovation, such as the total immoderate abandon (radfd), degrading Abū Bakr and ‘Umar, and summoning (men) to do that, hence such a kind (of people) is not regarded as proof.[26]” This opinion is not objective, for the scientific research decides accepting the words of the trustworthy, reliable one who refrains from telling lies. As for the ideological inclinations in is respect, they are not important.

His Friendship to Ahl al-Bayt

Allah was kind to Abān through making him recognize the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, and show friendship toward them. Hence he safeguarded their knowledge and their morals, exerted himself in their jurisprudence, gave the people religious opinions according to it, solved the problems of the people in its light, talked about their outstanding merits in the assemblies of Kūfa, debated with their opponents and enemies. That was in the time when it was dangerous for anyone to mention them with good, for the Umayyads spared no effort to punish severely those who showed love for the Ahl al-Bayt or displayed friendship to them, but Abān accustomed himself to their severe punishment, for his love for them was not emotional; rather it was based on intellect and proof, for the Qur’ān and the Sunna made it incumbent on all Muslims to love the Ahl al-Bayt and in order to show friendship to them; moreover they made love for them as inseparable part of Islam.

Anyhow, Abān showed strong friendship to the Ahl al-Bayt. He thought that the Companions (of the Prophet) had been excellent if they had showed friendship to the pure Household (of the Prophet). ‘Abd al-Rahmān b. al-Hajjāj narrated: “While I was sitting with Abān b. Taghlub, a young man came and ask him: ‘O Abā Sa‘id, how many Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, were with ‘Ali b. Abi Tālib (at the Battle of the Camel)?’

“Abān understood the young man’s purpose, so he asked him: ‘It seems that you want to know Ali’s excellence through the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, who followed him?’

“Yes,” replied the young man.

Abān answered him with the answer of those who understood Imām Ali’s excellencies: “By Allah, we did not know their (the Companions’) excellencies except through their following him.[27]” Surely, Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, was the pioneer of wisdom and justice in Islam. He was the measure with which the values of men are known, so those who were sincere to him were of great excellence, and those who showed enmity toward him deviated from the truth.

Another aspect of Abān’s friendship to the pure Imāms from among the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, is that he passed by some people who criticized him for his narrating from Imām Abi Ja‘far al-Bāqir, peace be on him, so he asked them: “Why do blame me for my narrating from a man who-when I ask him-he says: ‘Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household, said.’[28]”

Abān narrated on the authority of Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him, on the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, hence his narration is the most trustworthy of all narrations and the most authentic of them in the chain of authorities.

His Books

Abān wrote a group of books showing his abundant knowledge and sciences, the following are some of them:

1. Tafsir Gharib al-Qur’ān, in which he mentioned examples of poetry. Afterwards, ‘Abd al-Rahmān b. Mohammed al-Azdi al-Kūfi gathered in one book the books of Abān, Mohammed b. al-Sāyib al-Kalbi, and Ibn Rawāq b. ‘Atiya.

2. Al-Fadā’il[29], in which, perhaps, he mentioned the outstanding merits of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them.

3. Al-Usūl fi al-Ruwāiya ‘alā Madhhab al-Shi‘a.[30]

His Death

This great scholar (Abān) died in the year 141 A. H., hence his death was a great loss in Islam. Imām al-Sādiq grieved over him when he said with sorrow and grief: “By Allah, the death of Abān has made my heart ache![31]”

Abū al-Bilād said:

“Woe unto the Shi‘ites all over the land if they do not grieve over Abān’s death!”

May Allah have mercy upon Abān, for he strove bravely in the way of the Truth and raising the Word of Allah; his death was the greatest calamity in the Islamic world then.

