By: Muhammad Dhahir Watr
Etiquettes of Leadership

The Noble Prophet (s) was the commander in many battles[275] and he sent forth numerous Sariyah missions. As far as good leadership, which necessitates certain conditions and characteristics such as good etiquette and lofty morals that are obviously required to be found in the individual, it is undisputable that the Holy Prophet (s) had the greatest morals, such that he was praised by Allah thus: And indeed you possess a great character.[276] His having such a character made him a successful commander who was able to attain the goals and gain momentous victories in many of his battles.

His most praiseworthy traits were: He was kind to everyone[277] and was courteous with the soldiers and his people in all circumstances.[278] He was trustworthy and truthful,[279] loyal to his covenants and pacts.[280] When he got angry, he would swallow his anger and when he had the power (to exact revenge), he would turn a blind eye.[281] A prime example from the instances when this can be witnessed was the conquest of Makkah[282] – when there was an opportunity to take revenge against those who persecuted him and his followers, he forgave them all.

He was sincere in the actions he performed for God and in the service of the people. He brought peace between the people and established friendship between the opposing factions of the Aus and Khazraj, and even the Muha-jirs and Ansa-rs. He removed malice, enmity, hatred and sedition from them and gave everyone their rightful position.[283]

He would enjoin people to do good and forbid them from evil through struggle and the expounding of its importance, [and through] patience in hardships, tribulations, hopelessness and persecution of the people [the disbelievers].[284] Indeed these lofty characteristics were a sign of his greatness as a leader.

Patience became the cornerstone of his leadership by which he would persevere against the enemies. Kindness and courtesy were the ornaments of his command and his respect, veneration, love and humility among the troops brought about a sense of brotherhood and love among them and gave them a feeling of closeness to their leader. His other qualities were forbearance and forgiveness. All these qualities of the Prophet (s) presented him as the light of guidance for all those who would be given the responsibility for leadership.


A) Intellectual Traits


One: Reflection, Contemplation and Far-sightedness

When the Noble Prophet (s) was sent, the people were immersed in superstition, idol worship, magic and sorcery. Their values were materialistic and their thoughts were lowly. They would say: There is nothing but the life of this world; we live and we die.[285] The Prophet forced them to apply their intellects in thought and contemplation, invited them to worship One God and purified them of the vileness of idol worship and depravity and got rid of it.[286]

He then took them towards greatness and glory. The Almighty chose the Prophet (s) so that he could be a messenger and a teacher to them. Whenever the Creator of the Universe chooses someone to bring His message, He selects the person who has the greatest intellect of all people.[287] Allah knows best where to place His Message.[288] Therefore there is no doubt that the Prophet (s) had a perfect intellect by which he was able to lead an entire nation and take them to the highest level of religious and worldly achievement.

By thinking and pondering about the situation of his community, we come to the conclusion that the Holy Prophet (s) was the wisest person in the world. This is because he was able to reform a community that was accustomed to harshness and violence and had ingrained [in themselves] the qualities of vainglory and callousness. He trained them and took their affairs in hand and led them out of ignorance into knowledge and guidance; in such a way that despite their past, they became his fervent supporters. They carried on his message and spread it throughout the world and stood up to fight by his side.[289]

The Noble Prophet (s), by his own acumen, devised new methods in the ‘art of warfare’, ‘government’, ‘administration’, ‘politics’, ‘economics’, ‘social order’ etc. On this basis, in the Battle of Badr,[290] he initiated battle formations. In the Battle of Ahza-b[291] he dug a trench around the city. In the expedition of Hudaybiyyah[292] he negotiated with the Quraysh and made a pact with them, the great benefits of which were only seen later. In the same way, he would use new strategies in the battlefields that assisted him in gaining victory over the enemies and they were stunned and perplexed by the [new] tactics.

The greatest and most important intellectual traits of the Holy Prophet (s) were: reflection, contemplation and far-sightedness. These attributes were deduced from his many feats in the battles, the most important of which was his choice and selection of the first soldiers from among the Quraysh and the Muha-jirin without the participation of the Ansa-r. The wisdom behind this was that the Ansa-r has made a vow in the Second Pledge of ‘Aqabah[293] that they would help and support the Prophet in Madina and for this reason it was evident that the Muha-jirs would have to play the main role in battles and wars.

However, after some time, without making any reference to the pledge, the Holy Prophet (s) informed the Ansa-r and made it clear to them that their participation and assistance in the battles was required. From the other instances where the wisdom and prudence of the Prophet we can cite the treaties that he would make with neighboring tribes;[294] because through this he would gain access to various desert routes that were frequented by the caravans of the Quraysh on their way to Syria.[295] In the Battle of Uhud he ordered a group of archers to position themselves on the mountain side[296] and to remain there until they were allowed by him to leave their post and it was seen how those archers disobeyed the order of the Holy Prophet (s). When they thought that victory had been gained, they abandoned their post in order to take their share of the booty, thereby granting the enemy easy access and enabling them to overturn the outcome of the battle.

The Holy Prophet (s) wanted the archers to remain in their positions on the mountain so that after the victory is achieved in this fight, the forces could increase in their strength through peaceful means and the awe and glory of the Muslim army may be elevated both within and outside the borders. About this Zuhri says: ‘There was no bigger victory that was gained in Isla-m before this.’

The Noble Prophet (s) would deal cautiously[297] with the Jews and hypocrites who lived in the neighboring areas.

