All of the evidence presented so far about Jesus (pbuh) being alive and his eventual return to Earth constitutes important good news for believers. Such a historical marvel reinforces believers’ enthusiasm and determination. The increasing urgency with which preparations for this event need to be made can be seen in a number of events that are occurring now. As the Qur’an and hadith reveal, we may expect this event to take place in the near future. The present period is one in which many signs of his second coming, the End Times, and the Last Day are taking place. Dozens of such signs have occurred, and, what is more, one after the other, just as revealed in the hadith. The waters of the Euphrates river were cut off, there was a major war between two Muslim nations, extraordinary events occurred in the skies, solar and lunar eclipses happened during the month of Ramadan, natural disasters are on the rise, major catastrophes that have killed many people have taken place, and moral degeneration and corruption have spread all over the world. (See for the 138 signs of Jesus’ [pbuh] second coming).

The fact that all of these phenomena are taking place within a very short period, an even shorter period than that predicted by many people, indicates that even more historic and portentous events will occur. By God’s leave, humanity will witness the coming of Jesus (pbuh) at some not-too-distant point. There is no doubt that even the possibility of witnessing this miracle, one of the greatest marvels in human history, is an extraordinary situation. If God permits, many people who read this book will witness this age and meet Jesus (pbuh). Therefore, it is essential that all believers accelerate their preparations for this great event and ignore anything that might hinder their preparations. When Jesus (pbuh) comes, all Muslims must be in a spirit of union and togetherness, as a requirement of Islamic moral values. They must strive to intellectually eliminate all atheistic ideologies, disseminate Islamic moral values to the greatest extent possible, and call people to the truth in the finest manner. They must ready themselves so that they can be his most effective supporters in his struggle against the Antichrist. It is a great honor for Muslims to be among those who strive to make the best possible preparations for such a chosen, honorable, and worthy guest. All believers now living have the possibility of achieving that honor, and everyone is responsible for making the best use of this opportunity, for Jesus (pbuh) may arrive very quickly and unexpectedly.

Many people may wonder what kind of environment there will be when Jesus (pbuh) returns. The hadith provide a great deal of information about this. First, Jesus (pbuh) will slay the Antichrist and end his corrupt system. He will call all people to live according to Islam’s guidance and teachings. After the Antichrist’s system has been eliminated, people will turn in droves to live by religious moral values. As a result, spiritual and material peace and comfort will blossom and spread. All conflicts and fighting will end, and disagreements will be resolved by peaceful means. Tensions and fears stemming from moral degeneration will give way to security. Justice will prevail all over the world, and a golden age when the old wish to be young and the young wish to be more mature will be ushered in. As there will be no physical and mental pressures to make people uneasy, and as religious moral values will be fully implemented, the finest works of art ever known will be produced and there will be stupendous advances in science and technology. Wherever people may go in the world, they will encounter beauty, wealth, and abundance. This golden age is described in great detail in the hadith, and we shall now look at the delights that Jesus (pbuh) will bring to the world.

Jesus (pbuh) Will Cause Islamic

Moral Values to Prevail

He will lead you according to the Book of your Lord and the Sunnah of your messenger.119

Jesus (pbuh) will come not as a prophet to the people of Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace), but in order to implement the law of Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace).120

Jesus (pbuh) will descend and practice our Prophet’s (may God bless him and grant him peace) law.121

He will judge by the law of Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace) and follow the Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace), even though he is one himself, and will belong to the people of Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace)… He will be one of the people and Companions of the Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace), and he will be the most devout of them…122

There is no prophet between him (Jesus [pbuh]) and me. He will certainly descend. Recognize him when you see him. He is of medium height, of a reddish white color. He will wear two sets of yellow dyed clothing. Water will fall from his hair even if it does not rain. He will fight with people for Islam. He will slay the Antichrist and then remain for exactly forty years on Earth. Then he will die, and Muslims will perform the prayers for him.123
He will recognize no other [religion] than Islam … The religion will prevail … Nobody and nothing apart from God will be worshipped.124

Global Peace Will Finally Exist

Jesus (pbuh) will be a just judge and a just ruler among my people … all grudges and mutual hatred will be lifted (removed), the sting of every stinging insect will be removed until a baby will insert his or her finger in snake’s mouth and not be harmed, and the wolf will be like the dog among the sheep [safeguarding them]. Earth will be filled with peace, just as a vessel is filled with water; the word will become one [i.e., only Islam will prevail], and only God will be worshipped; the battle will put down its weapons [i.e., come to an end], and the dominion of the Qurayshis will be broken.125

[In his time], there will be no rancor between any two persons.126

[In his time], peace will prevail and people will use their swords as sickles. Every harmful beast will be made harmless … A child will play with a fox and not come to any harm; a wolf will graze with sheep and a lion with cattle, without harming them.127

The people then asked: “O prophet of God, why will the horse be so cheap?” He replied: “Because it will never be used for war.”128
Jesus (pbuh) Will Bring Justice to the World

Jesus (pbuh) will be a just judge, a fully just imam [ruler] within the community of the faithful. He will break the Cross [of the Christians], kill the pig, eliminate the tax on non-Muslims, abandon alms, and no value will be placed on either the sheep or the camel. All enmity and conflict will disappear and vanish … The world will be like a silver bowl, and there will be as many plants as in the time of Adam.129

Jesus (pbuh), son of Mary, will come down as a just judge [ruler] and imam for his nation, by attesting to the truth of Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace), and will slay the Antichrist.130

Jesus (pbuh), son of Mary, will come down as an imam who leads people to the true path and [will be] a just judge.131
People Will Live in Security

Such security will come to the world that snakes will graze with camels, leopards with cows, and wolves with sheep. Children will play with snakes, and the snakes will not harm them.132

Enmity and hatred between people will disappear. Snakes and scorpions will have no venom, and a child will even be able to play with a snake in his or her hand, and the snake will not bite him or her. A girl will chase away the lion, and the lion will not touch her. The wolf will stand and wait among the sheep, as if it were a sheep dog.133

Hatred and enmity among people will disappear, since their causes will have vanished.134

There Will Be Great Abundance

[When Jesus (pbuh) comes,] wealth will be so abundant that no one will accept it [alms].135

The son of Mary will return and kill the Antichrist. Then you will live for 40 years in prosperity.136

Everywhere food will cook in pots, unseen prosperity will dominate, and material wealth will be disregarded.137

“Earth will turn like a silver tray, growing vegetation as it did in the time of Adam (pbuh) so much so that a group of people will eat a bunch of grapes and it will satiate them; a group of people will eat a single pomegranate and it will satiate them; the bull will be sold for a lot of money; and a horse will cost only a few dirhams.” The audience asked: “God’s messenger, why will a horse be so cheap?” He replied: “It will not be used as a mount for fighting.” He was asked: “Why will a bull be so expensive?” He replied: “The whole land would be tilled.”138

Earth’s productivity will multiply to such an extent that if a seed is sown in a solid rock, it will grow.139
Even without the plough, the produce of wheat will multiply seven hundred times, one mudd [a measure of wheat] becoming 700 mudd.140

Then Earth will be told to bring forth its fruit and restore its blessing. As a result thereof, there would grow [such a large] pomegranate that a group of people will be able to eat it and seek shelter under its skin. A milk cow will give so much milk that a whole party will able to drink. A milk camel will give such [a large quantity of] milk that the whole tribe will be able to drink out of it, and a milk sheep will give so much milk that the whole family will able to drink out of that…141
We hope that this book will resolve the doubts of all people who are confused about Jesus (pbuh), will help believers acquire a better understanding of his role, and enable Muslims to feel the joy and excitement of his return.