3. Ibrāhim Ibn Abi Haffsa

He was the retainer of the children of ‘Ijjl. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[32]

4. Ibrāhim Ibn Bashir

al-Ansāri, al-Medani. According to this nick-name, Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād (Zayn al-‘Ābidin), peace be on him.[33]

5. Ibrāhim Ibn ‘Abd Allah

b. Ma‘bad b. al-‘Abbās b. ‘Abd al-Mutalib b. ‘Abd Manāf. According to this title, Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[34]

6. Ibrāhim Ibn Mohammed

b. ‘Ali b. Abi Tālib b. al-Hanafiya al-Medani. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[35]

7. Ibrāhim Ibn Yazid

al-Nakha‘i, al-Kūfi. He was given the Kunya of Abā ‘Umrān. He died in the year 906 A. H. He was a one-eyed retainer, as Shaykh al-Tūsi mentioned.[36] A group of people was indignant with him because he said that Abū Hurayra was not a jurist.[37]

8. Ahmed Ibn Hamawayh

According to this title, Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[38]

9. Ishāq Ibn ‘Abd Allah

b. al-Harth b. Nawfal b. al-Harth b. ‘Abd al-Mutalib al-Medani. According to this title, Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[39]

10. Ishāq Ibn ‘Abd Allah

b. Abi Tallha al-Medani. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him, and of Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him.[40]

11. Ishāq Ibn Yasār

al-Medani. He was the retainer of Qays b. Mukarrima and was the father of Mohammed b. Ishāq, the companion of al-Wāqidi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him, and of Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him.[41]

12. Ismā‘il Ibn Umayya

According to this title, Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[42]

13. Ismā‘il Ibn Rāfi‘

Al-Medani. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[43] Al-Dhahabi said: “He was a well-known (person) from Medina. He lived in Basrah and reported (traditions) on the authority of al-Maqabari and al-Qurrtubi. Wakki‘, Mekki, and a group (of traditionalists) narrated on his authority. Ahmed, Yahyā, and a group (of biographers) regarded him as a weak traditionalist.” Al-Dārquttni and others said: “His traditions have been abandoned.” Ibn ‘Adi said: “All his traditions need checking.[44]”

14. Ismā‘il Ibn ‘Abd al-Khāliq

Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him. He said: “ He (Ismā‘il) lived until the days of Abi ‘Abd Allah al-Sādiq, peace be on him.[45]” Al-Najāshi said: “He was one of our eminent companions and jurists. He was a Shi‘ite traditionalist. His uncles were Shahāb, ‘Abd al-Rahim, and Wahab. His father was ‘Abd al-Khāliq. They all were trustworthy. He reported on the authority of Abi Ja‘far (al-Bāqir) and Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sādiq), peace be on them.” He (al-Najāshi) added: “He had a book.”[46]

15. Ismā‘il Ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmān

b. Abi Karim al-Saddi al-Kūfi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, and of Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him, and he said: “He (Ismā‘il) was given the kunya of Abū Mohammed al-Mufassir, al-Kūfi.”[47]

16. Ismā‘il Ibn ‘Abd Allah

b. Ja‘far b. Abi Tālib. He belonged to the leading members of the next generation. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, and of Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him.[48]

17. Aflah Ibn Hamid

al-Rawāsi, al-Kilābi, al-Kūfi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him. He narrated on his authority, also al-Mubārak reported on his authority.[49]

18 Ayyūb Ibn al-Hasan

b. ‘Ali b. Abi Rāfi‘, the retainer of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. The name of Abi Rāfi‘ is Aslam. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[50]

19. Ayyūb Ibn ‘Āiyidh

al-Tā’i al-Bakhtari. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[51]

20. Burd al-Iskāfi

Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[52]pan> Al-Najāshi said: “He was a retainer . He had a book which was narrated by Ibn Abi ‘Umayr.[53]”

21. Bishr Ibn Ghālib

Al-Asadi al-Kūfi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[54] Al-Barqi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām (‘Ali) the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, of al-Hasan, of al-Husayn, and of al-Sajjād, peace be on them.[55]

22. Bakr Ibn Aws

Abū al-Manhal al-Tā‘i al-Basri. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[56]

23. Bukayr Ibn ‘Abd Allah

b. al-Ashajj. According to this title, Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[57]

24. Thābit Ibn Aslam

al-Banāni al-Qarashi. He belonged to the leading members of the next generation. He heard Anas. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[58]

25. Thābit Ibn Abi Safiya

Abū Hamza al-Thumāli. He was an Allah-fearing, pious, and great scholar. He followed the noble moral traits of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, delivered their knowledge and science. We will mention some of his affairs.

