The Life of Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin

By: Bāqir Sharif al-Qarashi

P. 377 – 408

It is certain that the Imāms of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, and the great religious scholars from among their Shi‘ites were the first to write books on Islam.[1] They were the first to plan the cultural movement of the community and to split open in the earth the fountains of knowledge and wisdom.

It is worth mentioning that their works were not confined to a certain science. Rather they included all sciences such as jurisprudence, interpretation of the Qur’ān, hadith, the principles of jurisprudence, grammar, theology, philosophy, ethics, the manners of behavior, the principles of education, and so on. Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was the first to split open all doors to sciences. Al-‘Qqād said: “Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was the first to split open doors to thirty-two sciences, he put their rules and established their principles.[2]” Ibn Sharāshūb said: “It is correct that Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was the first to compose (sciences). Then Salmān, Abū Dharr, al-Asbagh b. Nabbāta, and ‘Abd Allah b. Rāfi‘, followed him. Then al-Sajjādiya composed al-Sahifa.[3]

Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, was among the Imāms who wrote books on Islam. His works were excellent examples for developing Islamic thought and cultural, scientific movement. His valuable works are as follows:


Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya is one of the sources of the Islamic inheritance, and among the important books of eloquence, education, ethics, and literature in Islam. As it is of great importance, the great thinkers and scholars called it ‘the Sister of the Qur’ān’, ‘the Gospel of the Folk of the House’, and ‘the Psalms of the Household of Mohammed’.[4]

Al-Sahifa was very important because it was composed in a time full of terrible events and political problems which affected the life of the Muslims and turned it into black clouds in which there was no gleam of light, guidance, and vividness of Islam. In that time the Muslims were busy forming political parties to achieve their interests and ambitions, hence there was no Islamic spirituality, teachings, manners, and rules.

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya opened new doors to the religious awareness which the Muslims had not known before. It urged the Muslims to devote their lives to Allah, to purify themselves from evil inclinations such as selfishness and greediness. It also urged them to cling to Allah, the Exalted, the Creator of the world, and the Giver of life, Who is the Source of all favors and good for all mankind, so it is necessary for us to shed light on this great book, namely Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya.

The Chain of Authorities of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya

As for the chain of authorities of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, it goes back to the greatest Imām, Abū Ja‘far al-Bāqir, peace be on him, and to the immortal martyr Zayd b. ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him. The Chain of Authorities has been mentioned in the introduction of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya and is confirmed by over fifty-six thousand authorities. The religious scholars received al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya from successive authorities.t”>[5]

Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-‘Āmily said: “The strongest proof for the authenticity of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya is that it contains pure words, matchless eloquence, excellent meanings, different kinds of humbleness to Allah and praising Him, wonderful ways for seeking His pardon and generosity, and imploring Him. Hence this pearl belongs to that sea, this jewel belongs to that metal, and this fruit belongs to that tree. Besides it is very famous and its chain of authorities is numerous and goes back to its author, Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, may Allah bless him and his pure fathers and his pure children. The trustworthy narrators reported it through their numerous, successive chain of authorities on the authority of Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him. Zayd, the martyr, had copies of it, and he handed them over to his children, who handed them over to the children of ‘Abd Allah b. al-Hasan al-Muthnnā, as it has been mentioned in the introduction of al-Sahifa, as well as al-Bāqir, peace be on him, had copies of it. The people took great care of narrating it, verifying its words and copies, and they went on reciting its supplications by night and day.[6]

As the chain of authority of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya is definite and its eloquence is excellent, therefore it issued from none except this great Imām.

The Characteristics of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, like all supplication books, has very important characteristics of which are the following:

1. It represents the most perfect freedom from the material world, full devotion and fleeing to Allah, the Most High. Such qualities are the most valuable in this world. In this respect let’s listen to the Imām’s words:

“O Allah, I showed sincerity by cutting myself off from everything but You. I approached You with my whole self. I averted my face from everyone who needs Your support. I ceased to ask from any who cannot do without Your bounty. I saw that the needy who seeks from the needy is foolish in his opinion, and misguided in his intellect. How many people have I seen, my God, who sought exaltation through other than You and were abased, who wanted wealth from someone else and became poor, who tried to rise high and fell down low! Observing the likes of them corrects a prudent man; his taking heed gives him success; his choosing the best guides him to the path of right.

“So You, my Master, are the object of my asking to the exclusion of all those who are asked and the patron of my need to the exclusion of all those from who requests are made. You are singled out for my call before all who are called; none is associated with You in my hope, none comes along with You in my supplication, nor does any join with You within it, for to You is my appeal.

“To You, my God, belong the Unity of number, the property of eternal power, the excellence of force and strength, the degree of sublimity and elevation. Everyone other than You is the object of his compassion in his lifetime, overcome in his affair, overwhelmed in his situation, diverse in states, constantly changing in attributes. So You are high exalted above likenesses and opposites, proudly magnified beyond similitudes and rivals! Glory be to You! There is no god but You![7]”

These paragraphs represent the Imām’s devotion to Allah, the Exalted, his clinging to Him, his turning away from other than Him, and his renouncing those other than Him. The Imām, peace be on him, justified this as follows:

A. It is an act of foolishness and vanity that man hopes those other than his Creator, for those other than Allah, despite their great importance, are weak and in need of support and gift. So how does man hope them and hopes for good from them?

B. The experiences taught the Imām, peace be on him, that some people sought honor, might, and exaltation through a way other than that of Allah, but their hopes came to nothing, and they completely lost their way, and that some people sought wealth from other than Allah, so, suddenly, they became poor and deprived. This matter increased the Imām’s insight and certainty and made him think that clinging to other than Allah was foolishness and vanity.

C. Might and power are only in the hand of Allah, the Glorified. As for those other than Allah, they are the object of there compassion in there lifetime, overcome in there affair, overwhelmed in there situation, diverse in states, constantly changing in attributes. All these matters made the Imām, peace be on him, turn away from those other than Allah.