Finally, another important subject we wish to consider is how believers will recognize Jesus (pbuh) when he returns. This is essential, because false Messiahs will also appear. Some people hesitate to raise the matter of Jesus’ (pbuh) return out of a mistaken belief that this will prepare the way for false Messiahs. In reality, the appearance of such imposters is a major sign of the second coming. (See Harun Yahya, The Signs of Jesus’ [pbuh] Second Coming). More importantly, everything he does after his return will be wise and inimitable, and such acts will distinguish him from all other people. One of the clearest proofs that the other “Messiahs” are false is the way they seek to prove themselves.

Another major feature that distinguishes Jesus (pbuh) from false Messiahs is that he will have no relatives, and that no person will be familiar with his physical features, countenance, or tone of voice. No one will be able to claim: “I knew him before, I saw him at such and such a time, his family and relatives are so and so,” since everyone who knew him died many centuries ago. Mary, Zechariah, the Disciples who spent years with him, the leading Jews of his time, and those who received the message from him in person are all dead and gone. Therefore, Jesus (pbuh) will be completely unknown to the general public.

This will eliminate the danger of false Messiahs. On Jesus’ (pbuh) return, no situation will arise to cause people to doubt who he really is. Nobody will have any reason to say: “This person cannot be Jesus (pbuh),” for he will return to Earth in the same state, wearing the same clothes as when he was raised to God’s presence, and will possess superior features that nobody will be able to imitate. (God knows best.)

All of this is an important reminder that sincere believers should consider this issue and make the necessary material and spiritual preparations by listening to their consciences. Those who heed this reminder may hope to achieve the honor of being this great individual’s helpmates and supporters when he returns, as revealed by our beloved Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace). This should be the prayer of all faithful Muslims.
Darwinism, in other words the theory of evolution, was put forward with the aim of denying the fact of creation, but is in truth nothing but failed, unscientific nonsense. This theory, which claims that life emerged by chance from inanimate matter, was invalidated by the scientific evidence of clear “design” in the universe and in living things. In this way, science confirmed the fact that God created the universe and the living things in it. The propaganda carried out today in order to keep the theory of evolution alive is based solely on the distortion of the scientific facts, biased interpretation, and lies and falsehoods disguised as science.

Yet this propaganda cannot conceal the truth. The fact that the theory of evolution is the greatest deception in the history of science has been expressed more and more in the scientific world over the last 20-30 years. Research carried out after the 1980s in particular has revealed that the claims of Darwinism are totally unfounded, something that has been stated by a large number of scientists. In the United States in particular, many scientists from such different fields as biology, biochemistry and paleontology recognize the invalidity of Darwinism and employ the concept of intelligent design to account for the origin of life. This “intelligent design” is a scientific expression of the fact that God created all living things.

We have examined the collapse of the theory of evolution and the proofs of creation in great scientific detail in many of our works, and are still continuing to do so. Given the enormous importance of this subject, it will be of great benefit to summarize it here.
The Scientific Collapse of Darwinism

Although this doctrine goes back as far as ancient Greece, the theory of evolution was advanced extensively in the nineteenth century. The most important development that made it the top topic of the world of science was Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species, published in 1859. In this book, he denied that God created different living species on Earth separately, for he claimed that all living beings had a common ancestor and had diversified over time through small changes. Darwin’s theory was not based on any concrete scientific finding; as he also accepted, it was just an “assumption.” Moreover, as Darwin confessed in the long chapter of his book titled “Difficulties on Theory,” the theory failed in the face of many critical questions.

Darwin invested all of his hopes in new scientific discoveries, which he expected to solve these difficulties. However, contrary to his expectations, scientific findings expanded the dimensions of these difficulties. The defeat of Darwinism in the face of science can be reviewed under three basic topics:

1) The theory cannot explain how life originated on Earth.

2) No scientific finding shows that the “evolutionary mechanisms” proposed by the theory have any evolutionary power at all.

3) The fossil record proves the exact opposite of what the theory suggests.

In this section, we will examine these three basic points in general outlines:
The First Insurmountable Step:
The Origin of Life

The theory of evolution posits that all living species evolved from a single living cell that emerged on the primitive Earth 3.8 billion years ago. How a single cell could generate millions of complex living species and, if such an evolution really occurred, why traces of it cannot be observed in the fossil record are some of the questions that the theory cannot answer. However, first and foremost, we need to ask: How did this “first cell” originate?

Since the theory of evolution denies creation and any kind of supernatural intervention, it maintains that the “first cell” originated coincidentally within the laws of nature, without any design, plan or arrangement. According to the theory, inanimate matter must have produced a living cell as a result of coincidences. Such a claim, however, is inconsistent with the most unassailable rules of biology.
“Life Comes From Life”

In his book, Darwin never referred to the origin of life. The primitive understanding of science in his time rested on the assumption that living beings had a very simple structure. Since medieval times, spontaneous generation, which asserts that non-living materials came together to form living organisms, had been widely accepted. It was commonly believed that insects came into being from food leftovers, and mice from wheat. Interesting experiments were conducted to prove this theory. Some wheat was placed on a dirty piece of cloth, and it was believed that mice would originate from it after a while.

Similarly, maggots developing in rotting meat was assumed to be evidence of spontaneous generation. However, it was later understood that worms did not appear on meat spontaneously, but were carried there by flies in the form of larvae, invisible to the naked eye.

Even when Darwin wrote The Origin of Species, the belief that bacteria could come into existence from non-living matter was widely accepted in the world of science.

However, five years after the publication of Darwin’s book, Louis Pasteur announced his results after long studies and experiments, that disproved spontaneous generation, a cornerstone of Darwin’s theory. In his triumphal lecture at the Sorbonne in 1864, Pasteur said: “Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple experiment.”142

For a long time, advocates of the theory of evolution resisted these findings. However, as the development of science unraveled the complex structure of the cell of a living being, the idea that life could come into being coincidentally faced an even greater impasse.