His Childhood

Abū Hamza grew up in Kūfa, which was the center of the followers and friends of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them. He took his knowledge from the Kūfan scholars (shaykhs), who held the knowledge and jurisprudence of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, hence he became one of the most prominent ascetic scholars of Kūfa.[59]

His Reliability

The biographers agreed that he was trustworthy, just, his traditions were authentic, that he was like Salmān al-Fārisi in his time, as Imām al-Sādiq, peace be on him, said.[60] Ibn Ma‘in criticized him because he showed friendship to the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them,[61] whose love Allah has made incumbent on Muslims.

His Scientific Position

He was the most eminent religious scholar of his time in the hadith, jurisprudence, linguistics, and others. Ibn Māja narrated (traditions) on his authority in Chapter on Purity.[62] The Shi‘ites in Kūfa referred to him because he had encompassed the jurisprudence of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them.

His Books

He wrote a group of books on various sciences, which show his abundant knowledge. The following are some of them:

1. Kitāb al-Nawādir (the Book of Rare Things).

2. Kitāb al-Zuhd (the Book of Asceticism)[63].

3. Kitāb Tafsir al-Qur’ān (the Book of Interpretation of the Qur’ān).[64]

4. His narrating the Treatise on Rights by Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[65]

5. His narrating Du‘ā’ al-Sahr, better known as Du‘ā’ Abū Hamza.[66] He narrated it on the authority of the greatest Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.

His Narrations from the Imāms

Thābit b. Abi Safiya, better known as Abū Hamza al-Thumāli, narrated a large group of traditions on the authority of the pure Imāms, peace be on them; he reported on the authority of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, and Imām Mūsā b. Ja‘far.[67] Also he narrated on the authority of Abi Razin al-Asadi and Jābir b. ‘Abd Allah al-Ansāri. Abū Ayyūb, Abū Sa‘id al-Mikāri, Ibn Ra’āb, Ibn Mahbūb, Ibn Miskān, Abān b. ‘Uthmān, and others narrated (traditions) on his authority.[68]

His Death

This great scholar died in the year 150 A.H.[69] When he died, the Muslims lost one of the great thinkers and strugglers.

26. Thābit Ibn ‘Abd Allah

b. al-Zubayr b. al-‘Auwām b. Asad b. Khuwaylid b. ‘Abd al-‘Uzzā al-Qarashi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[70]

27. Thābit Ibn Hurmuz

al-Fārisi, Abū al-Muqdām, al-‘Ajali, al-Haddād, the retainer of the children of ‘Ijjl. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[71] Al-Najāshi said: “He reported a copy on the authority of ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, and the copy was narrated on his authority by his son ‘Amrū b. Thābit.[72]” ‘Allāma (al-Hulli) numbered him as one of the Batariya[73], concerning whom Imām Abū Ja‘far al-Bāqir, peace be on him, said: “They have misled many of these (people), and they are from among those concerning whom Allah, the Great and Almighty, said: And there are some people who say: We believe in Allah and the last day; and they are not at all believers.”[74] Al-Sādiq, peace be on him, said: “If the Batariya (stood) in one line between the east and the west, Allah would not strengthen a religion through them.[75]” Ahmed b. Ma‘in and b. Hayyān regarded him as trustworthy.[76] Perhaps, they regarded him as a trustworthy person of the Batariya.