A good commander also needs a creative and an innovative mind with superior intelligence and the Prophet (s) was distinguished with these very attributes. He manifested this in certain instances, the most important of which were: The creation and establishment of a state[298] and the selection of warriors who would be harsh against their enemies and merciful and kind with their friends.[299] With these principles, the Holy Prophet (s) would fight battles against the Quraysh, the Jews and the hypocrites.[300] He planned the stages of battle and begin studying the strategies of war with the Quraysh and the possibility of gaining control of Madina and its surrounding areas. He was the one who envisioned the war with the Romans[301] which was later realized by the army of Isla-m and this was another prime example of his far-sightedness and vision.

The Prophet, with his vision and insight, foresaw that the Jews of Khaybar would soon rebel against the Muslim army just as the Jews of Bani Nadhir and Bani Quraydha has done, so he made all the necessary preparations for such an occurrence. In the meantime, he forbade the tribe of Bani Asad from helping the Jews of Kahybar[302] in any way and prevented the pact of unity that was about to be made between them. As a result, he made it possible to weaken the Jewish forces and then send an army the likes of which they had never faced to fight them.

During the Expedition of Bani Mustalaq,[303] he married Juwayrah the daughter of Ha-rith. Not long thereafter, the tribe of Bani Mustalaq accepted Isla-m group by group. At the same time, the mission carried out by Usa-ma bin Zayd[304] was also successful and resulted in a great victory.

Even though many of the commanders of the Muslim army lacked the vision and far-sightedness of their great leader, the Holy Prophet (s), they would nonetheless turn to themselves and accept these obvious and evident truths. The greatest reflections of the Prophet (s) and his superiority of intellect were manifested in the following matters:


1. Planning and Organization:

Planning and organization are considered two of the primary elements in the establishment of a state, a society, an army and all affairs related to these.[305] Before the Prophet created an army and groups and delegations turned to him, he formulated a plan to set up a new state in Madina. One of the manifestations of this planning was that he met with some people from Madina during the period of Hajj and made a ‘quasi-military'[306] pact with them and presented a new religion for them to accept and accepted the responsibility of ending the conflict between their two tribes of the Aus and Khazraj.

He advised them to be the representatives for the propagation of Isla-m in Yathrib. The next year, before the commencement of the Hajj rituals, a group that was bigger than the first group, came to meet with the Prophet (s) and pledge allegiance to him, and this was the first official pledge of allegiance of the people of Madina.[307] After the pact, the Prophet (s) send Mus’ab ibn ‘Umayr[308] to teach the people of this newly ‘converted’ city. He should therefore be considered the first emissary of the newly founded Isla-mic state.

Thirteen years after the appointment of the Prophet, a group comprised of 73 men and women from the chiefs and nobles of the Aus and Khazraj came for Hajj and make a pact with the Holy Prophet (s) in which they vowed to defend him just as they would defend their honor and their children. This pact became known as the ‘Second Pledge of ‘Aqaba’.[309] From the outcomes and consequences of this planning was the spread of the Isla-mic faith and the securing of the basic material and security needs of the Muslims in Madina and support for them against the persecution [of the enemies] and the formation of an army to face the threat of the Quraysh and their allies.

The Prophet (s) organized an army comprising of the Muha-jirin and the Ansa-r. The Ansa-rs were made up of the Aus and Khazraj while the Muha-jirs consisted of all the different tribes and were considered among the foremost experts of warfare in the army. The Holy Prophet (s) appointed a commander for each tribe and also appointed one general commander over them all.

In every battle,[310] he would organize them according to the needs, natural resources, enmity, friendship and terrain. His soldiers were arranged and divided into the front-line, the rear, the right flank, the left flank and the heart of the army. The Prophet gave a lot of importance to military intelligence and information [about the enemy].[311] In the same way, he would send some soldiers in martyrdom-seeking Sariya missions, like the Sariya of Muhammad ibn Maslamah that was given the mission of assassinating Ka’b ibn Ashraf[312] because of his insolence and malice against Isla-m, the leadership [of the Prophet] and all the Muslims. Or like the Sariya of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ateek[313] who was given the mission of killing Sala-m ibn Abi al-Huqayq, and other similar missions that were sent.


2. Taking Decisions and Issuing Clear Orders

The Prophet (s) never used to issue firm and clear orders except after he had got the complete information about the conditions of the battle and was able to make decisive judgments and issue the best orders accordingly while remaining steadfast in the face of the changing situations of battle.[314] The most important qualities that distinguished the commands of the Holy Prophet (s) were:

a) Studying the different aspects before making a decision and consequently issuing the command.[315]

b) Not reverting or turning back after the command has been issued.[316]

c) Changing the commands in accordance with the changing circumstances of the battle.[317]

d) Maintaining the ability of making intellectual decisions and offer continuous guidance and leadership even during the most difficult times in the battlefield.[318]

e) He would decide on the realization of victory.