Inconclusive Efforts of the

Twentieth Century

The first evolutionist who took up the subject of the origin of life in the twentieth century was the renowned Russian biologist Alexander Oparin. With various theses he advanced in the 1930s, he tried to prove that a living cell could originate by coincidence. These studies, however, were doomed to failure, and Oparin had to make the following confession:

Unfortunately, however, the problem of the origin of the cell is perhaps the most obscure point in the whole study of the evolution of organisms.143
Evolutionist followers of Oparin tried to carry out experiments to solve this problem. The best known experiment was carried out by the American chemist Stanley Miller in 1953. Combining the gases he alleged to have existed in the primordial Earth’s atmosphere in an experiment set-up, and adding energy to the mixture, Miller synthesized several organic molecules (amino acids) present in the structure of proteins.

Barely a few years had passed before it was revealed that this experiment, which was then presented as an important step in the name of evolution, was invalid, for the atmosphere used in the experiment was very different from the real Earth conditions.144

After a long silence, Miller confessed that the atmosphere medium he used was unrealistic.145

All the evolutionists’ efforts throughout the twentieth century to explain the origin of life ended in failure. The geochemist Jeffrey Bada, from the San Diego Scripps Institute accepts this fact in an article published in Earth magazine in 1998:

Today as we leave the twentieth century, we still face the biggest unsolved problem that we had when we entered the twentieth century: How did life originate on Earth?146


The Complex Structure of Life

The primary reason why the theory of evolution ended up in such a great impasse regarding the origin of life is that even those living organisms deemed to be the simplest have incredibly complex structures. The cell of a living thing is more complex than all of our man-made technological products. Today, even in the most developed laboratories of the world, a living cell cannot be produced by bringing organic chemicals together.

The conditions required for the formation of a cell are too great in quantity to be explained away by coincidences. The probability of proteins, the building blocks of a cell, being synthesized coincidentally, is 1 in 10950 for an average protein made up of 500 amino acids. In mathematics, a probability smaller than 1 over 1050 is considered to be impossible in practical terms.

The DNA molecule, which is located in the nucleus of a cell and which stores genetic information, is an incredible databank. If the information coded in DNA were written down, it would make a giant library consisting of an estimated 900 volumes of encyclopedias consisting of 500 pages each.
A very interesting dilemma emerges at this point: DNA can replicate itself only with the help of some specialized proteins (enzymes). However, the synthesis of these enzymes can be realized only by the information coded in DNA. As they both depend on each other, they have to exist at the same time for replication. This brings the scenario that life originated by itself to a deadlock. Prof. Leslie Orgel, an evolutionist of repute from the University of San Diego, California, confesses this fact in the September 1994 issue of the Scientific American magazine:

It is extremely improbable that proteins and nucleic acids, both of which are structurally complex, arose spontaneously in the same place at the same time. Yet it also seems impossible to have one without the other. And so, at first glance, one might have to conclude that life could never, in fact, have originated by chemical means.147

No doubt, if it is impossible for life to have originated from natural causes, then it has to be accepted that life was “created” in a supernatural way. This fact explicitly invalidates the theory of evolution, whose main purpose is to deny creation.

Imaginary Mechanism of Evolution

The second important point that negates Darwin’s theory is that both concepts put forward by the theory as “evolutionary mechanisms” were understood to have, in reality, no evolutionary power.

Darwin based his evolution allegation entirely on the mechanism of “natural selection.” The importance he placed on this mechanism was evident in the name of his book: The Origin of Species, By Means of Natural Selection…

Natural selection holds that those living things that are stronger and more suited to the natural conditions of their habitats will survive in the struggle for life. For example, in a deer herd under the threat of attack by wild animals, those that can run faster will survive. Therefore, the deer herd will be comprised of faster and stronger individuals. However, unquestionably, this mechanism will not cause deer to evolve and transform themselves into another living species, for instance, horses.

Therefore, the mechanism of natural selection has no evolutionary power. Darwin was also aware of this fact and had to state this in his book The Origin of Species:

Natural selection can do nothing until favourable individual differences or variations occur.148

Lamarck’s Impact

So, how could these “favorable variations” occur? Darwin tried to answer this question from the standpoint of the primitive understanding of science at that time. According to the French biologist Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829), who lived before Darwin, living creatures passed on the traits they acquired during their lifetime to the next generation. He asserted that these traits, which accumulated from one generation to another, caused new species to be formed. For instance, he claimed that giraffes evolved from antelopes; as they struggled to eat the leaves of high trees, their necks were extended from generation to generation.

Darwin also gave similar examples. In his book The Origin of Species, for instance, he said that some bears going into water to find food transformed themselves into whales over time.149

However, the laws of inheritance discovered by Gregor Mendel (1822-84) and verified by the science of genetics, which flourished in the twentieth century, utterly demolished the legend that acquired traits were passed on to subsequent generations. Thus, natural selection fell out of favor as an evolutionary mechanism.

Neo-Darwinism and Mutations

In order to find a solution, Darwinists advanced the “Modern Synthetic Theory,” or as it is more commonly known, Neo-Darwinism, at the end of the 1930’s. Neo-Darwinism added mutations, which are distortions formed in the genes of living beings due to such external factors as radiation or replication errors, as the “cause of favorable variations” in addition to natural mutation.

Today, the model that stands for evolution in the world is Neo-Darwinism. The theory maintains that millions of living beings formed as a result of a process whereby numerous complex organs of these organisms (e.g., ears, eyes, lungs, and wings) underwent “mutations,” that is, genetic disorders. Yet, there is an outright scientific fact that totally undermines this theory: Mutations do not cause living beings to develop; on the contrary, they are always harmful.

The reason for this is very simple: DNA has a very complex structure, and random effects can only harm it. The American geneticist B. G. Ranganathan explains this as follows:

First, genuine mutations are very rare in nature. Secondly, most mutations are harmful since they are random, rather than orderly changes in the structure of genes; any random change in a highly ordered system will be for the worse, not for the better. For example, if an earthquake were to shake a highly ordered structure such as a building, there would be a random change in the framework of the building which, in all probability, would not be an improvement.150

Not surprisingly, no mutation example, which is useful, that is, which is observed to develop the genetic code, has been observed so far. All mutations have proved to be harmful. It was understood that mutation, which is presented as an “evolutionary mechanism,” is actually a genetic occurrence that harms living things, and leaves them disabled. (The most common effect of mutation on human beings is cancer.) Of course, a destructive mechanism cannot be an “evolutionary mechanism.” Natural selection, on the other hand, “can do nothing by itself,” as Darwin also accepted. This fact shows us that there is no “evolutionary mechanism” in nature. Since no evolutionary mechanism exists, no such any imaginary process called “evolution” could have taken place.

The Fossil Record:No Sign of

Intermediate Forms

The clearest evidence that the scenario suggested by the theory of evolution did not take place is the fossil record.