28. Thuwayr Ibn Abi Fākhta

al-Kūfi, the retainer of Umm Hāni’. It was said that he was the retainer of her husband, Ju‘da.[77] Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, and of Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him.[78] Thuwayr narrated: “I went out to perform the hajj. ‘Amrū b. Dharr al-Qadi, Ibn Qays al-Māsir, and al-Salt b. Mahrām accompanied me. When they arrived in (Mecca), they said: ‘Now, look! We have written four thousand questions, and we will ask Abā Ja‘far (al-Bāqir) about thirty questions of them a day. We have charged you with this.’ This grieved me. When we entered Medina, we left each other. As for me, I stopped at Abi Ja‘far, peace be on him, and said to him: May I be ransom for you, ‘Amrū b. Dharr al-Qadi, Ibn Qays al-Māsir, and al-Salt b. Mahrām accompanied me, and I heard them say: ‘We have written four thousand questions, and we will ask Abā Ja‘far (al-Bāqir) about thirty questions of them a day,’ but this has grieved me. Abū Ja‘far asked: ‘What of this makes you sad? When they come, let them enter.’ On the following day, a retainer came to Abū Ja‘far and said to him: ‘May I be ransom for you, Ibn Dharr and a group of people are at the door.’ Abū Ja‘far, peace be on him, said to me: ‘Thuwayr, go and let them enter.’ I (Thuwayr) went and caused them to enter. When they entered, they greeted (Abū Ja‘far), sat down, and said nothing. As their silence became long, Abū Ja‘far began conversations with them; yet they said nothing. Abū Ja‘far understood this, so he said to a slave girl of him called Sarha: ‘Fetch the tablecloth.’ When she brought it and spread it, Abū Ja‘far said: ‘Praise belongs to Allah, Who has appointed a rule for everything even this tablecloth!’ Hence Ibn Dharr asked him: ‘What is its rule?’

“When it is placed, Allah is remembered, and when it is raised, Allah is praised,’ replied the Imām. Then the Imām ordered them to have food, and he ordered the slave girl to bring water. When she brought him a water-skin, he said: ‘Praise belongs to Allah, Who has appointed a rule for everything even this water-skin!’ Hence Ibn Dharr asked him: ‘What is its rule?’ ‘It’s rule is that you remember Allah when you drink out of it, thank Him when you finish (drinking), drink not out of its handhold or a hole in it.’ When they had finished having food, the Imām began conversations with them, yet they kept silent out of his dignity, hence he, peace be on him, turned to Ibn Dharr and asked him: ‘Do you not relate to us one of our traditions?’ ‘Yes,’ replied Ibn Dharr, ‘O Son of the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his Household said: ‘I am going to leave among you al-Thaqalayn, (namely) the Book of Allah and my Household, one is greater than the other. If you cling to them, you will never go astray. Imām Abū Ja‘far asked: ‘O Ibn Dharr, what will you say to Allah’s messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household, when you meet him and he asks you about al-Thaqalayn?’

“Ibn Dharr replied: ‘As for the greater one, namely the Book, we have torn it, and as for the great one, namely the Prophet’s pure family, we have killed them.”

“Abu Jā‘far said: ‘You will be truthful to him, O Ibn Dharr, by Allah, before you walk a step, you will be questioned about three things: about your span-where did you finish it? About your property-where did you earn it? On what did you spend it? And about love for us, the Household.’”

The people left Imām Abū Ja‘far’s house, and he, peace be on him, ordered his retainer to follow them to hear their words. When the retainer came back, he said to the Imām: “I heard them asking Ibn Dharr: ‘Did we go out with you for this (attitude)?’ So Ibn Dharr replied: ‘Woe unto you! Keep silent! What had I to say to the man, who claimed that Allah would question me about showing friendship to him? What had I to say to the man, who knew the rules of the tablecloth and water-skin?’”[79]

29. Thuwayr Ibn Yazid

al-Shāmi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[80] He narrated on the authority of Khālid b. Sa‘dān, and ‘Abd al-Rahmān b. Mohammed al-‘Urzi reported on his authority.[81]

30. Jābir Ibn Mohammed

b. Abi Bukayr. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[82]

31. Ja‘far Ibn Ibrāhim

al-Ja‘fari, al-Hāshimi, al-Medani. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[83]

32. Ja‘far Ibn Ayās

Abū Bashir al-Nadari. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[84]

33. Ja‘far Ibn Mohammed

b. ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, al-Sādiq, peace be on him. He was the most eminent thinker in the Islamic world, the renewer of this religion, and the one who safeguarded the message of his grandfather. It was he who spread all sciences and established their rules and roots.