Two: Skill and Intellectual Brilliance in Executing the Duties of a Commander

With certainty, the sagacity an intellectual brilliance of the Holy Prophet (s) in commanding and controlling the army during war was clearly manifested.[319] He would test people and then select the strongest and most capable person to give the command to. For example, he chose Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib as the commander of one of the first Sariya missions.[320] He appointed ‘Abdullah ibn Jahash[321] to lead a Sariya mission to gather intelligence about the Quraysh.[322] He made Aba- Duja-na[323] the head of the sword-fighters and selected Usama bin Zayd as the commander of an army that comprised of some of the great companions.[324]

He put some of the Ansa-r and Muha-jirin under the command of ‘Amr bin ‘Aa-s and send them to fight the tribe of Bani Qudha-‘ah.[325] All these examples show that all these people who were given the responsibility of leadership in important missions were more capable and skilled than others and had the vision and insight required to overcome the enemies they had to face.[326]

Another example of the intellectual brilliance of the Prophet (s) in times of war was his focus, at the start of battle, on the points which would secure victory and attain the desired goal. For instance, in the battles of ‘Dhi Amr’ and ‘Bani Salim'[327] he put the focus on the right flank[328] and in all the other battles like Uhud, would identify the weaknesses in the enemy army and focus on it.[329]

Transferring and moving the command post during battle was necessary in order to maintain a control over the forces and urge them to remain strong and move forward. In order to protect the forces and organize them in specific formations, the Holy Prophet (s)[330] would shift his command post depending on the changing circumstances during battle.

In the Battle of Uhud, the Prophet (s) chose a juncture and a means of shifting[331] the command post to a new location. In the Battle of Khaybar, he set up four command posts.[332] He positioned the central command post at the uppermost corner of the fortress al-Nata-h and stationed the furthermost post in Rajee'[333] and later ordered that the central command post should be moved to a new location that was better suited strategically.

One of the most important traits and strategic acumen of a commander is the ability to face new scenarios that may be encountered in battle. He needs to be creative and resourceful and should be well aware of the realities that would enable him to reach the road of liberation [from the enemy’s grasp] and victory. It is in this way that experiential knowledge in examination is a way which follows the intellect in order to arrive at correct decisions.[334] The Noble Prophet (s), with his far-sightedness, vision, skill and intellectual brilliance, understood this and applied it to solve all the problems and execute all the missions that the commander was responsible for.


Three: Sagacity and Perspicacity

Sagacity and perspicacity actually refer to deep insight and discernment that are able to clear up ambiguities and discover the reality of hidden secrets and a means of reaching it.[335] It is evident that from the people, those who are distinguished for their perspicacity are the ones who have insight and ingenuity. Ostensibly, sagacity depends upon observing, listening, moving or all of these combined. The Noble Prophet (s) would take guidance from the Glorious Qur’a-n[336] that was revealed to him, or from the intellectual ability and sagacity that God had bestowed upon him.[337] He has even spoken about the cleverness of a believer.[338]

As for his perspicacity in matter of warfare, [this is seen in] the fact that he invited Suhayl ibn ‘Amr,[339] the spokesperson for the Quraysh, to accept Isla-m. He did great service to the community and foresaw the fall of the Roman and Persian empires[340] and the spread of Isla-m throughout the Arabian Peninsula.[341] After the killing of Mundhir bin ‘Amr al-Sa-‘idi’s[342] forces in the Sariya that was sent to Bi’r al-Ma’unah,[343] the Prophet (s) also hid his concern from the inhabitants of Najd[344] and only after the Battle of Khandaq did the he announce that the Muslim army would change to an attacking army.[345] The sagacity of the Holy Prophet (s) was also witnessed in the Treaty of Hudaybiyya[346] which turned out to be a great victory for the Muslims.

In the Battle of Muta, he informed of the impending martyrdom of three commanders in his speech.[347] In the Expedition to Tabuk, he dismantled the borders of the Byzantine Empire[348] in order to open the way for the Muslim army to enter their lands.[349] All these decisions were made by the far-sightedness and perspicacity that the Prophet (s) had in politics, economics, sociology, matters pertaining to warfare and his ability to gauge individuals and groups both within and without in issues of this world and the hereafter.


B) Practical Traits


1. Principles of Warfare

The principles of warfare that were instituted by the Noble Prophet (s) were the foundational principles [that were necessary] for ‘attaining victory’. Therefore his call was clear[350] and his war was based on the following principles:

(i) recruiting forces[351]

(ii) deploy them sparingly[352]

(iii) using surprise attacks[353] at the appropriate time and place[354]

(iv) relying on speed[355] that would enable battle strikes

(v) continued pressure[356] during continuous and consecutive battles against the enemies that take place without any break

(vi) implementing maneuvers[357] using the resources and forces that were at hand

(vii) giving importance to maintaining security for the forces[358]

(viii) reliance on acquisition of intelligence and information

(ix) organizing the forces[359]

(x) Establishing a form of synchronization and a co-operation between the various fighters of the cavalry, infantry and all the other ranks as well as between the right and left flanks and the center of the army

(xi) Not dispersing the forces[360] because it was not appropriate to do so given the weapons and resources that were available, and this is [also] a practice of the new form of warfare

(xii) Strengthening the morale of his own soldiers[361] in such a way that they would not fear death

(xiii) Creating an atmosphere of security in all the various battlefields; and all of these were from the great principles of warfare of the Holy Prophet (s).

Just as the Noble Prophet (s) was aware of the principles of war, he was also skilled in the use of both defensive and offensive warfare. He would use defensive warfare when constrained and execute attacks when necessary. When the threat was averted, he would have no need for either.