According to this theory, every living species has sprung from a predecessor. A previously existing species turned into something else over time and all species have come into being in this way. In other words, this transformation proceeds gradually over millions of years.

Had this been the case, numerous intermediary species should have existed and lived within this long transformation period.

For instance, some half-fish/half-reptiles should have lived in the past which had acquired some reptilian traits in addition to the fish traits they already had. Or there should have existed some reptile-birds, which acquired some bird traits in addition to the reptilian traits they already had. Since these would be in a transitional phase, they should be disabled, defective, crippled living beings. Evolutionists refer to these imaginary creatures, which they believe to have lived in the past, as “transitional forms.”

If such animals ever really existed, there should be millions and even billions of them in number and variety. More importantly, the remains of these strange creatures should be present in the fossil record. In The Origin of Species, Darwin explained:

If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking most closely all of the species of the same group together must assuredly have existed… Consequently, evidence of their former existence could be found only amongst fossil remains.151

Darwin’s Hopes Shattered

However, although evolutionists have been making strenuous efforts to find fossils since the middle of the nineteenth century all over the world, no transitional forms have yet been uncovered. All of the fossils, contrary to the evolutionists’ expectations, show that life appeared on Earth all of a sudden and fully-formed.

One famous British paleontologist, Derek V. Ager, admits this fact, even though he is an evolutionist:
The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether at the level of orders or of species, we find – over and over again – not gradual evolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of another.152

This means that in the fossil record, all living species suddenly emerge as fully formed, without any intermediate forms in between. This is just the opposite of Darwin’s assumptions. Also, this is very strong evidence that all living things are created. The only explanation of a living species emerging suddenly and complete in every detail without any evolutionary ancestor is that it was created. This fact is admitted also by the widely known evolutionist biologist Douglas Futuyma:

Creation and evolution, between them, exhaust the possible explanations for the origin of living things. Organisms either appeared on the earth fully developed or they did not. If they did not, they must have developed from pre-existing species by some process of modification. If they did appear in a fully developed state, they must indeed have been created by some omnipotent intelligence.153

Fossils show that living beings emerged fully developed and in a perfect state on the Earth. That means that “the origin of species,” contrary to Darwin’s supposition, is not evolution, but creation.

The Tale of Human Evolution

The subject most often brought up by advocates of the theory of evolution is the subject of the origin of man. The Darwinist claim holds that modern man evolved from ape-like creatures. During this alleged evolutionary process, which is supposed to have started 4-5 million years ago, some “transitional forms” between modern man and his ancestors are supposed to have existed. According to this completely imaginary scenario, four basic “categories” are listed:

1. Australopithecus

2. Homo habilis

3. Homo erectus

4. Homo sapiens
Evolutionists call man’s so-called first ape-like ancestors Australopithecus, which means “South African ape.” These living beings are actually nothing but an old ape species that has become extinct. Extensive research done on various Australopithecus specimens by two world famous anatomists from England and the USA, namely, Lord Solly Zuckerman and Prof. Charles Oxnard, shows that these apes belonged to an ordinary ape species that became extinct and bore no resemblance to humans.154

Evolutionists classify the next stage of human evolution as “homo,” that is “man.” According to their claim, the living beings in the Homo series are more developed than Australopithecus. Evolutionists devise a fanciful evolution scheme by arranging different fossils of these creatures in a particular order. This scheme is imaginary because it has never been proved that there is an evolutionary relation between these different classes. Ernst Mayr, one of the twentieth century’s most important evolutionists, contends in his book One Long Argument that “particularly historical [puzzles] such as the origin of life or of Homo sapiens, are extremely difficult and may even resist a final, satisfying explanation.”155

By outlining the link chain as Australopithecus > Homo habilis > Homo erectus > Homo sapiens, evolutionists imply that each of these species is one another’s ancestor. However, recent findings of paleoanthropologists have revealed that Australopithecus, Homo habilis, and Homo erectus lived at different parts of the world at the same time.156

Moreover, a certain segment of humans classified as Homo erectus have lived up until very modern times. Homo sapiens neandarthalensis and Homo sapiens sapiens (modern man) co-existed in the same region.157

This situation apparently indicates the invalidity of the claim that they are ancestors of one another. A paleontologist from Harvard University, Stephen Jay Gould, explains this deadlock of the theory of evolution, although he is an evolutionist himself:

What has become of our ladder if there are three coexisting lineages of hominids (A. africanus, the robust australopithecines, and H. habilis), none clearly derived from another? Moreover, none of the three display any evolutionary trends during their tenure on earth.158

Put briefly, the scenario of human evolution, which is “upheld” with the help of various drawings of some “half ape, half human” creatures appearing in the media and course books, that is, frankly, by means of propaganda, is nothing but a tale with no scientific foundation.

Lord Solly Zuckerman, one of the most famous and respected scientists in the U.K., who carried out research on this subject for years and studied Australopithecus fossils for 15 years, finally concluded, despite being an evolutionist himself, that there is, in fact, no such family tree branching out from ape-like creatures to man.

Zuckerman also made an interesting “spectrum of science” ranging from those he considered scientific to those he considered unscientific. According to Zuckerman’s spectrum, the most “scientific” – that is, depending on concrete data – fields of science are chemistry and physics. After them come the biological sciences and then the social sciences. At the far end of the spectrum, which is the part considered to be most “unscientific,” are “extra-sensory perception” – concepts such as telepathy and sixth sense – and finally “human evolution.” Zuckerman explains his reasoning:

We then move right off the register of objective truth into those fields of presumed biological science, like extrasensory perception or the interpretation of man’s fossil history, where to the faithful [evolutionist] anything is possible – and where the ardent believer [in evolution] is sometimes able to believe several contradictory things at the same time.159
The tale of human evolution boils down to nothing but the prejudiced interpretations of some fossils unearthed by certain people, who blindly adhere to their theory.

Darwinian Formula!

Besides all the technical evidence we have dealt with so far, let us now for once, examine what kind of a superstition the evolutionists have with an example so simple as to be understood even by children:

The theory of evolution asserts that life is formed by chance. According to this claim, lifeless and unconscious atoms came together to form the cell and then they somehow formed other living things, including man. Let us think about that. When we bring together the elements that are the building-blocks of life such as carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, only a heap is formed. No matter what treatments it undergoes, this atomic heap cannot form even a single living being. If you like, let us formulate an “experiment” on this subject and let us examine on the behalf of evolutionists what they really claim without pronouncing loudly under the name “Darwinian formula”:

Let evolutionists put plenty of materials present in the composition of living things such as phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium into big barrels. Moreover, let them add in these barrels any material that does not exist under normal conditions, but they think as necessary. Let them add in this mixture as many amino acids – which have no possibility of forming under natural conditions – and as many proteins – a single one of which has a formation probability of 10-950 – as they like. Let them expose these mixtures to as much heat and moisture as they like. Let them stir these with whatever technologically developed device they like. Let them put the foremost scientists beside these barrels. Let these experts wait in turn beside these barrels for billions, and even trillions of years. Let them be free to use all kinds of conditions they believe to be necessary for a human’s formation. No matter what they do, they cannot produce from these barrels a human, say a professor that examines his cell structure under the electron microscope. They cannot produce giraffes, lions, bees, canaries, horses, dolphins, roses, orchids, lilies, carnations, bananas, oranges, apples, dates, tomatoes, melons, watermelons, figs, olives, grapes, peaches, peafowls, pheasants, multicoloured butterflies, or millions of other living beings such as these. Indeed, they could not obtain even a single cell of any one of them.