His sciences and knowledge were not confined to the sciences of Islamic law; rather they included philosophy, theology, medicine, chemistry, physics, jurisprudence, astronomy, and so on. The Muslim scholars regard him as the greatest miracle of Islam as well as the western scholars regard him as the thinker of mankind. Writing on his affairs will result in a full encyclopedia. We ask Allah, the Exalted, to grant us success to write about this Imām’s life. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him[85], and he reported many traditions on his authority.

34. Ju‘ayd Hamadān

Al-Barqi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Hasan, peace be on him, and of Imām al-Sajjād[86], and he (al-Barqi) said: “He (Ju‘ayd Hamadān) was among the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his Household.[87] He narrated on the authority of ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, and ‘Umrān b. A‘yun reported on his (Ju‘ayd’s) authority.

35. Jahm al-Hilāli

al-Kūfi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[88]

36. Al-Hārith Ibn Jārūd

al-Tamimi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[89]

37. Al-Hārith Ibn al-Fudayl

al-Medani. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[90]

38. Habib Ibn Abi Thābit

Abu Hayyān al-Asadi al-Kūfi. He belonged to the leading members of the next generation. He was the jurist of Kūfa. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him.[91] So did al-Barqi.[92] He (Habib Ibn Abi Thābit) narrated on the authority of Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and of ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him. ‘Āmir Ibn al-Samt and others reported on His (Habib’s) authority.[93] Habib died in the year 119A. H.[94]

39. Habib Ibn Hassān

b. Abi al-Ashras al-Asadi. He was their retainer. He narrated on the authority of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, of Abi Ja‘far (al-Bāqir), peace be on him, and of Abi ‘Abd Allah al-Sādiq, peace be on him.[95]

40. Habib Ibn al-Mu‘allā

al-Sijistāni. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[96] Al-Kashi said: “He (Habib) was a Shāri, and then he adopted this (Shi‘ite) faith. He was among the companions of Abi Ja‘far and Abi ‘Abd Allah, peace be on them, devoting himself to them.[97]

41. Khadim Ibn Sufyān

al-Asadi al-Kūfi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn.[98]

42. Khadim Ibn Shurayk

al-Asadi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[99]

43. Al-Hur Ibn Ka‘b

al-Azri al-Kūfi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[100]

44. Hassān al-‘Āmiri

Al-Barqi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[101]

45. Al-Hasan Ibn Rawājj

al-Basri. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn , peace be on him.[102]

46. Al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ali

b. Abi Rāfi‘. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[103]

47. Al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ammāra

al-Kūfi. He was a non-Shi‘ite. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[104] Al-Barqi numbered him as one of the companions of al-Bāqir and al-Sādiq, peace be on them.[105]

48. Al-Hasan Ibn Mohammed

b. al-Hanafiya b. Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[106]

49. Al-Husayn Ibn ‘Ali

b. al-Husayn b. ‘Ali b. Abi Tālib, peace be on him. He was among the sons of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him. Concerning him al-Mufid said: “He was meritorious and pious. He narrated many traditions on the authority of his father ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, his paternal aunt, Zaynab, daughter of al-Husayn, and his brother Abi Ja‘far, peace be on him.[107]” Imām al-Bāqir, peace be on him, said concerning him: “As for al-Husayn, he was clement. He walks humbly on the earth, and when the ignorant address them, they say peace.”[108]