2. It shows that the Imām, peace be on him, had perfect knowledge of Allah, the Exalted, and had firm faith in Him. Such knowledge and faith did not result from sentiment or tradition, rather they resulted from deep thinking and pure mind. In his book, al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, the Imām, peace be on him, has mentioned many theological views on which the Muslim theologians and philosophers depended in writing about the Necessary Being (Allah). Now, let’s listen to another paragraph of his supplication wherein he has mentioned the tremendousness of the Wise Creator. He, peace be on him, said:

“Praise belongs to Allah, the First, without a first before Him, the Last, without a last behind him. Beholders’ eyes fall short of seeing Him, describers’ imaginations are not able to depict Him. He originated the creatures through His power with an origination. He devised them in accordance with His will with a devising.[8]” In this paragraph, the Imām, peace be on him, has mentioned some attributes of the Almighty Creator. These attributes are the most important matters in theology. They are as follows:

A. Allah is, the First, without a first before Him.

B. He is the Last, without a last behind Him. These two attributes have been established in theology.

C. Beholders’ eyes fall short of seeing Him. How can beholders see and perceive the Almighty Being, Who created and originated the universe?

D. Describers’ imaginations are not able to depict Him, the Exalted, for all the words cannot contain some of His attributes.

E. He originated the creatures through His power with an origination and devised them in accordance with His will with a devising, while no associate shared Him in creating the creatures, and there was none like Him in mightiness.

Now, let’s listen to another part of his supplication concerning describing the mightiness of the Almighty Creator. He, peace be on him, said:

“Praise belongs to Allah, who created night and day through His strength, set them apart through His power, and appointed for each a determined limit and a drawn-out period. He makes each of the two enter into its companion, and makes its companion enter into it, as an ordainment from Him for His servants in that through which He feeds them and with which He makes them grow. He created for them the night, that they might rest in it, from tiring movements and wearisome exertions and He made it a garment for them that they might be clothed in its ease and its sleep, that it might be for them refreshment and strength, that they might reach therein pleasure and passion. He created for them the daytime, giving sight, that they might seek within it of His bounty, find the means to His provision, and roam freely in His earth.[9]”

The wise Imām proved the mightiness of Allah, the Exalted, through His creating night and day and making them enter into each other, through a light movement which none can stop, control, divide, and limit. Night enters into day and day enters into night in a gradual manner in which moments and changes cannot be set apart. The darkness of night gradually enters into the brightness of day, and morning gradually enters into the utter darkness, and they both are a repeated sight.[10] Also the Imām mentioned the wisdom in creating night and day; Allah, the Most High, created night, that man might rest in it, from tiring movements and wearisome exertions, and man can regain in sleeping all the strength he consumes through his work by day; He, the Exalted created the daytime, giving sight, that man might seek within it of His bounty, find the means to His provision, and work to maintain himself and his family.

The Imām’s supplications contain a group of proofs for the Unity of Allah. They show that the Imām was among those who recognized Allah and turned to Him in repentance.

3. It contains absolute humbleness and lowliness before Allah, the Exalted, and with this it has been distinguished from the other supplications of the pure Imāms, peace be on them. In the preface of his Sahifa, al-Fādil al-Asfahāni said: “Though the supplications of our master, Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, are numerous, they are distinguished from those of the infallible Imām, peace be on him, by showing pleading, lowliness, and neediness to Allah, the Most High.” He added: “Allah, the Exalted, singled out each of the Imāms with a quality which does not exist in other than him, such as bravery in Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and his son al-Husayn, peace be on him, gentleness and lament in Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin’s supplications, especially as it concerns the supplications of al-Sahifa al-Kāmila, which our companions sometimes call the ‘Psalms of the Household of Mohammed’ and sometimes they call it the ‘Gospel of the Folk of the House’”[11]

Let’s listen to another part of his supplications in which he pled to Allah. He, peace be on him, said:

“My Lord, my sins have silenced me, and my words have been cut off. I have no argument, for I am the prisoner of my own affliction, the hostage to my works, the frequenter of my own offense, the confused in my intended way, the thwarted. I have brought myself to a halt in the halting place of the abased sinners, the halting place of the wretched and insolent, those who think lightly of Your promise. Glory be to You! What insolence I have insolently shown toward You! What delusion with which I have deluded myself! My master, have mercy on my falling flat on my face, the slipping of my foot, grant me my ignorance through Your clemency, and my evildoing through Your beneficence, for I admit my sin and confess my offense: Here are my hand and my forelock! I am resigned to retaliation again st my soul! Have mercy on my white hair, the depletion of my days, the nearing of my term, my frailty, my misery, and the paucity of my stratagems! My Master, and have mercy upon me when my trace is cut off from this world, my mention is effaced among the creatures, and I join the forgotten, like the forgotten ones! My Master, and have mercy upon me at the change of my form and state when my body decays, my limbs are scattered, and my joints are dismembered! O my heedlessness toward what was wanted from me! My Master, have mercy upon at my mustering and uprising and on that day, appoint my standing place with Your friends, my place of emergence with Your beloved ones, and my dwelling in Your neighborhood! O Lordof the worlds![12]”

This supplication is full of fear of Allah and devotion to Him, for this great Imām melted before the Wise Creator and showed love for him and did all things that brought him nigh to Him, asking Him for forgiveness and good pleasure.

4. It has opened doors to hope and expectation through Allah’s mercy, which embraces all things, for whatever sins and crimes man commits, he should not despair of Allah’s mercy, forgiveness, and munificence. In one of his supplications, Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, said:

“O my Allah, by Your mightiness and majesty, if You demand my sins, I will demand Your pardon, and if You demand my ignobility, I will demand Your munificence.”

Most of the Imām’s supplications are full of hope which fills the souls with radiance, ambitions, and trust in Allah’s pardon and forgiveness.

5. It has opened doors to wonderful debates with Allah, the Exalted. Such debates are full of firm proofs for asking Him, the Exalted, for pardon. Let’s listen to some of them. He, peace be on him, says:

“My Allah, if You do not forgive save Your friends and those who obey You, then where shall the sinners go? If You do not show generosity save to those who are sincere to You, then whom shall the evildoers ask for help? My Allah, You have revealed pardon in Your Book, and You have commanded us to pardon him who wrongs us. We have wronged ourselves, so pardon us, for You are worthier of that than us. We have commanded us not to repel a beggar from our doors. I have come to beg You; therefore repel me not from Your door! You have commanded us to do good. We are your slaves; therefore release our necks from the Fire!”

In another supplication, he, peace be on him, said:

“So have mercy upon me, O Allah, for I am a vile man and my worth is little. Chastising me will not add the weight of a dust mote to Your kingdom. Were chastising me something that would add to Your kingdom, I would ask You for patience to bear it and would love for it to belong to You; but Your authority, my Allah, is mightier, and Your kingdom more lasting, than that the obedience of the sinners diminish it!”