Briefly, unconscious atoms cannot form the cell by coming together. They cannot take a new decision and divide this cell into two, then take other decisions and create the professors who first invent the electron microscope and then examine their own cell structure under that microscope. Matter is an unconscious, lifeless heap, and it comes to life with God’s superior creation.

The theory of evolution, which claims the opposite, is a total fallacy completely contrary to reason. Thinking even a little bit on the claims of evolutionists discloses this reality, just as in the above example.

Technology in the Eye and the Ear

Another subject that remains unanswered by evolutionary theory is the excellent quality of perception in the eye and the ear.

Before passing on to the subject of the eye, let us briefly answer the question of how we see. Light rays coming from an object fall oppositely on the eye’s retina. Here, these light rays are transmitted into electric signals by cells and reach a tiny spot at the back of the brain, the “center of vision.” These electric signals are perceived in this center as an image after a series of processes. With this technical background, let us do some thinking.
The brain is insulated from light. That means that its inside is completely dark, and that no light reaches the place where it is located. Thus, the “center of vision” is never touched by light and may even be the darkest place you have ever known. However, you observe a luminous, bright world in this pitch darkness.

The image formed in the eye is so sharp and distinct that even the technology of the twentieth century has not been able to attain it. For instance, look at the book you are reading, your hands with which you are holding it, and then lift your head and look around you. Have you ever seen such a sharp and distinct image as this one at any other place? Even the most developed television screen produced by the greatest television producer in the world cannot provide such a sharp image for you. This is a three-dimensional, colored, and extremely sharp image. For more than 100 years, thousands of engineers have been trying to achieve this sharpness. Factories, huge premises were established, much research has been done, plans and designs have been made for this purpose. Again, look at a TV screen and the book you hold in your hands. You will see that there is a big difference in sharpness and distinction. Moreover, the TV screen shows you a two-dimensional image, whereas with your eyes, you watch a three-dimensional perspective with depth.

For many years, tens of thousands of engineers have tried to make a three-dimensional TV and achieve the vision quality of the eye. Yes, they have made a three-dimensional television system, but it is not possible to watch it without putting on special 3-D glasses; moreover, it is only an artificial three-dimension. The background is more blurred, the foreground appears like a paper setting. Never has it been possible to produce a sharp and distinct vision like that of the eye. In both the camera and the television, there is a loss of image quality.

Evolutionists claim that the mechanism producing this sharp and distinct image has been formed by chance. Now, if somebody told you that the television in your room was formed as a result of chance, that all of its atoms just happened to come together and make up this device that produces an image, what would you think? How can atoms do what thousands of people cannot?

If a device producing a more primitive image than the eye could not have been formed by chance, then it is very evident that the eye and the image seen by the eye could not have been formed by chance. The same situation applies to the ear. The outer ear picks up the available sounds by the auricle and directs them to the middle ear, the middle ear transmits the sound vibrations by intensifying them, and the inner ear sends these vibrations to the brain by translating them into electric signals. Just as with the eye, the act of hearing finalizes in the center of hearing in the brain.

The situation in the eye is also true for the ear. That is, the brain is insulated from sound just as it is from light. It does not let any sound in. Therefore, no matter how noisy is the outside, the inside of the brain is completely silent. Nevertheless, the sharpest sounds are perceived in the brain. In your completely silent brain, you listen to symphonies, and hear all of the noises in a crowded place. However, were the sound level in your brain was measured by a precise device at that moment, complete silence would be found to be prevailing there.

As is the case with imagery, decades of effort have been spent in trying to generate and reproduce sound that is faithful to the original. The results of these efforts are sound recorders, high-fidelity systems, and systems for sensing sound. Despite all of this technology and the thousands of engineers and experts who have been working on this endeavor, no sound has yet been obtained that has the same sharpness and clarity as the sound perceived by the ear. Think of the highest-quality hi-fi systems produced by the largest company in the music industry. Even in these devices, when sound is recorded some of it is lost; or when you turn on a hi-fi you always hear a hissing sound before the music starts. However, the sounds that are the products of the human body’s technology are extremely sharp and clear. A human ear never perceives a sound accompanied by a hissing sound or with atmospherics as does a hi-fi; rather, it perceives sound exactly as it is, sharp and clear. This is the way it has been since the creation of man.

So far, no man-made visual or recording apparatus has been as sensitive and successful in perceiving sensory data as are the eye and the ear. However, as far as seeing and hearing are concerned, a far greater truth lies beyond all this.
To Whom Does the Consciousness that Sees and

Hears within the Brain Belong?

Who watches an alluring world in the brain, listens to symphonies and the twittering of birds, and smells the rose?

The stimulations coming from a person’s eyes, ears, and nose travel to the brain as electro-chemical nerve impulses. In biology, physiology, and biochemistry books, you can find many details about how this image forms in the brain. However, you will never come across the most important fact: Who perceives these electro-chemical nerve impulses as images, sounds, odors, and sensory events in the brain? There is a consciousness in the brain that perceives all this without feeling any need for an eye, an ear, and a nose. To whom does this consciousness belong? Of course it does not belong to the nerves, the fat layer, and neurons comprising the brain. This is why Darwinist-materialists, who believe that everything is comprised of matter, cannot answer these questions.

For this consciousness is the spirit created by God, which needs neither the eye to watch the images nor the ear to hear the sounds. Furthermore, it does not need the brain to think.

Everyone who reads this explicit and scientific fact should ponder on Almighty God, and fear and seek refuge in Him, for He squeezes the entire universe in a pitch-dark place of a few cubic centimeters in a three-dimensional, colored, shadowy, and luminous form.

A Materialist Faith

The information we have presented so far shows us that the theory of evolution is a incompatible with scientific findings. The theory’s claim regarding the origin of life is inconsistent with science, the evolutionary mechanisms it proposes have no evolutionary power, and fossils demonstrate that the required intermediate forms have never existed. So, it certainly follows that the theory of evolution should be pushed aside as an unscientific idea. This is how many ideas, such as the Earth-centered universe model, have been taken out of the agenda of science throughout history.