He died in Medina in the year 157 A. H., and was buried in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi‘. He was then 74 years old.[109]

50. Al-Husayn Ibn ‘Amrū

al-Hamadāni al-Kūfi al-Mish‘āri. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[110]

51. Hattān Ibn Khaffān

Abū Jubayra al-Jarmi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[111]

52. Hafs Ibn ‘Umar

al-Ansari al-Kūfi. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[112]

53. Al-Hakam Ibn ‘Utayba

Abū Mohammed al-Kindi, al-Kūfi. Al-Barqi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām al-Sajjād, peace be on him.[113] So did shaykh al-Tūsi and added that he was among the Batariya.[114] Al-Kashi mentioned a group of traditions in which he has been criticized and dispraised and described as one errant and straying. Abū Basir narrated: [I heard Abū Ja‘far, peace be on him, say:] “Al-Hakam b. ‘Utayba, Salama, Kathir al-Nawā, Abā al-Muqdām, and al-Thammār (i.e. Sālim) have misled many of these (people), and are among those concerning whom Allah, the Great and Almighty, said: And there are some people who say: We believe in Allah and the last day; and they are not at all believers.”[115] This narration indicates that al-Hakam was among the centers of misguidance, among those who did their best to corrupt Islam and to turn the Muslims away from it.

Ibn Hajar regarded him as trustworthy, lauded him, and mentioned many words which praised him.[116] I (the author) firmly believe that Ibn Hajar regarded him as reliable because he (Al-Hakam Ibn ‘Utayba) deviated from the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, who are al-thiql al-akbar in Islam, as Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household, stated.

54. Hakim Ibn Jubayr

b. Mutt‘im b. ‘Adi b. ‘Abd Manāf al-Qarashi al-Medani. Shaykh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[117] Professor al-Khū’i mentioned that Hakim Ibn Jubayr narrated on the authority of ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him. Hanān b. Sudayr reported on the authority of his father on his (Hakim’s) authority.[118]

55. Hakim Ibn Hakam

b. ‘Abbād b. Hunayf al-Ansāri. He narrated on the authority of Imām ‘Ali b. al-Husayn and Imām Abi Ja‘far al-Sādiq, peace be on them. He was among the companions of al-Sajjād.[119]

56. HakimIbn Surayf

al-Sayrafi al-Kūfi, Abū Sudayra. Shakh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, and of al-Bāqir, peace be on him.[120]

57. Hamid Ibn Nāfi‘

al-Hamadāni. Shakh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[121]

58. Hamid Ibn Muslim

al-Kūfi. Shakh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[122] Perhaps, it was he who narrated some events of the tragedy of Karbalā’, and was among the companions of ‘Umar b. Sa‘d.

59. Khashram Ibn Basār

al-Medani. Shakh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[123]

60. Dāwud al-Sarmi

Shakh al-Tūsi numbered him as one of the companions of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.[124]