It is for certain that when the Prophet (s) had weak forces and few resources, he would take up defense.[362] For this reason, in the beginning of his mission,[363] his defensive stance was evident, because at this time he was prey to the persecution and harassment and was forced to migrate; an affair that brought nothing but good for him. In Madina, his intention and goal, except in a few cases when he had no choice but to take up defense,[364] was to attack.[365] When he had a strong and complete army, he turned to offensive warfare.[366] This method is one of the more advanced styles of war – which he used when sending the Sariya missions and laying the groundwork for battle[367] before the great Battle of Badr, which was an offensive battle. The methods and means by which this offensive warfare would be carried out were:

1. Killing[368] the people who were in the way of the Isla-mic revolution.

2. Swift reprisal[369] for those who were always ready to oppress and tyrannize.

3. Making pacts of unity[370] with the neighboring tribes.

4. Focusing the [army’s] strength[371] on some of the more important fights against the enemies.

When the Battle of Uhud took place, he was forced to temporarily take up a defensive position, but this defensive war was again changed back into an offensive war in the Battle of Hamra- al-Asad[372] and the Muslim army was able to retake the victory from the enemy with its attacking forces and overturn the outcome.[373] The Prophet (s) continued to face the enemy and conduct pre-emptive strikes[374] until the Battle of Khandaq took place in which he also came out victorious. After the Battle of Khandaq, he used offensive warfare continuously and endlessly. He would say: Now it is we that must take the initiative to fight the enemy while they cannot fight us, and we should take the initiative to go towards them.[375]


2. Pre-emptive Warfare (Harb al-Wiqa-yah)

The Noble Prophet (s) founded the basis of pre-emptive warfare,[376] which required fewer fighters and resources as was seen in the first Sariya mission which comprised of thirty fighters, but this number was increased to 313 plus two on horseback in the Battle of Badr. The Holy Prophet (s) would always attack the enemy before they could rise up [and launch an attack on the Muslims].[377]

The most important principles of this type of war that the Prophet (s) relied upon were: swiftness, stealth, surprise attacks, moving the war to the enemy’s area at the right time and place, acquiring of precise information, increasing the morale of the attacking fighters, deploying the forces sparingly and minimizing loses. With these principles, he opened up the way of attaining greater victory over the enemy.

The Prophet started pre-emptive war in the Battle of Bani Saleem.[378] He marched his forces towards the tribes of Ghatfa-n and Saleem who had gathered at the waters of Qarqarat al-Kadar.[379] He carried out a surprise attack on them which lead to a greater victory over them. This was the same strategy applied in the Battle of Dhi Amr against the Bani Tha’labah, Ghatfa-n and Muha-rib tribes to overpower them.[380] In this case, he obtained information[381] and then carried out a perfect Sariya mission[382] wherein he did not utilize all the forces he had, rather he only deployed those whom he needed in every battle, in accordance with the forces of the allies and enemies, and in this way, he put the principle of ‘deploying the forces sparingly’ into practice.

In the aforementioned battle (of Dhi Amr), the number of soldiers were four hundred and fifty[383] whereas in the next battle (the Battle of Bahra-n) the number was reduced to three hundred.[384] The Prophet (s) appointed Salamah bin ‘Abd al-Asad al-Makhzumi[385] as the leader of the mission and ordered him to march quickly,[386] day and night, so that he can reach the Bani Asad before they could recruit their forces.[387] In order to carry out the surprise attack, the commander would move stealthily, march by night[388] and use routes that were not common. He would take advantage of the time and place when the enemy is most vulnerable, just as was done in the Battle of Bani Mustalaq[389] where an attack was carried out while they were busy watering their animals[390] at a place known as al-Marisee’ near the shore.[391]


3. Lightning Strikes and Blitzes

The Holy Prophet (s) would order the carrying out of lightning strikes and blitzes and for this he would rely on the following: (i) the psychological effect it would have on the enemy[392] (ii) swiftness[393] in movement and maneuvering (iii) training in advanced archery skills[394] (iv) competition (v) resistance (vi) carrying out surprise attacks[395] (vii) establishing the morale of attack[396] in his own army[397] (viii) Keeping the preparations for a surprise attack secret (ix) reducing the load of munitions and equipment that is carried by the troops.

Here we can mention the battles of Badr and Uhud under defensive and the Conquest of Makkah, Hunayn and Tabuk under offensive battles. In each case the speed of the troops was in accordance to what was appropriate [for the type of battle].[398] Lightning strikes and blitzes needed dominance and superiority[399] and could be changed in relation to defense and offence.[400] It also reduced human and material losses; because it terrified the enemy and made him continuously come under intense hardships and tribulations. In this state, in the face of lightning attacks, they would be forced to hesitate and end up surrendering without putting up any resistance. As a result, the number of martyrs and wounded [in this type of warfare] would be reduced.

In offensive battles, the Holy Prophet (s) would always try to have a greater number of forces [than the enemy]. In the Battle of Bani Quraydha, the number of forces in the Muslim army was three thousand compared to seven hundred and fifty from the Bani Quraydha. In the Battle of Khaybar 1,500 fighters were sent to face one thousand Jews of Kahybar, and in the Conquest of Makkah, ten thousand men faced the entire city of Makkah; and similarly this superiority was seen in most of the Sariya missions that were sent.[401]

In battles where it was not possible to gain superiority as far as the number of forces was concerned, like in the Battle of Hunayn,[402] he implemented lightning strikes. In this battle, the number of soldiers in the Muslim army was twelve thousand against the twenty thousand from the Hawa-zin, the Watheeq and other tribes. This attack was commanded by people who were distinguished for caution, resistance,[403] utilizing the time and place,[404] swiftness that was greater[405] than the speed of the enemy,[406] changing and adapting quickly in the face of changing circumstances and making choices[407] based on them, focusing the attention on the enemy and obtaining strong intelligence[408] about them. All this factors made the Muslim army superior and enabled them to gain victory.