However, the theory of evolution is kept on the agenda of science. Some people even try to represent criticisms directed against it as an “attack on science.” Why?

The reason is that this theory is an indispensable dogmatic belief for some circles. These circles are blindly devoted to materialist philosophy and adopt Darwinism because it is the only materialist explanation that can be put forward to explain the workings of nature.

Interestingly enough, they also confess this fact from time to time. A well-known geneticist and an outspoken evolutionist, Richard C. Lewontin from Harvard University, confesses that he is “first and foremost a materialist and then a scientist”:

It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel us accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that produce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive, no matter how mystifying to the uninitiated. Moreover, that materialism is absolute, so we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door.160
These are explicit statements that Darwinism is a dogma kept alive just for the sake of adherence to materialism. This dogma maintains that there is no being save matter. Therefore, it argues that inanimate, unconscious matter created life. It insists that millions of different living species (e.g., birds, fish, giraffes, tigers, insects, trees, flowers, whales, and human beings) originated as a result of the interactions between matter such as pouring rain, lightning flashes, and so on, out of inanimate matter. This is a precept contrary both to reason and science. Yet Darwinists continue to defend it just so as “not to allow a Divine Foot in the door.”

Anyone who does not look at the origin of living beings with a materialist prejudice will see this evident truth: All living beings are works of a Creator, Who is All-Powerful, All-Wise, and All-Knowing. This Creator is God, Who created the whole universe from non-existence, designed it in the most perfect form, and fashioned all living beings.

The Theory of Evolution:

The Most Potent Spell in the World

Anyone free of prejudice and the influence of any particular ideology, who uses only his or her reason and logic, will clearly understand that belief in the theory of evolution, which brings to mind the superstitions of societies with no knowledge of science or civilization, is quite impossible.

As explained above, those who believe in the theory of evolution think that a few atoms and molecules thrown into a huge vat could produce thinking, reasoning professors and university students; such scientists as Einstein and Galileo; such artists as Humphrey Bogart, Frank Sinatra and Luciano Pavarotti; as well as antelopes, lemon trees, and carnations. Moreover, as the scientists and professors who believe in this nonsense are educated people, it is quite justifiable to speak of this theory as “the most potent spell in history.” Never before has any other belief or idea so taken away peoples’ powers of reason, refused to allow them to think intelligently and logically and hidden the truth from them as if they had been blindfolded. This is an even worse and unbelievable blindness than the Egyptians worshipping the Sun God Ra, totem worship in some parts of Africa, the people of Saba worshipping the Sun, the tribe of Abraham (pbuh) worshipping idols they had made with their own hands, or the people of Moses (pbuh) worshipping the Golden Calf.

In fact, God has pointed to this lack of reason in the Qur’an. In many verse, He reveals in many verses that some peoples’ minds will be closed and that they will be powerless to see the truth. Some of these verses are as follows:

As for those who do not believe, it makes no difference to them whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. God has sealed up their hearts and hearing and over their eyes is a blindfold. They will have a terrible punishment. (Qur’an, 2:6-7)

… They have hearts with which they do not understand. They have eyes with which they do not see. They have ears with which they do not hear. Such people are like cattle. No, they are even further astray! They are the unaware. (Qur’an, 7:179)

Even if We opened up to them a door into heaven, and they spent the day ascending through it, they would only say: “Our eyesight is befuddled! Or rather we have been put under a spell!” (Qur’an, 15:14-15)
Words cannot express just how astonishing it is that this spell should hold such a wide community in thrall, keep people from the truth, and not be broken for 150 years. It is understandable that one or a few people might believe in impossible scenarios and claims full of stupidity and illogicality. However, “magic” is the only possible explanation for people from all over the world believing that unconscious and lifeless atoms suddenly decided to come together and form a universe that functions with a flawless system of organization, discipline, reason, and consciousness; a planet named Earth with all of its features so perfectly suited to life; and living things full of countless complex systems.

In fact, the Qur’an relates the incident of Moses (pbuh) and Pharaoh to show that some people who support atheistic philosophies actually influence others by magic. When Pharaoh was told about the true religion, he told Moses (pbuh) to meet with his own magicians. When Moses (pbuh) did so, he told them to demonstrate their abilities first. The verses continue:

He said: “You throw.” And when they threw, they cast a spell on the people’s eyes and caused them to feel great fear of them. They produced an extremely powerful magic. (Qur’an, 7:116)

As we have seen, Pharaoh’s magicians were able to deceive everyone, apart from Moses (pbuh) and those who believed in him. However, his evidence broke the spell, or “swallowed up what they had forged,” as the verse puts it.

We revealed to Moses: “Throw down your staff.” And it immediately swallowed up what they had forged. So the Truth took place and what they did was shown to be false. (Qur’an, 7:117-118)

As we can see, when people realized that a spell had been cast upon them and that what they saw was just an illusion, Pharaoh’s magicians lost all credibility. In the present day too, unless those who, under the influence of a similar spell, believe in these ridiculous claims under their scientific disguise and spend their lives defending them, abandon their superstitious beliefs, they also will be humiliated when the full truth emerges and the spell is broken. In fact, world-renowned British writer and philosopher Malcolm Muggeridge also stated this:

I myself am convinced that the theory of evolution, especially the extent to which it’s been applied, will be one of the great jokes in the history books in the future. Posterity will marvel that so very flimsy and dubious an hypothesis could be accepted with the incredible credulity that it has.161

That future is not far off: On the contrary, people will soon see that “chance” is not a deity, and will look back on the theory of evolution as the worst deceit and the most terrible spell in the world. That spell is already rapidly beginning to be lifted from the shoulders of people all over the world. Many people who see its true face are wondering with amazement how they could ever have been taken in by it.

They said: “Glory be to You!

We have no knowledge except what You have taught us.
You are the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.”

(Qur’an, 2:32)
1. Izzet Ikbal, Risale-i Nur’dan Ahir Zaman ile Ilgili Bahisler (Inquiries into the End Times from the Risale-i Nur), 8.

2. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, vol. 17, hadith no. 1033.

3. Sahih al-Bukhari hadiths.

4. Imam Nawawi, Commentary on Sahih Muslim, 2:192; Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, vol. 14, hadith no. 332.

5. Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, hadith no. 8634, 4:587.

6. Dr. Subhi Salih, Ulum’il Hadis (Sciences of the Hadiths), 151-52; Dr. G. Huseyin Tacirineseb, Mehdilik ve Imam Mehdi (Mahdism and Imam Mahdi), 325.

7. Imam Abu Hanifa, Al-Fiqh al-Akbar,

8. Al-Tirmidhi, Nawadir al-Usul fi Ma‘rifat Ahadith al-Rasul, 2:92.
9. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection: The Letters, “First Letter.”