[1] Al-Imām Zayd, p. 24.
[2] Hulyat al-Awliyā’, vol. 3, p. 135.
[3] Usūl al-Kāfi, vol. 1, p. 35. Al-Mahjja al-Baydā’, vol. 1, p. 26.
[4] Tārikh Dimashq, vol. 36, p. 146. Tadhib al-Kamāl: M7/Q2/ p. 335. Safwāt al-Saffwa.
[5] Al-Durr al-Nazim, p. 173. Al-Anwār al-Bahiya, p. 103.
[6] Siyar A’lām al-Nubalā’, vol. 4, p. 38. Tadhikirat al-Huffāz, vol. 1, p. 71. Al-Hulya, vol. 3, p. 134.
[7] Tadhkirat al-Sāmi’, vol. 98.
[8] Hayāt al-Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, p. 23.
[9] Al-Hulya, vol. 3, p. 140. In Jammharat al-Awliyā’, vol. 2, p. 73, it has been mentioned: “He who conceals his knowledge and takes fee for it by force, his knowledge is useless.”
[10] In this manner it has been mentioned in the source. Perhaps the correct is that I do not trade in teaching the Qur’ān. If the source is established, trading, in this case, is with Allah.
[11] Al-Istibsār, vol. 3, p. 66.
[12] Makārim al-Akhlāq, vol. 143.
[13] Roudat al-Kāfi.
[14] ‘Ayān al-Shi’a, vol. 1, p. 340.
[15] Al-Bihār.
[16] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 1, p. 20.
[17] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 1, p. 98.
[18] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 1, p. 22.
[19] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[20] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 1, p. 22.
[21] Ibid.
[22] Ibid.
[23] Mu’jam al-Ādāb, vol. 1, p. 108.
[24] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 1, p. 21.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Mizān al-I’tidāl, vol. 1, pp. 5-6.
[27] Hayāt al-Imām Mohammed al-Bāqir, vol. 1, p. 192.
[28] Ibid, p. 193.
[29] Ibn al-Nadim, Fihrast. Al-Tūsi, Fihrast, p. 42.
[30] Ibn al-Nadim, Fihrast.
[31] Mu’jam al-Udabā’, vol. 1, p. 108.
[32] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[33] Ibid.
[34] Ibid.
[35] Ibid.
[36] Ibid.
[37] Mizān al-I’tidāl, vol. 1, p. 75.
[38] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[39] Ibid.
[40] Ibid.
[41] Ibid.
[42] Ibid.
[43] Ibid.
[44] Mizān al-I’tidāl, vol. 1, p. 227.
[45] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[46] Al-Najāshi, Rijāl.
[47] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[48] Ibid.
[49] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith.
[50] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[51] Ibid.
[52] Ibid.
[53] Al-Najāshi, Rijāl.
[54] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[55] Al-Barqi, Rijāl.
[56] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[57] Ibid.
[58] Ibid.
[59] Al-Kunā wa al-Alqāb, vol. 2, p. 132.
[60] Al-Najāshi.
[61] Mizān al-I’tidāl, vol. 1, p. 363. Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, p. 7.
[62] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, p. 8.
[63] Al-Tūsi, Fihrast.
[64] Ibid.
[65] Tuhaf al-‘Uqūl.
[66] Al-Kunā wa al-Alqāb.
[67] Al-Kashi.
[68] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith
[69] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[70] Ibid.
[71] Ibid.
[72] Al-Najāshi.
[73] Al-Khulāsa.
[74] Al-Kashi.
[75] bid.
[76] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, p. 16.
[77] Ibid, p. 36.
[78] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[79] Hayāt al-Imām Mohammed al-Bāqir, vol. 2, p. 223-225.
[80] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[81] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 3, p. 413.
[82] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[83] Ibid.
[84] Ibid.
[85] Ibid.
[86] Al-Barqi, Rijāl.
[87] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 3.
[88] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[89] Ibid.
[90] Ibid.
[91] Ibid.
[92] Al-Barqi, Rijāl.
[93] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 4.
[94] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[95] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl
[96] Ibid.
[97] Al-Kashi, Rijāl.
[98] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl
[99] Ibid.
[100] Ibid.
[101] Al-Barqi, Rijāl.
[102] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[103] Ibid.
[104] Ibid.
[105] Al-Barqi, Rijāl.
[106] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[107] Al-Mufï`d, al-Irshād.
[108] Hayāt al-Imām Mohammed al-Bāqir, vol. 1.
[109] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith.
[110] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[111] Ibid.
[112] Ibid.
[113] Al-Barqi, Rijāl.
[114] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[115] Al-Kashi, Rijāl.
[116] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 2, p. 434.
[117] Mu’jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. 6, p. 187.
[118] Al-Tūsi, Rijāl.
[119] Ibid.
[120] Ibid.
[121] Ibid.
[122] Ibid.
[123] Ibid.
[124] Ibid.

Source: maaref-foundation.com


more post like this