Commenting on this part of supplication, Allāma, the late Shaykh, Mohammed Jawād Mughniya said: “Have you ever seen a defense stronger than this defense or a proof more conclusive than this proof? What does Allah make through punishing men as long as punishing (them) does not decrease His kingdom nor does it increase His authority? The Imām protested through the same law Allah has written against Himself and against all mankind, for He, the Great and Almighty, said: ‘Your Lord has written mercy against Himself: O My servants who have been prodigal against yourselves, do not despair of Allah’s mercy, surely Allah forgives all sins. Surely, He is All-forgiving, All-merciful.’ Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, talked in a right manner and submitted figures with sanctification to the Great Judge. As Allah’s words are true, the Imām protested according to them.[13]”

6. Most supplications of the Sahifa contain moral programs which purify man’s soul. The following is one of them:

“O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household, cause my faith to reach the most perfect faith, make my certainty the most excellent certainty, and take my intention to the best of intentions and my works to the best of works! O Allah, complete my intention through Your gentleness, rectify my certainty through what is with You, and set right what is corrupt in me through Your power!

“O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household, spare me the concerns which distract me, employ me in that about which You will ask me tomorrow, and let me pass my days in that for which You have created me! Free me from need, expand Your provision toward me and tempt me not with ingratitude! Exalt me and afflict me not with pride! Make me worship You and corrupt not my worship with self-admiration! Let good flow out from my hands upon the people and efface it not by my making them feel obliged! Give me the highest moral traits and preserve me from vainglory!

“O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household, raise me not a single degree before the people without lowering me its like in myself and bring about no outward exaltation for me without inward abasement in myself to the same measure! O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household, give me to enjoy a sound guidance which I seek not to replace, a path of truth from which I swerve not, and an intention of right conduct in which I have no doubts! Let me live as long as my life is a free gift in obeying You, but if my life should become a pasture for Satan, size me to Yourself before Your hatred overtakes me or Your wrath against me becomes firm!

“O Allah, deposit in me no quality for which I will be faulted unless You set it right, no flaw for which I will be blamed, unless You make it beautiful, no deficient noble trait, unless You complete it!”

The Imām, peace be on him, asked the Great Creator to give him all excellencies through which man becomes sublime. He asked Him, the Exalted, to give him perfect faith and the most excellent certainty, to make his works the best of works, to employ him in obeying Him and acts that please Him, to expand His provision toward him, not to tempt him with poverty, deprivation, might, and self-admiration, to make him an obedient servant, submissive to Him, to let good flow out from his hands upon the people, not to efface it by making them feel obliged, to give him the highest moral traits and the best qualities, and not to raise him a degree before the people without lowering him its like in himself, lest he should see his soul had an excellence over Allah’s servants. The Imām, peace be on him, added:

“O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household and point me straight to resist him who is dishonest toward me with good counsel, repay him who separates from me with gentle devotion, reward him who deprives me with free giving, recompense him who cuts me off with joining, oppose him who slanders me with excellent mention, give thanks for good, and shut my eyes to evil.

“O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household, adorn me with the adornment of the righteous, and clothe me in the ornaments of the Allah-fearing, through spreading justice, restraining range, quenching the flame of hate, bringing together the people of separation, correcting discord, spreading about good behavior, covering faults, mildness of temper, lowering the wing, beauty of conduct, gravity of bearing, agreeableness in comportment, precedence in reaching excellence, preferring bounteousness, refraining from condemnation, bestowing bounty on the undeserving, speaking the truth, though it be painful, making little of the good in my words and deeds, though it be much, and making much of the evil in my words and deeds, though it be little! Perfect this for me through lasting obedience, holding fast to the community, and rejecting the people of innovation and those who act in accordance with originated opinions![14]”

The Imām, peace be on him, asked Allah, the Exalted, to be kind to him through giving him the most excellent qualities, the highest moral traits and all that which would bring him near to Him, that he might live in abundant dignity, guide the people, and show them the way to the truth and rightness.

7. It contains the scientific realities which none had discovered before him, for example, he, peace be on him, in invoked Allah against the enemies of the Muslims, saying: “O Allah, mix their waters with pestilence and their food with maladies.[15]”

The Imām, peace be on him, mentioned the scientific reality which was discovered in the last century; and which is that the germs of the pestilence called Cholera live in water and food, hence whoever drinks or eats such water and food will carry them.

Another example of the scientific realities the Imām mentioned in his Sahifa is these words of him, peace be on him: “Praise belongs to Allah, who has placed within us the organs of expansion, and assigned for us the agents of contraction.[16]”

The Imām, peace be on him, talked about the hands and the legs, which are among the wonderful organs in man’s body, for they contract and expand according to the oscillation of the brain. The English Science Magazine said: “Man’s hand is among the unique, natural wonders. It is very difficult; rather it is impossible to make a tool like human hand in simplicity, capability, and speedy adaptation. When you want to read a book, you take it with your hand and fix it in a situation appropriate for reading. It is the hand which sets right its situation automatically. When you want to turn over one of its pages, you put your fingers under the page and press it to the degree through which you turn it over, then the pressure removes when you have turned the page over. The hand catches the pencil and writes with it; it uses all tools necessary for man such as spoon, knife, and typewriter; it opens windows and shut them, and carries all what man wants. The two hands have twenty-seven bones, and each has nineteen groups of muscles.[17]” Modern medicine objectively and inclusively searched for the wonderful qualities of the hand, which proves the existence of the Great Creator.

8. It is among the spiritual and moral sources in Islamic thought; therefore it is a remedy for the perplexed souls, and fresh fountain from which the Allah-fearing and those who turn to him in repentance drink. It represents the philosophy of supplication, which the believer uses as a ladder to climb to Allah, and which makes him reach the highest degree of perfection, for there is nothing in this world’s life higher than communicating with Allah, the Exalted, the Creator of the universe and Giver of life. Surely perplexed souls find their objectives in supplication, for they feel tranquillity after anxiety, and hope after despair. Sincere supplication takes man to the Kingdom and frees him from material pleasures. The immortal Sahifa of al-Sajjād has clearly contained this brilliant philosophy of supplication.

9. Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya was a revolt against the Umayyads, who spread corruption among the Muslims and froze their abilities

10. It has reached the highest degree of eloquence and purity. I (the author) firmly believe that no Arab words are more eloquent and purer than the supplications of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, except those of the Holy Qur’ān and of ‘Ali’s Nahjj al-Balāgha. The most prominent qualities of the Sahifa are the beauty of style and the mildness of words. The Imām used only the words which have brought together all the measures of beauty.