10. Ibid., “Fifteenth Letter”.

11. Al-Tirmidhi hadiths; Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rasul Barzanji , Al-Isha‘ah li Aashrat al-Sa‘ah, 209.

12. Imam Abu Hanifa, Al-Fiqh al-Akbar,

13. Nu‘aym ibn Mas‘ud; Ismail Mutlu, Kiyamet Alametleri, (Signs of the Last Day), Mutlu Publications, (Istanbul: 1999), 92-93.

14. Sahih Muslim, hadith no. 590, 1:413.

15. Sahih Muslim; Saim Gungor, Buyuk Fitne Mesih-i Deccal (The Great Wickedness, the Messiah Antichrist), 104.

16. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa Ashrat as-Sa‘ah, 9 (Book Pertaining to the Turmoil and Portents of the Last Hour), no. 2897, 4:2221.

17. Nuzul-i Mesih Risalesi (Treatise on the Second Coming of the Messiah) (Istanbul: Ekmel Publishing, 1998), 121.

18. Narrated by Abu Hudhayfa; Sahih Bukhari; Being the Tradition of Saying and Doings of the Prophet Muhammad as Narrated by His Companions (New Delhi: Islamic Book Service, 2002), hadith no. 6324, 239; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, abridged by Sheikh Muhammad Nasib ar-Rafa‘i (London: Al-Firdous Ltd., 1999), 176.

9. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection: The Letters, “First Letter.”

10. Ibid., “Fifteenth Letter”.

11. Al-Tirmidhi hadiths; Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rasul Barzanji , Al-Isha‘ah li Aashrat al-Sa‘ah, 209.

12. Imam Abu Hanifa, Al-Fiqh al-Akbar,

13. Nu‘aym ibn Mas‘ud; Ismail Mutlu, Kiyamet Alametleri, (Signs of the Last Day), Mutlu Publications, (Istanbul: 1999), 92-93.

14. Sahih Muslim, hadith no. 590, 1:413.

15. Sahih Muslim; Saim Gungor, Buyuk Fitne Mesih-i Deccal (The Great Wickedness, the Messiah Antichrist), 104.

16. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa Ashrat as-Sa‘ah, 9 (Book Pertaining to the Turmoil and Portents of the Last Hour), no. 2897, 4:2221.

17. Nuzul-i Mesih Risalesi (Treatise on the Second Coming of the Messiah) (Istanbul: Ekmel Publishing, 1998), 121.

18. Narrated by Abu Hudhayfa; Sahih Bukhari; Being the Tradition of Saying and Doings of the Prophet Muhammad as Narrated by His Companions (New Delhi: Islamic Book Service, 2002), hadith no. 6324, 239; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, abridged by Sheikh Muhammad Nasib ar-Rafa‘i (London: Al-Firdous Ltd., 1999), 176.
19. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, 1:573-76.

20. Imam Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari, Nazra ‘Abira fi Maza‘im Man Yankur Nuzul ‘Isa ‘alyhi al-Salam aabla al-Akhira (A Cursory Look at the Claims of Those Who Deny Jesus’ Descent before the Next Life) (Egypt: 1980), 34-37.

21. Sheikh al-Islam Mustafa Sabri, Mawqif al-‘Aql (Beirut: 1992), 4:177-79.

22. Mawlana Sayyid Abul A‘la al-Mawdudi, Tafhim al-Qur’an, 1:230-31.

23. Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Maturidi, Kitab Tawilat al-Qur’an (Beirut), 67.

24. Tafsir al-Tabari, 3:290-91.

25. Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti, Durr al-Manthur, 2:225-27.

26. Mehmed Vehbi Hadimli, Hulasatu’l Beyan-i fi Tefsiri’l Kuran (Tafsir al-Qur’an) (Istanbul: 1979), 2:613. (emphasis added by the author)

27. Imam Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu‘Fatawa (The Collected Fatwas), trans. by Abdurrahman ibn Muhammad ibn Qasim al-Asimi an-Najdi, (Riyadh: 1991), 4:322-23. (emphasis added by the author)

28. Elmali Hamdi Yazir, Hak Din Kuran Dili (The True Religion, the Language of the Qur’an), 2:1112-13.

29. Tafsir al-Tabari, 1:428.

30. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb, 11:102-3.

31. Hadimli, Hulasat ul-Bayan, 3:1108.

32. Hasanayn Muhammad Mahluf, Fetava Serriye ve Buhusun Islamiyye, (Cairo: 1971), 1:92-93.

33. Omer Nasuhi Bilmen, Kuran-i Kerim’in Türkce Meali Alisi ve Tefsiri (The Turkish Translation of the Noble Qur’an and Its Commentary), 2:702.

34. Mahluf, Fetava Seriyye, 1:92-93.

35. Al-Kawthari, Nazra ‘Abira fi Maza’im, 32-33.

36. Yazir, Hak Din Kuran Dili, 3:1516-19.

37. Al-Qurtubi, al-Jami‘ li Ahkam il-Qur’an, (Cairo : 1967), 4:99.

38. Al-Ash‘ari, Al-Ash‘ari’s al-Ibana ‘an Usul al-Diyana, (Cairo: 1986), 2:115.

39. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb, 11:102-3.

40. Hasan Basri Cantay, Kuran-i Hakim ve Meal-i Kerim (Tafsir of the Qur’an), 1:92.

41. Imam Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu‘ Fatawa, trans. by Abdurrahman ibn Muhammad ibn Qasim al-Asimi an-Najdi, 4:323.

42. Al-Sabuni, Safwat al-Tafasir, 1:205.

43. Hadimli, Hulasat ul-Bayan, 3:1108.

44. Al-Kawthari, Nazra ‘Abira fi Maza‘im, 93.

45. Al-Mawdudi, Tafhimu’l-Qur’an, 1:380-81.

46. Sabri, Mawqif Al-Aql, 233.

47. Said Ramadan al-Buti, Islam Akaidi (Islamic Catechism) (Istanbul: Mavde Publishings: 1996), 338.

48. Muhammed Khalil Herras, Fasl al-Maqal fi Raf`i `Isa Hayyan wa Nuzulihi wa Qatlihi ad-Dajjal, 13.

49. Al-Kawthari, Nazra ‘Abira, 94.

50. Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu‘ Fatawa, (The Collected Fatwas), 322-23.

51. Sabri, Mawqif al-‘Aql, 4:177-79.

52. Zeki Saritoprak, Islam Inanci Acisindan Nuzul-i Isa Meselesi (The Issue of the Second Coming of the Messiah from the Perspective of Islamic Belief) (Izmir: Caglayan Publishings, 1997), 63.