4. Pursuing and Chasing After Fleeing Enemy Soldiers

Chasing the enemy and pursuing him after carrying out a successful attack is known as ‘al-Muta-radah’ and the aim behind it is to annihilate and destroy the defeated forces of the enemy.[409] The Holy Prophet (s) never allowed this in any of the battles he fought and was victorious. He would [after gaining victory] set the enemy captives free and allow them to go wherever they wished. He also instructed the commanders of Sariya missions not to pursue the fleeing enemy because this was not helpful in realizing any of the military and political goals.

When we look carefully at the Battle of Dha-t al-Suwayq[410] we find that the Prophet (s) was not keen to pursue Abu Sufya-n, because if he would have reached the Quraysh in Makkah while the Muslim army was pursuing him, the polytheists would quickly prepare and gather for war, and thus this would end in an outcome that was not favorable for the pursuing forces.[411]

In the Battle of Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘,[412] after the Noble Prophet (s) gained victory over the Bani Maha-rib, the Bani Tha’labah and the Ghatfa-n, he never pursued their fleeing fighters, because it was possible for them to regroup with the Ghatfa-n and recruit more forces and in such a case it would be difficult to gain the upper hand over them. In the Battle of al-Gha-bah[413] also, the Muslim army caught up with the fleeing enemy army at Dhi Qirad[414] but was forced to return back from the same route. After this, the Prophet (s) sent out many missions[415] to fight against the enemy, but he would always command them not to pursue the enemy if they were victorious.

When he sent Abi Salamah ibn ‘Abd al-Asad al-Makhzumi to fight the Bani Asad, he instructed him: Go towards the land of the Bani Asad and carry out an attack on them before they can gather together against you.[416] Similarly, in the other missions like the Sariya of Usa-mah ibn Zayd[417] that was sent to (fight) the Abna-, there was no effort to pursue the defeated and fleeing soldiers.


5. Attacks and Onslaughts

The Prophet (s) was fully aware of this tactic, because it has been narrated that he would use offence and attacks whenever the situation called for it[418] in such a way that if it is used [in the present], by an elite commander – meaning someone who is courageous, brave, sound, intelligent and with a great personality who can execute attacks successfully – it would not match up to the way it was done at the time of the Prophet (s).

The attacks and onslaughts that were carried out by the Prophet (s) had the following distinguishing features:

a) Camouflage and Stealth: Like what took place in the Battle of Bahra-n[419] against the tribe of Bani Saleem.

b) Silence and Quietness: This was seen in all the offensive missions and battles, especially the Battle of Bani Saleem, Bani al-Mustalaq and Badr, as well as other battles.[420]

c) ‘Surprise’ was a constituent of all the offensive battles and military missions, especially Badr, and was part of the foray. Just as seen in the Battle of Bani Quraydha, Khaybar, the Sariya of ‘Ali ibn Abi Ta-lib (‘a) against the Banu Sa’d and the Sariya of Usa-ma bin Zayd.[421]

d) Speed: as witnessed in the battle against the Bani Muha-rib and the Bani Tha’labah in the Battle of Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘[422] and in other Sariya missions.[423]

e) Deception in Time and Place: this was another distinguishing feature of the military operations conducted by the Muslim army that was used in the Battles of Khandaq and Khaybar.[424]

The commander who was given the task of carrying out an attack was someone who was physically strong, had good hearing, strong sight and was free from any ailment or malady that could impede him during the operation. Similarly, the Prophet (s) would take into consideration the goal and the time [together] – like in the Battle of Khaybar,[425] the place – as in the Battle of Khandaq,[426] and all three i.e. time, place and the objective – as in the Sariya of Usa-ma bin Zayd to Abna-,[427] so that the enemy could be attacked when they were least prepared for battle.

The Noble Prophet (s) prevented the fighters from raising their voices or shouting and screaming, and in the Battle of Badr he ordered that the bells of the camels should be removed from their necks.[428] He would always encourage his troops to use new ways and methods for carrying out attacks.


6. Deception and Trickery

Some of the military tactics that are necessary and important in the battlefield are deception and trickery. Deception is the art of hiding and concealing the truth and involves doing things that would mislead the mind of the enemy away from the fight, while at the same time being alert about the resources and operations [of one’s own army].[429] The Holy Prophet (s) knew about the importance of deception and trickery in war and would plan it and then execute it perfectly. He counted deception as part of warfare and would say: War is deception.[430] In the first battle that was fought against the enemy at Badr, he replied to the question of Haba-b bin Mundhir about this tactic and reaffirmed that indeed, war is deception, cunning and trickery.[431]

The Prophet (s) also gave Muhammad bin Maslamah,[432] who had taken the responsibility of killing Ka’b ibn Ashraf, the permission to deceive the enemy[433] and say anything that will enable him to carry out his mission. Similarly, after his accepting Isla-m, Na’eem bin Mas’ud was ordered to trick the enemy in the battle of Khandaq in the same way. So he was told: You are from the tribe of Ghatfa-n. When you go to them, if you are forced to display hatred for us then do so for this will be more beneficial for us than if you openly help us. So go forward, for war is deception and cunning.[434] In this mission, he successfully dispersed the enemy and this resulted in a victory for the Muslims.