None knows the rhetorical and literary qualities of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya except the rhetoricians. Commenting on it and all the supplications of the Imāms of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, Dr. Husayn ‘Ali Mahfūz said: “The Imāms’ supplications are wonderful art prose plain in style, expression, and eloquence. Surely, this genuine, miraculous method is of the pure (words) of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, and his family, peace be on them.

“Supplication is beautiful literature, blessed conversation, rich language, valuable religion, genuine eloquence, divine trace, and prophetic scent.[18]”

Among the aspects of splendor and eloquence in the supplications of the Imām, peace be on him, is that he elaborated on describing the bliss , luxury, and beautiful palaces of the Garden, for he wanted men to wish for it through doing good deeds. Also he elaborated on frightening men with the Fire and severe punishment to make them refrain from committing sins. In this he followed the Holy Qur’ān, which elaborated on describing the Garden and the Fire in many of its verses, for the same reasons which we have mentioned. The rhetoricians have mentioned that the elaboration on such matters is among the highest and the most wonderful degrees of eloquence.

Taking Care of the Sahifa of al-Sajjād

Muslim and non-Muslim circles have taken great care of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādia, the following are some aspects of the taking care of it:

A. The Muslim scholars and the righteous recite it by night and day pleading to Allah through it to pardon them and to save them from the Fire.

B. It has been translated from Arabic into numerous languages such as English, Persian, Germany, Urdu, French. It is worth mentioning that the Sahifa has been translated into Persian many times, for example, it has been translated by al-Hājj ‘Imād al-Did al-Asfahāni, Shaykh Jawād Fadil, and al-Sayyid ‘Ali Naqi Fayd al-Islām, hence they made their nation make use of al-Sahifa, which is one of treasures of thought, knowledge, and wisdom.

C. The calligraphers always write and decorate it with wonderful scripts and decorations, hence the cases of the Islamic manuscripts are full of it.

Interpretations (shurūh) of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya

The scholars devoted themselves to interpreting al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya and wrote in this respect a group of valuable books which Shaykh Āgha Buzurg al-Tahrani, the Shaykh of the researchers, has mentioned. The following is the text of what he has mentioned:

1. Sharh al-Sahifa (the Interpretation of al-Sahifa) by Mirza Ibrāhim b. Mohammed ‘Ali al-Sabzwāri, surnamed Wathraq al-Hukamā’, died in 1358 A. H. He interpreted the vague words and difficult sentences. This sharh (interpretation) is Persian and gnostic. It was printed in the year 1342 A. H.

2. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mirza Ibrāhim b. Mir Mohammed Ma‘sūm b. Mir Fasih b. Mir al-Husayn al-Tabrizi, al-Qazwini, died in the year 1149 A. H. His son al-Sayyid Hasan has mentioned it (Sharh al-Sahifa), in ‘Khātimat al-Ma‘ārijj’ and said: “He interpreted some supplications of al-Sahifa.”

3. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh Taqi al-Din Ibrahim b. ‘Ali b. al-Husayn b. Mohammed b. Sālih b. Ismā‘il al-Kaf‘ami, the author of al-Musbāh, died in the year 1195 A. H. He called it (Sharh al-Sahifa) ‘al-Fawā’id al-Tarifa’.

4. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mawlā Sharif Abi al-Hasan b. Mohammed Tāhir b. ‘Abd al-Hamid al-Fatūni, al-‘Āmili, al-Asfahāni, al-Gharawi, who died about the year 1140 A. H.

5. Sharh al-Sahifa, Persian, by some companions.

6. Sharh al-Sahifa by some companions; it is in al-Radawiya Library.

7. Sharh al-Sahifa by some companions; it is in al-Radawiya Library, its time is unknown.

8. Sharh al-Sahifa by the greatest Sayyid Mirzā Mohammed Bāqir al-Husayn al-Fārisi.

9. Sharh al-Sahifa, Persian, by ‘Allāma Mohammed Bāqir al-Majjlisi. He confined it to the most important and difficult matters.

10. Sharh al-Sahifa, Arabic, by ‘Allāma Mohammed Bāqir al-Majjlisi. He called it al-Fawā’id al-Tarifa, but did not complete it.

11. Sharh al-Sahifa, Persian, by Badi‘ al-Harnadi. He called it ‘Riyād al-‘Ābidin’.

12. Sharh

al-Sahifa by Mohammed Taqi b. Maqsūd.

13. Sharh al-Sahifa, Persian, by an unknown author.

14. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Jamāl al-Din al-Kawkabāni al-Yamāni, from India, died in Baghdād, in the year 1339 A. H.

15. Sharh al-Sahifa by one of the companions, his name is unknown, for there are missing pages in the beginning and end of the copy.

16. Sharh al-Sahifa by Habib Allah b. ‘Ali Madad al-Kāshāni, a copy of it is with his grandsons in Kāshān.

17. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh ‘Abbās b. Mohammed ‘Ali al-Balāghi al-Najafi, author of Tanqih al-Maqāl. He wrote it in Khurasān (Mashhad) when he went to visit al-Ridā, peace be on him. He began writing it in the beginning of (the month) Jamādi al-Ulā, in the Year 1105 and finished it in Rajab in the same year. He made a fair copy of it after a while when he returned to Asfahān.

18. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mirzā Hasan b. al-Mawlā ‘Abd al-Razzāq al-Lāhiji, author of Shams al-Yaqin. This interpretation is in three volumes, but it is incomplete.

19. Sharh al-Sahifa by Tājj al-Din Hasan b. Mohammed al-Asfahāni, the father of al-Fādil al-Hindi. It is in the Library of Abi al-Hudā al-Kalbāsi, in Asfahān.

20. Sharh al-Sahifa, Persian, by the Researcher, Āghā Husayn al-Khānsāri, died in the year 1099 A. H.

21. Sharh al-Sahifa by Husayn b. Mawlā Hasan al-Jilani al-Asfahāni, died 1129 A. H.

22. Sharh al-Sahifa , just like commentary, by al-Sayyid Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Abi Ja‘far Mohammed al-Mūsawi al-Karki.

23. Sharh al-Sahifa , just like commentary, by Shaykh ‘Izz al-Din al-Husayn b. ‘Abd al-Samad al-Hārithi, al- ‘Āmili, the father of Shaykh al-Bahā’i, died in the year 984 A. H.

24. Sharh al-Sahifa by Khalil b. al-Ghāzi al-Qazwini, a copy of it was in the Library of al-Asfahāni, the Shaykh of al-Shari‘a, in Najaf.

25. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Mohammed Ridā al-‘Araji.

26. Sharh al-Sahifa by Ridā ‘Ali al-Tāliqāni.

27. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed Salim al-Rāzi.

28. Sharh al-Sahifa , Persian, by Mohammed Sālih b. Mohammed Bāqir al-Roghani al-Qazwini.

29. Sharh al-Sahifa, Arabic, by Mohammed Sālih b. Mohammed Bāqir al-Roghani al-Qazwini.

30. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh ‘Abbās b. Mohammed ‘Ali b. Mohammed al-Balāghi al-Najafi.

31. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Sadr al-Din b. Mir Mohammed Sālih al-Tabatabā’i, the grandfather of the Sayyids who have been given the nick-name of al-Mudarrisi in Yazid.

32. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mufti Mir ‘Abbās al-Lakinhūri; it is in the Library of al-Sayyid Nāsir Husayn al-Kantūri, in Lakinhūr.

33. Sharh al-Sahifa by Jamāl al-Sālikin ‘Abd al-Bāqi al-Khattāt al-Tabrizi; it is easy and detailed, according to the Sufi method, in this manner it has been mentioned in al-Riyād.

34. Sharh al-Sahifa by ‘Abd al-Ghaffār al-Rashti, who belonged to the time of Shāh ‘Abbās.

35. Sharh al-Sahifa by Ibn Miftāh Abi al-Hasan ‘Abd Allah b. Abi al-Qāsim b. Miftāh al-Zaydi al-Yamāni.

36. Sharh al-Sahifa by ‘Abd Allah Afandi, the author of ‘Riyād al-‘Ulamā’’.

37. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed Tāhir b. al-Husayn al-Shirāzi, lived in Qum.

38. Sharh al-Sahifa by Sadr al-Din ‘Ali b. Nizām al-Din Ahmed al-Ashtaki al-Shirāzi, better known as al-Medani, died 1120 A. H. He called it ‘Riyād al-Sālikin’.

39. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Sharaf al-Din ‘Ali b. Hujjat Allah al-Sholistāni al-Husayni al-Tabātabā’i.

40. Sharh al-Sahifa by Nūr al-Din Abi al-Hasan b. ‘Abd al-‘Āl al-Karki, died 940 A. H.

41. Sharh al-Sahifa, Persian, by Abi al-Hasan ‘Ali b. al-Hasan al-Zawāri.

42. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh ‘Ali b. Shaykh Zayn al-‘Ābidin, one of the grandsons of the second martyr. It is an easy interpretation, just like the Interpretation of Majjma’ al-Bayān, for he first mentioned the supplication, then language, then parsing, and then meaning.

43. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh ‘Ali b. Shaykh Abi Ja’far, who was also one of the grandsons of the Second Martyr, Zayn al-Din. A copy of this interpretation (sharh) is in the Library of al-Sayyid Mohammed al-Mashkāt, in Tehran.

44. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed ‘Ali b. Nusayr al-Jahār dahi al-Rashti al-Najafi, died in the year 1334 A. H. This interpretation, written in Persian, is in a big volume, titled ‘al-Hāshiya’.

45. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed ‘Ali b. al-Hājj Sulaymān al-Jashi al-Bahrāni al-Khatti. He interpreted the words and vague sentences, but he did not complete it.

46. Sharh al-Sahifa by Fatih Allah al-Khattāt al-Sūfi. In it he discussed the method of the Sufis.

47. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh Fakhr al-Din al-Turayhi al-Najafi, died in the year 1085. A. H. He called it ‘al-Nukta al-Latifa’.

48. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mirzā Qādi. He interpreted four supplications of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, and called this interpretation ‘al-Tuhfa al-Radawiya’.

49. Sharh al-Sahifa by an unknown author, for some pages in the beginning and end of this interpretation are missing. Shaykh Mehdi Sharaf al-Din, in Tustar, had a copy of it.

50. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Muhsin b. Qāsim b. Ishāq al-Daghāni al-Zaydi, lived in the 13th century.

51. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Muhsin b. Ahmed al-Shāmi al-Husayni al-Yamāni al-Zaydi, died in the year 1251 A. H. Ibn Ziyāda mentioned this interpretation in his manuscript called ‘Nashir al-‘Urf’.

52. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed b. Mohammed Ridā al- Mashhadi, the author of ‘Kanz al-Daqā’iq. The interpretation is in four volumes. Al-Sayyid Shahāb al-Din al-Tabrizi, who lived in Qum, had a copy of this interpretation.

53. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Afsah al-Din Mohammed al-Shirāzi, the author of ‘al-Mawāhib al-Ilāhiya’ on the Interpretation of ‘Ali’s Nahjj al-Balāgha. Al-Sayyid Shahāb al-Din mentioned this Sharh (interpretation) in the introduction he wrote to the printed Sahifa (of al-Sajjād).

54. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed, better known as ‘Abd al-Bāqi. In it he mentioned the words of al-Sahifa.

55. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh Abi Ja‘far Mohammed b. Jamāl al-Din Abi Mansūr al-Hasan, son of the second martyr, may Allah have mercy on him, died in the year 1030 A. H.

56. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed b. al-Husayn b. ‘Abd al-Samad al-Hārithi al-‘Āmili, died 1030. A. H. He called this sharh ‘Hadā’iq al-Sālihin’; it is other than his other interpretation, which is just like commentary.

57. Sharh al-Sahifa , a brief Persian interpretation, by Qutub al-Din Mohammed b. ‘Ali al-Lāhiji al-Daylami. A copy of this sharh is in the Library of al-Sayyid Jalāl al-Din al-Muhaddith, in Tehran.

58. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Mohammed b. Haydar al-Husayni al-Tabātabā’i al-Najafi, died in the year 1099 A. H. He was among the scholars of the time of Shah Safi, and one of the students of Shaykh al-Bahā’i, and the teacher of ‘Allāma al-Majjlisi.

59. Sharh al-Sahifa by Mohammed by Mohammed, better known as Shah Mohammed al-Istihbānāti, al-Shirāzi. He called this sharh ‘Riyād al-‘Ārifin’.

60. Sharh al-Sahifa or commentary on it by al-Muhaddith (traditionalist) Mohammed b. Shah Murtadā al-Kāshāni, better known as al-Mawlā Muhsin al-Fayd, died in the year 1091 A. H. This Sharh has been printed.

61. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh Abi Ja‘far Mohammed b. Mansūr b. Ahmed, son of the second martyr.

62. Sharh al-Sahifa by the Shaykh of Islām and Muslims, the splendor of the creed and religion, Mohammed b. al-Husayn b. ‘Abd al-Samad al-Hārithi, al-‘Āmili, died in the year 1030 A. H. He called this sharh ‘Hadā’iq al-Sālhin’.[19]

63. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Muhaddith (traditionalist) al-Sayyid Ni‘mat Allah b. ‘Abd Allah al-Musawi, al-Tustari, al-Jazā’ri, died in the year 1112. He called this sharh ‘Nūr al-Anwār’, and it was printed in the year 1316. A. H.

64. Sharh al-Sahifa by al-Sayyid Ni‘mat Allah Jazā’ri; it is other than ‘Nūr al-Anwār’; rather it is bigger and older than it.

65. Sharh al-Sahifa, Persian, by al-Fādil Hādi b. al-Mawlā Mohammed Sālih b. Ahmed al-Māzindarāni.

66. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh Ya‘qūb b. Ibrāhim al-Bakhtiyāri al-Hawzi, died in the year 1050 A. H. Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr said: “I have seen it (the interpretation) written in his holy script.”

With this we will end what the great researcher, Shaykh Āghā Būzurg al-Tahrāni, has mentioned concerning the interpretation (sharh) of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya.[20] After this two interpretations of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya were printed. They are:

67. Sharh al-Sahifa by Shaykh Mohammed Jawād Mughniya, printed in Beirut.

68. Sharh al-Sahifa by His Eminence al-Hujja al-Sayyid al-Shirāzi, printed in the Sacred City of Karbalā’. These are some interpretations of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya. These interpretations show that the religious scholars take care of it throughout times, for they find therein treasures of knowledge, wisdom, Gnosticism, and they regard it as part of the ideological wealth after the Holy Qur’ān, and ‘Ali’s Nahjj al-Balāgha.

Supplementary Versions

Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, which was narrated on the authority of Imām Abi Ja‘far (peace be on him) and his brother the great martyr Zayd b. ‘Ali (peace be on him), includes fifty-three supplications, but if some of these supplications are omitted, the Sahifa will be incomplete, as it has been mentioned in its introduction, hence the scholars devoted themselves to looking for the rest of the supplications, and they have found a group of them and added them to Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya. The following is the name of the supplementary versions along with the names of their authors:

Al-Sahifa al-Ūlā (the First Sahifa of al-Sajjād): It was collected by al-Muhaddith (the traditionalist) al-Hurr al-‘Āmily, author of Wasā’il al-Shi‘a, died in the year 1104 A. H. He brought it forth from the reliable sources and wrote in the end of it: “The servant (of Allah), Mohammed b. al-Husayn b. ‘Ali b. Mohammed al-Hurr al-‘Āmili, may Allah pardon him, said: ‘This is what I have concluded concerning al-Sahifa al-Kāmila.’”[21] The Sahifa contains sixty-three supplications.

Al-Sahifa al-Thāniya (the Second Sahifa of al-Sajjād): It was collected by al-Fādil ‘Abd Allah b. Mirzā ‘Īsā b. Mohammed b. Sālih al-Asfahāni, known as Afandi, author of ‘Riyād al-‘Ulamā’’. In it he mentioned what escaped al-Hurr al-‘Āmili. It was engraved on stone.[22]

Al-Sahifa al-Thālitha (the Third Sahifa of al-Sajjād): It was gathered by Mirzā Husayn al-Nūri. He mentioned what escaped Mirzā ‘Abd Allah, the one who collected al-Sahifa al-Thāniya. He collected therein seventy-seven supplications, which has not been mentioned in the other versions.[23]

Al-Sahifa al-Rābi’a (the Fourth Sahifa of al-Sajjād): It was collected by the great researcher al-Sayyid Muhsin al-‘Āmili. He mentioned what escaped (the authors) of the previous versions. The total number of its supplications is 182, hence he added only 52 supplications.[24]

Al-Sahifa al-Khāmisa (the Fifth Sahifa of al-Sajjād): It was gathered by Shaykh Mohammed Sālih b. Mirzā Fadl Allah al-Māzindarāni al-Hā’iri.[25]

Supplementary Supplications

I (the author) have found some supplications which have not been written in the original Sahifa of al-Sajjād, and these supplications are as follows:

His Supplication for Good Mindedness

One of

his holy supplications is this: “O Allah, we seek refuge in You from that You make good my outward conduct in the flashing eyes and make ill my mindedness. O Allah, just as I did evil and You were kind to me. If I return, You return to me.[26]”

The Imām, peace be on him, asked Allah, the Exalted, to make good his inner self. He sought refuge in Him from that He might make good his outward conduct before the people with out making good his inner self. Also he asked Him to show forgiveness and good pleasure toward him if he returned to one of his psychological desires.

His Supplication when Afflicted by Neediness

The Imām, peace be on him, would supplicate with this holy supplication when neediness befell him or he was afraid of a certain affair. He advised his children to supplicate Allah with it after a four-ruk‘a or two-ruk‘a prayer. The following is its text:

“O Place of every complaint! O Hearer of every secret conversation! O Healer of every affliction! O He who knows all hidden thinks! O He who removes every tribulation! I ask You with the supplication of one whose indigence is extreme, whose strength has become weak, whose force has decreased; the asking of the stranger, the drowned one, and the poor one whose neediness none removes except You, O Most Merciful of the merciful! There is no god but You! I was among the wrongful!”

He would say: “Allah relieves all those who supplicate Him with this supplication.[27]” This supplication represents the Imām’s clinging and devotion to Allah, for he was sure that only Allah had the power to remove poverty and neediness; there was none had power to change man’s misery and unhappiness except Allah, the most High.

His Supplication when Cleaved to Allah

This is one of his holy supplications which were narrated on his authority by Zayd b. Aslam. It is as follows: “O Allah, entrust me not to my own self, for I am incapable of it! Entrust me not to the creatures, for they will disparage me![28]”

The Imām, peace be on him, asked Allah, the Most High not to entrust him to his own soul, for soul commands man to do evil, nor to the creatures, for they would disparage and disdain him. As for entrusting to Allah, it brings about success in this world and the next.