53. Herras, Fasl al-Maqal, 66.

54. Yazir, Hak Din Kuran Dili, 2:1112-13.

55. Al-Sa‘ani, Tafsir ‘Abdul-Raziq, 2:163; Ibn Qutayba, Gharib al-Qur’an, 400.

56. Al- ‘Alusi, Ruh al-Ma‘ani fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, 25:95; Mohammad al-Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, 4:562; Al-Sabuni, Safwat al-Tafasiri, 3:162; Sayyid Qutb, Fi Zilal al-Qur’an (In the Shade of the Qur’an), 5:3198.

57. Yazir, Hak Din Kuran Dili,

58. Qutb, Fi Zilal al-Qur’an,

59. Al-Kawthari, Nazra ‘Abira fi Maza‘im, 105.

60. Bilmen, Kuran-i Kerim’in, 7:3292.

61. Sahih Muslim hadiths.

62. Herras, Fasl al-Maqal, 20.

63. Ibid., 19-20. (emphasis added by the author)

64. Al-Ghumari, Al-Burhan, 87-96.

65. Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Tafsir al-Jalalayn, 1:447.

66. Tafsir al-Tabari, 2:528 and 1:247.

67. Bilmen, Kuran-i Kerim’in, 1:366.

68. Herras, Fasl al-Maqal, 76.

69. Al-Qurtubi, Al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 6 :10-11.

70. Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan, 4:18.

71. Herras, Fasl al-Maqal, 17-21.

72. Ibid., 10.

73. Yazir, Hak Din Kuran Dili,

74. Sami Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde Mesih’in Dönüsü (The Return of the Messiah in Abrahamic Religions) (Yediveren Books: 2002), 177.

75. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, 2:120.

76. Al-Sabuni, Safwat al-Tafasir, 1:375.

77. Sahih Muslim hadiths.

78. Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim hadiths.

79. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection: The Letters, 59.

80. Al-Maturidi, Tawilat al-Qur’an, 239.

81. Ajuri, al-Sharee’ah, 380-82.

82. Ibn Hazm, ‘Ilm al-Qalam, 30-32.

83. Al-Pazdavi, Ehl-i Sunnet Akaidi (The Doctrine of the People of the Sunnah), trans. by Serafettin Golcuk (Istanbul: 1998), 352; Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.

84. An-Nasafi, Aqaid (Istanbul: 1310/1892), 193-94; Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.

85. Saduddin Taftazani, al-Aqaid al-Nasafiyya (Istanbul: 1310/1892), 193-4; Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.

86. Ibn al-‘Arabi, Fusus al-Hikam (Istanbul: 1287), 63; Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.

87. Al-Qurtubi, Mukhtasar Tazkirah Qurtubi, trans. byAhmad Hijazi al-Shaqqa, (Beirut: 1986), 2:402-14.

88. Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani (Istanbul: 1977), 1:436, 545, 722, 820, 846.

89. Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.

90. Ibid.

91. Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari, Maqalat al-Islamiyyin wa Ikhtilfa al-Musallin, 295.

92. Al-Bayadi, Isharat al-Maram min ‘Ibarat al-Imam, 67.

93. Al-Suyuti, Nuzul ‘Isa ibn Maryam Akhir al-Zaman (Suleymaniye Library), no. 1446/9.

94. Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.

95. Ibid.

96. Al-Shinqiti, Adwa’ Al Bayan fi Idah Al Qur’an bi Al Qur’an, 7:273; Baybal, Ibrahimi Dinlerde, 238-40.

97. Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Saffarini, Lawami, 2:94-95.

98. Al-Alusi, Ruh al-Ma‘ani, 7:60.

99. Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood, A Basic Dictionary of Islam (New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2000), 153.

100. Al-Sayyid al-Sharif, Zafar al-Amani fi Sharh Mukhtasar al-Sayyid al-Sharif al-Jurjani fi Mustalah al-Hadith, 46

101. Sunan Abu Dawud, ‘Awn al-Ma‘bud, 163.

102. Al-Kawthari, Nazra ‘Abira fi Maza‘im, 44.

103. Al-Suyuti, Al-Hawi li al-Fatawa, 2:277.

104. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 1:578-82.

105. Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim hadiths.

106. Sunan Abu Dawud.

107. Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan, 3:188.

108. Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, 2:309.

109. Al-Suyuti, Durr al-Manthur, 2 :241.

110. Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan, 6:19.

111. Al-Suyuti, Durr al-Manthur, 2 :20.

112. Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan, 6:19.

113. Ibid., 6:19.

114. Al-Suyuti, Durr al-Manthur, 2 :284.

115. Ibid., 2 :20.

116. Khasmiri, al-Tasrih, 289-90.

117. Ibn Hazm, ‘Ilm al-Qalam, 56-57.

118. Al-Suyuti, Al-Hawi li al-Fatawa, 2:161.

119. Sahih Muslim hadiths.

120. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi ‘Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, 68.

121. Imam Rabbani, Letters of Rabbani, 2:1309.

122. Barzanji, Al-Isha‘ah, 243.

123. Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim hadiths.

124. Barzanji, Al-Isha‘ah, 242-43.

125. Sunan Ibn Majah.

126. Sahih Muslim.

127. Barzanji, Al-Isha’ah, 242-43.

128. Al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal, hadith no. 919, vol. 17.

129. Mukhtasar Tazkirah Qurtubi, 496.

130. Al-Tabari, Al-Awsat, hadith no. 4577, 5:292.

131. Ibn ‘Asakir, Kanz al-‘Ummal, hadith no. 39729, 14:618.

132. Ahmad ibn Hanbal, hadith no. 9281-638.

133. Al-Rudani, Buyuk Hadis Kulliyati (Great Hadith Collection), 5:370-72.

134. Barzanji, Al-Isha‘ah, 242-43.

135. Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih al-Muslim hadiths.

136. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi `Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, 90.

137. Al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar, 66.

138. Sunan Ibn Majah.

139. Al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal.

140. Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Mawrid al-Sadi fi Mawlid al-Hadi.

141. Sahih Muslim hadiths.

142. Sidney Fox, Klaus Dose, Molecular Evolution and The Origin of Life, W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1972, 4.

143. Alexander I. Oparin, Origin of Life, Dover Publications, NewYork, 1936, 1953 (reprint), 196.

144. “New Evidence on Evolution of Early Atmosphere and Life”, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol 63, November 1982, 1328-1330.

145. Stanley Miller, Molecular Evolution of Life: Current Status of the Prebiotic Synthesis of Small Molecules, 1986, 7.

146. Jeffrey Bada, Earth, February 1998, 40.

147. Leslie E. Orgel, “The Origin of Life on Earth”, Scientific American, vol. 271, October 1994, 78.

148. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, The Modern Library, New York, 127.

149. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, 184.

150. B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?, Pennsylvania: The Banner Of Truth Trust, 1988, 7.

151. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, 179.

152. Derek A. Ager, “The Nature of the Fossil Record”, Proceedings of the British Geological Association, vol 87, 1976, 133.

153. Douglas J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, Pantheon Books, New York, 1983. 197.

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