In the war of Bani Lahya-n, the supreme commander portrayed the type of battle, the time and the route taken in a different way [to what he actually intended].[435] In the Battle of Khaybar, he used trickery and deception against the Ghatfa-n[436] and they were not able to join with the forces at Khaybar and thus returned to their homeland. In the Conquest of Makkah,[437] the Prophet (s) misled the Quraysh by sending Abi Qata-da ibn Rabi’ towards the direction of Najd, thus misdirecting and distracting them from his real target (which was Makkah), and by equivocation[438] and trickery, he cut off all the routes in and out of Makkah.[439] In the Battle of Muta also, Kha-lid bin Walid used this tactic.[440] And in this way, by increasing the movements of the army, the enemy was tricked into believing that a large number of reinforcements had come to the aid of the Muslim army, so they became frightened and turned back.


7. Superiority in Battle

The Prophet (s) would always be careful about superiority over the enemy in battle, so he would gather all the needed forces and resources for the important battles. He sent Sariya missions towards the coastal regions and also to face the Quraysh, like the Sariya of Hamza and the later missions, or the battles like Wadda-n, Bawa-t and al-‘Asheera; and also towards the eastern regions after the battle of Badr.[441] The Prophet (s) gained an upper hand in the following ways:

1. Inventing new ways of warfare: like in the Battle of Badr, the battle of the fortresses and the lightning strikes.[442]

2. Focusing the forces at the appropriate time and place,[443] as in the Battle of Uhud and Hunayn.

3. Being swift as was required by the conditions of battle,[444] like in many of the battles and Sariya missions.

4. Destruction of most of the enemy forces,[445] like in the Battle of Badr, Hunayn and Bani Quraydha.

5. Restricting the freedom of the enemy, like in the battles of Badr, Quraydha and Khaybar.[446]

6. Putting the enemy forces in hardship and difficulty,[447] just like cutting off any reinforcements from the Bani Quraydha and besieging them.

7. Burning down the date palms of Bani Nadhir and the gardens of Ta-‘if.[448]

8. Gaining access to the backup forces of the enemy and restricting or destroying them,[449] such that the Prophet (s) would make his forces reach the enemy and take their horses as booty.

The Holy Prophet (s) did not always seek to have a larger army than the enemy.[450] For instance, in the Sariya of Hamza, the number of soldiers was thirty as opposed to the three hundred Makkans. In the Battle of Badr, 313 [Muslim] fighters went up against one thousand polytheists. In the Battle of Uhud, seven hundred came to face three thousand polytheists, and in the Battle of Ahza-b, three thousand faced ten thousand infidels. However, he mostly sought to gain superiority as far as the excellence of the forces were concerned[451] just as in the battles of Hamra- al-Asad, Badr al-Aa-khar and Bani al-Mustalaq.

In some of the battles, despite the greater number of enemy forces and weapons,[452] he would gain decisive victories over them for which the battles of Badr and Hunayn are perfect examples. Nonetheless, he would change the number of forces sent in every different situation. In the Battle of Bani Quraydha, there was a relatively large number of forces as compared to the enemy[453] as was also the case in the War of Bani Lahya-n.[454]

The Prophet (s) would not attack one tribe or one group in a single strike.[455] Rather, he would divide the enemy in order to gain complete victory and dominance of them materially and spiritually. For example, he divided the Jewish forces into the following: Bani Qaynuqa-, Bani Nadhir, Bani Quraydha and [the Jews of] Khaybar. He attacked each of these groups separately. For instance, in the Battle of Ahza-b, he attacked the Jews separately from the Quraysh[456] and the Bani Ghatfa-n separately from them both[457] and in the Battle of Hunayn, he also divided the enemy i.e. he separated the front-line from the soldiers who were behind and then launched an attack on them.


8. Swiftness and Speed in Battle

The Noble Prophet (s) was steadfast about the importance of speed in battle, because this tactic made it possible for him to carry out surprise attacks. The number of fallen soldiers would not be known [when the attacks were swift] and this would weaken the resolve of the enemy while strengthening the morale of the attacking army such that the enemy was unable to launch a counter attack.[458] In order to achieve the desired swiftness, the Prophet embarked on training the forces[459] and made them practice it in all the consecutive battles[460] and missions[461] that would be carried out to face the enemy. In this way, the soldiers became accustomed[462] to move swiftly and fight in the battles without making mistakes.

The modes of transport used by the Prophet played an important role in attaining the desired speed. These consisted mainly of horses and camels. The Muslim army also relied on being quick in getting ready for war[463] and in order to instantaneously face the enemy and recruit forces, they needed material resources and manpower.