His Supplication for Forgiveness and Repentance

He, peace be on him, would supplicate Allah to forgive him and to accept his repentance, saying: “O He remembering whom brings honor to those who remember! O He thanking whom brings triumph to those who give thanks! O He obeying whom brings deliverance to those who obey! Bless Mohammed and his Household, and divert our hearts through remembering You from every act of remembrance, our tongues through thanking You from every act of thanksgiving, our limbs through obeying You from every act of obedience! If You have ordained for us idleness from these occupation, make it an idleness of safety, within which no ill consequence visits us or weariness overtakes us! Then the writers of evil deeds may depart from us with a page empty of the mention of our evil deeds, and the writers of good deeds may turn away from us happy with the good deeds of ours which they have written. And when the days of our life have passed by, the terms of our lifetimes have elapsed, and Your call, which must come and be answered, summons us forth, then bless Mohammed and his Household and make the outcome of what the writers of our works count against us an accepted repentance, which afterwards gave us no rest in a sin we committed or an act of disobeying that we performed! Remove not from us any covering with which You have covered over the heads of the witnesses on the day when the records of Your servants are tried! Verily You are Merciful to him who calls upon You![29]”

The Imām, peace be on him, pled to Allah, the Exalted, asking Him to employ his heart, his tongue, and all his limbs in remembering and worshipping Him and to make the outcome of his life an accepted repentance.

His Supplication in calling down blessings upon the Prophet

This is one of his holy supplications. He would supplicate with it to call down blessings upon his grandfather, the Greatest Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household. The following is its text:

“O Lasting! O Everlasting! O Living! O Self-subsistent! O Reliever of worry! O Remover of grief! O He who sent the messengers! O He who keeps His word! Bless Mohammed and Mohammed’s Household, and do with me what is worthy of You![30]”

His Supplication when his Supplication accepted

The Imām, peace be on him, would supplicate with this supplication when his supplication was accepted: “O Allah, the request has come to nothing, the force has failed except with You, the ways have become narrow, the requests have stopped, the desires have become difficult, the paths are cut off except (those lead) to You, hopes passed, expectations are cut off except (those) from You, trust has become unsuccessful and opinions have become disappointed except in You.

“O Allah, I find the ways of requests lead to You, and the fountains of hope are open for You! I know that You respond to him who supplicates You, help him who calls upon You, he who seeks You is close to You, the whispered prayer of a servant is not veiled from Your hearing, that longing for Your munificence, satisfaction with Your promise, and pleasure with Your guarantee are a recompense for the deprivation of the misers, an alternative to what is in the hands of the alone possessors, and avoidance of the deception of the deceitful. There is no god but You, so forgive me my past sins, safeguard me during my remaining span, and open for me the doors to Your mercy and munificence, which You do not shut (in the faces of) Your friends and Your chosen ones, O Most Merciful of the merciful![31]”

The Imām, peace be on him, clung to Allah, sought protection in Him, and devoted himself to Him. He set his desires, hopes and expectations on Him, for he, peace be on him, thought that relying on other than Allah was part of feebleness and weakness, for such relying was adopting imaginations and looking for mirage.

His Supplication when Food placed and taken

He, peace be on him, would supplicate with this supplication when food was placed before him: “O Allah, this is of Your kindness and bounty and giving. So make it blessed for us, make us swallow it easily, and provide us with another (food) when we have eaten it. There may be someone who is in need of it. You have provided (us with food), so You have done well. O Allah, place us among the thankful.”

When the food was taken from him, he would supplicate with this supplication: “Praise belongs to Allah who carries us on land and in see, provides us with agreeable things, and makes us surpass many of His creatures with a surpass.[32]”

The Imām, peace be on him, always occupied himself with remembering Allah. He never flagged (in glorifying Him), nor did he abandon Him.

His Supplication in Entrusting his Affairs to Allah

This is one of his great supplications: “In the name of Allah, by Allah, in the way of Allah, by Allah, from Allah, to Allah, in the creed of Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household. O Allah, I have submitted my own soul to You, entrusted my affairs to You, turned my face toward You, leant my back against You. O Allah, safeguard me with the safeguarding of faith from before me and behind me, from my right hand and my left hand, from above me and below me. Repel from me (the evil) through Your force and Your strength. There is neither force nor strength save in Allah, the Most High, the Great![33]”

The Imām, peace be on him, submitted his own self to Allah, entrusted his affairs to Him, sought protection in Him, clung to His cord, and was sure that neither force nor strength save in Him.

His Supplication in Seeking Refuge from Allah’s Wrath

He, peace be on him, would supplicate with this supplication in seeking refuge from the wrath of Allah, the Exalted: “O Allah, what am I and You become angry with me? By Your mightiness, my good deeds do not adorn Your kingdom, nor do my evil deeds make it ugly! My riches does not decrease Your treasures, nor does my poverty increase them![34]”

His Supplication when went to Bed

He, peace be on him, would supplicate with this supplication when he went to bed: “O Allah, You are the First without anything before You, You are the Outward without anything above You, You are the Inward without anything below You, and You are the Last without anything after You. O Allah! O Lord of the seven heavens and seven earths! O Lord of the Torah, the Bible, the Zabūr (David’s Psalms), and the Holy Qur’ān! I seek refuge in You from every beast whose forelock is in Your hand! Verily, You are on a straight path![35]”

His Supplication in Repelling Fearful Things

He, peace be on him, would supplicate with this supplication to drive fearful things away: “O Allah, nothing repels Your wrath but Your clemency, nothing repels Your displeasure but Your pardon, nothing grants sanctuary from Your punishment but Your mercy, and nothing will deliver me from You except pleading to You before You. So give me, my Allah, relief by means of the power through which You revive the dead lands and bring the souls of servants to life. Destroy me not, my Allah, and give me the knowledge of Your response (to my supplication)! Raise me up, push me not down, help me, provide me with (provision), and make me well from blights.

“My Allah, if You rise me up, who is there to push me down? If You push me down, who is there to raise me up? But I know that there is no wrong in Your decree and no hurry in Your vengeance. He alone hurries who fears to miss, and only the weak needs to wrong. But You are exalted, My Allah, high indeed above all that!

“Make me not the target of affliction nor the object of Your vengeance, respite me, comfort me, release me from my stumble, and afflict me not with an affliction in the wake of an affliction, for You have seen my frailty, the paucity of my stratagems. So, my lord, make me patient, for I am weak, pleading to You! I seek refuge in You form You! I seek sanctuary in You from every affliction, so give me sanctuary! I cover myself over with You, so cover me over, my Lord, of what I am afraid and careful! You are the Great One, the Greatest of the great! O Allah, I cover myself with You, so bless Mohammed and his pure Household![36]”

These are some supplementary of al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya. Whoever wants more on them, let him see the five supplementary supplications in the Sahifa, al-Kaf‘mi’s Musbāh, al-Tūsi’s Musbāh, Muhajj al-Da‘awāt, and other supplication books.