In order to achieve this, the Prophet (s) used the following methods:

a) Swiftness in defense and attack[464]: In defense, like in the battles of Uhud and Khandaq and in attack, like in the battles and Sariya missions of Bani Saleem, Dhi Amr, Bahra-n, Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘, Dumat al-Jundal, the Sariya of Abi ‘Ubayda ibn al-Jarra-h, Abi Salama and al-Khabt, this was clearly seen.[465]

b) Speed in besieging[466]: Like in the battles of Bani Qaynuqa-, Bani Quraydha and Khaybar.

c) Quickness in marching forward: In the battles and missions like Badr, when the enemies were heading towards al-Udwat al-Dunya-, they overtook them and also in the battles of Bani Saleem, Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘, Bani Quraydha, Bani Lahya-n, the Sariya of Muhammad ibn Maslamah to kill Ka’b ibn Ashraf, the Sariya of Zayd bin Ha-ritha to attack the caravan of the Quraysh and the Sariya of Abi Salamah where he journeyed by day and night in order to reach the enemy.

d) Speed in acquiring information and intelligence: Like in the battles of Badr, Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘, Bani al-Mustalaq, Khaybar, the Conquest of Makkah and the Sariya of Muhammad bin Maslamah to destroy the Bani Bakr, (the Sariya of) ‘Aka-sha bin Mahsan against the Bani Asad and Gha-lib bin ‘Abdillah al-Laythi against the Bani Murrah.[467]

e) Swiftness in counter attacks: Like in the Battle of Uhud[468] and in lightning strikes[469] like in the Battle of Hunayn.

f) Speed in [carrying out] other missions[470]: Including in the Sariya missions of ‘Umayr ibn ‘Uday to kill ‘Asma-‘, of Sa-lim bin ‘Umayr to kill Ibn Abi ‘Ifk, of Muhammad bin Maslamah to kill Ka’b ibn Ashraf, Of ‘Abdullah bin Anees to kill Sufya-n ibn Kha-lid al-Hadhali and of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ateek in order to kill Abi Ra-fi’.

g) Swiftness in attack[471]: In battles and Sariya missions like Dumat al-Jundal, Bani al-Mustalaq, Ibn Quraydha, Bani Lahya-nm the Sariya of ‘Ali ibn Abi Ta-lib (‘a) [who was sent] towards the Bani Sa’d, Bashir ibn Sa’d Ansa-ri who was sent to the Bani Murrah and Usa-ma bin Zayd towards the Abna-.

h) Speed in preventive war: Like in the battles and Sariya missions of Dhi Amr, Bahra-n, Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘, Dumat al-Jundal, Bani al-Mustalaq, the Sariya of Abi Salamah, Abi ‘Ubaydah ibn Jarra-h for revenge from the Bani Tha’labah, and al-Khabat.[472]

i) Swiftness in Lightning Strikes[473]: Like in the battles of Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘, Bani Quraydha, Dhi Qirad and the Sariya of Zayd ibn Ha-ritha against the tribe of Judha-m.

j) Quickness in raids[474]: In the battle of Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘ and other Sariya missions.


9. Revolutionary and All-inclusive War

This type war was based on rising up against injustice and tyrannical forces with all the might and resources available and it relied on the power of the people who have been inspired and are driven by the force of spiritual, political or religious motivations, and is actually a first step in destroying the might and awe of the enemy and gaining victory over him.[475]

In ‘revolutionary and all-inclusive war’, the Holy Prophet (s) would spiritually and mentally prepare the forces and the inhabitants of the city.[476] In turn, they would be ready to sacrifice all their lives and property[477] for the cause, because they believed and trusted in the fairness, the instruction, the authority, the love and the command of the Prophet (s).[478] It is undeniable that the spiritual aspect[479] played an important role in strengthening the resolve of the revolutionary forces and weakening the enemy, and as such it was employed in all the battles and was also accompanied by material means[480] in order to strengthen it. The Holy Prophet (s) used this to the utmost in the weak points of the enemy so that he could make them internally and externally weakened and perplexed.[481]

That which distinguished the Isla-mic revolution of the Noble Prophet (s) and gave the Prophet (s) a special status as a knowledgeable and spiritual leader included:

a) Selecting appropriate agents.[482]

b) The people were content with his fairness and justice.[483]

c) Preparing all the people completely.[484]

d) Establishing of affinity and affection between them.[485]

e) Guiding both armed and unarmed forces towards a common goal.[486]

f) Acquiring new friends and allies.[487]

g) Humiliating the tyrants and despots.[488]

h) Demonstrating how the Isla-mic system is superior to polytheism and other systems.[489]

i) Teaching and propagating the new ideology.[490]

j) Making others love faith and hate disbelief.[491]

k) Being the best role model as a leader.[492]


10. Psychological Warfare

This is a collection of actions that are undertaken to influence the enemy or the rival[493] with the aim of weakening the enemy’s determination, resolve and material and spiritual power. Psychological warfare was considered the most important type of war in the strategy and planning of the Noble Prophet (s) and he made it the focal point in his battle against the enemy. He would leave them stunned and gain control over their spirits and minds, and as a result, he would take away their ability to fight back and resist. The Prophet (s) has himself said about this: I have been assisted by creating a fear in the hearts of the enemy.[494]

One who is frightened begins imagining things that are far from reality. For example, in the Battle of Khaybar, the tribe of Ghatfa-n imagined that their lands were under attack by the Muslim army, so they turned back and returned out of fear[495] but when they reached their land they found nothing of what they had imagined. The same thing that happened to the Ghatfa-n happened to the Jews of Khaybar also and this made them ready to surrender and seek peace and conciliation.[496] An army that becomes frightened and scared is unable to benefit from their weapons and fight in battle, and even if they fight, they would be very weak and disorganized in battle and this would result in nothing but [loss or] surrender to their enemy.