Wonderful Examples of the Sahifa

As long as we are busy speaking about the Sahifa of al-Sajjād, we will mention some of its valuable supplications, which have surpassed art thoughts. They are as follows:

His Supplication in Calling down Blessings upon the Prophet

The Imām, peace be on him, would supplicate with this supplication. He has mentioned therein the efforts of his grandfather, the Greatest Messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household, and the persecutions he faced in the way of the Islamic Message and raising Allah’s Word in the earth. The following is its text:

“Praise belongs to Allah,who was kind to us through Mohammed (Allah bless him and his Household) to the exclusion of past communities and bygone generations, displaying thereby His power, which nothing can render incapable, though it be great, and nothing can escape, though it be subtle. He sealed through us all He created, appointed us witnesses over those who deny, and increased us by His kindness over those who are few. O Allah, bless Mohammed, entrusted by You with Your revelation, distinguished by You among Your creatures, devoted to You among Your servants, the Imām of mercy, the leader of good, the key to blessing, who wearied his soul for Your affairs, exposed his body to detested things for Your sake, showed open enmity toward his next of kin by summoning to You, fought against his family for Your good pleasure, cut the ties of the womb in giving life to Your religion, sent far those close because of their denial, brought near those far because of their response to You, showed friendship to the most distant for Your sake, displayed enmity toward the nearest for Your sake, made his soul persevere in delivering Your message, tired it in summoning to Your creed, busied it in counseling those worthy of Your summons, migrated to the land of exile and the place of remoteness from home of his saddlebags, the walkway of his feet, the ground of his birth, and the intimate abode of his soul, desiring to exalt Your religion and seeking help against those who disbelieved in You until what he attempted against Your enemies went well with him and what he arranged for Your friends was accomplished. He rose up against them seeking victory through Your aid, becoming strong in spite of his weakness with Your help. He fought against them in the center of their cities and attacked them in the midst of their dwellings, until Your command prevailed, and Your word rose up, though the idolaters were averse. O Allah, so raise him, because of his labors for Your sake, to the highest degree of Your Garden, that none may equal him in station, none may match him in level, and no angel brought nigh or prophet sent out may parallel him in Your sight. And inform him concerning his Household the pure and his community the faithful of an excellent intercession, greater than what You have promised him! O Keeper of promises! O Faithful to Your word! O He who changes evil deeds into manifold good deeds! You are of bounty abounding![37]”

The Imām, peace be on him, presented what his grandfather, the Greatest Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household suffered, such as hardships, difficulties in the way of spreading Islam and raising up the Word of the Unity of Allah. An example of these hardships is that the idolaters from among his blood relations and people unanimously agreed on fighting against him, crushing his message, and declaring war against him, hence the Messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household, abandoned them and brought near those far -like ‘Ammār b. Yāsir, Salmān al-Fārisi, Abi Dharr-who were the best of all the people in clinging to him and sacrificing their lives for him. Another example of the hardships the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, faced was his emigration to al-Tā’if and Medina (Yathrib). There he faced various kinds of difficulties and hardships, but Allah, the Exalted helped and supported him, when He manifested his affair and exalted his importance. Hence the Messenger was able to fight against the unbelievers in the center of their cities and spread Islam among them.

[1] Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr, Ta’sis al-Shi’a li ‘Ulūm al-Islam.
[2] ‘Abqariyat al-Imām ‘Ali.
[3] Ma’ālim al-‘Ulamā’.
[4] Al-Dhari’a fi Tasānif al-Shi’a, vol. 15, p.18.
[5] Al-Balāgh Magazine, no. 7, first year, p.54, an essay by Dr. Husayn ‘Ali Mahfūz.
[6] Al-Balāgh Magazine, no. 7, the first year, p. 54, an essay by Dr. Husayn ‘Ali Mahfūz.
[7] Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, Supplication no. 28.
[8] Ibid., Supplication no. 1.
[9] Ibid., Supplication no. 6.
[10] Ibid.
[11] Al-Sahifa al-Khāmisa al-Sajjādiya, pp. 13-14.
[12] Ibid, Supplication no. 53.
[13] Ma’ālim al-Falsafa al-Islāmiya, pp. 190-191.
[14] Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, Supplication no. 20.
[15] Ibid., Supplication no. 27.
[16] Ibid., Supplication no. 1.
[17] God and Modern Science.
[18] Al-Balāgh Magazine, no. 6, 1st year, p. 56.
[19] See Sharh al-Sahifa no. 56.
[20] Al-Dhari’a fi Tasānif al-Shi’a, vol. 13, pp. 354-359.
[21] Ibid., vol. 15, p. 18. Roudāt al-Jinān, vol. 7, p. 97.
[22] A’yān al-Shi’a, 4/Q1/500.
[23] Al-Dhari’a fi Tasānif al-Shi’a, vol. 15, p. 19.
[24] Ibid.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Safwat al-Safwa, vol. 2, p. 52. Durrar al-Abkār, p. 70. Siyar ‘Alām al-Nubalā’, vol. 4, p. 237. Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol. 3, p. 155. He increased it: “And provide me with helping those whom provision You have decreased through the plentiful (provision You have provided) me with.”
[27] Akhbār al-Diwāl, p. 109. Ibn al-Sabbāgh, Al-Fusūl al-Muhimma, p. 192.
[28] Al-Dhahabi, Tārikh al-Islām, vol. 2, p. 266. Siyar ‘Alām al-Nubalā’, vol. 4, p. 23. Tārikh Dimashaq, vol. 36, p. 152.
[29] Al-Qutb al-Rāwandi, Da’wāt (manuscript), p. 49.
[30] Al-Kaf’ami, al-Junnah al-Wāqiya and al-Janna al-Bāqiya (two manuscripts) al-Sayyid al-Hakim’s Library, no. 1272.
[31] Al-Qutb al-Rāwandi, Da’wāt, p. 27.
[32] Furū’ al-Kāfi, vol. 6, p. 294.
[33] Al-Himyari, Qurb al-Isnād, p. 3.
[34] Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 46, p. 101.
[35] Ibn Tāwus, Falāh al-Sā’il.
[36] Al-Hurr al-‘Āmili, Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, pp. 159-160.
[37] Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, Supplication no. 2.

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