Because of being overcome by fear, the commander of the army of the inhabitants of Khaybar was unable to shoot the arrows from his bow even after readying them for firing, and his forces had become weary and weak.[497]

The level of fear can be clearly seen in the words of one Jewish person who was granted amnesty by the Prophet (s): The inhabitants of this place have been destroyed out of fear of you.[498]

From the first time that the Holy Prophet (s) sent a Sariya mission[499] to fight against the enemy, he relied on psychological warfare. After the first battle, all this changed[500] and he began to use it against the Quraysh and ended it against the Romans. Through this practice, a number of enemies would flee before coming face to face with the Muslim army[501] just like what happened in the Battle of Bani Saleem and in other battles.

Some of the enemies like the inhabitants of Akeedar, Jurba-‘ and Yuhanna- would seek [to make] peace pacts.[502] Many groups from Arab tribes would frequently come to him to sign peace treaties while others would fight with fear and weakness,[503] like the tribes of Hawa-zin and Thaqeef in the Battle of Hunayn and the people of Makkah during the Conquest of Makkah. Other groups would also be on the watch for this [Muslim] army and would be frightened of it, like the fear of the Romans in the battles of Dumat al-Jundal and Tabuk.[504]

The Prophet (s) was able to put fear in the heart of the enemy even in the smallest of battles, from a single mission to a large contingent, in such a way that they would fear even coming face to face with him and would become unable to face any army, small or big. The Jews of Bani Nadheer, because of the fear that had entered their hearts, destroyed their houses by their own hands and the hands of the Muslim army,[505] and the Banu Lahya-n[506] chose to flee and disperse when the army of the Prophet (s) approached them.

However, the Sariya mission would create fear in the enemy as well. Just as the Sariya of ‘Ali ibn Abi Ta-lib (‘a)[507] with the Bani Sa’d had done – to such an extent that they loaded their belongings on their camels[508] and fled along with their leader who said: The army of Muhammad is coming towards us and we are incapable of facing them.[509]

A psychological war was also fought with the tribes of Ghatfa-n through the Sariya of Sa’eed ibn Sa’d al-Ansa-ri,[510] and ‘Uyayna ibn Mihsan[511] and his companions were routed in this battle. When Ha-rith ibn ‘Auf al-Muriy, who had an allegiance with them called them to stand up and fight, he heard nothing but this response: How strong are the companions of Muhammad who are on our trail! Harith ibn ‘Auf says: I went on the side of the route followed by the army of Muhammad (s) so that I could see them from a distance while they would not see me. I stayed from evening until late in the night but I saw nobody, it was as if nothing was following my allies but fear.[512]

Similarly, the Quraysh got scared and took to their heels when they just came face to face with ‘Utbah ibn Aseed (Abu Baseer) al-Thaqafi.[513] Even the kings and emperors to whom the Prophet (s) sent emissaries[514] were fearful of the messengers and emissaries.

The most important tools of psychological war that were used by the Prophet of God (s) were intelligence agents and spies whom he would send towards the enemy. These spies would spread rumours that would enervate the enemy and force them to flee. The Prophet (s) sent Ma’bad al-Khuza-‘i towards the Quraysh in the Battle of Hamra-‘ al-Asad.[515] He began talking to them about the huge number of forces in the Muslim army and their intense urge for revenge and thirst for blood, thereby influencing the minds of the Quraysh and paralyzing them.

In the Battle of Khandaq, he (s) send Na’im ibn Mas’ud[516] so that he could divide and disperse the confederates and weaken the enemy forces. The Holy Prophet (s) would send Sariya missions in order to fulfill the objectives of psychological war[517] and would at times, like in the expedition to Tabuk, send the entire army for this purpose[518] and at other times he sent only a section of the army[519] like in the Battle of Bani Lahya-n where he sent Abu Bakr with a section of the army and ordered him to march towards the Quraysh.

The Prophet (s) arranged all this in order to attain the goals of psychological war and would also in turn seek to destroy the information and intelligence of the enemy. He would achieve this through complete sagacity[520] and by arresting the enemy spies,[521] like the shepherd who was arrested on the way to the Battle of Bani Saleem, or the arresting and imprisoning of a spy until the end of the Battle of Bahra-n, as well as killing the spy of the Bani Mustalaq because of his not giving up the intelligence, and the interrogation of the spies of Khaybar where the Prophet (s) himself asked them questions.

As for the second instrument [for attaining the objectives of psychological warfare], it was displaying the might of the forces that were under the command of the Prophet (s). The features of these forces included:

a) Being invisible: Meaning the divine power that put fear into the hearts of the enemy like the battle of the angels [who participated] in the Battle of Badr[522] and the blowing of storms and [falling] hailstones in the battle of Khandaq,[523] until even the commanders of the army of polytheists and their council of chiefs pointed to the invisible force and would say: The God of Muhammad will soon take revenge. And so they turned back.

b) Being undefeatable: As the enemy themselves emphasized this saying: Standing up against him yields no results.[524] This transpired with ‘Uyayna ibn Mihsan who had tried numerous times to rise up with his people against the Muslim army. After this happened, he became a Muslim and even led a Sariya mission against the Bani Tamim. In the same way, the Arab tribes who realized that there was nothing to be gained by their enmity with the Muslims saw it prudent to surrender and submit themselves to the Holy Prophet (s) and would thus come to him. As such, the Bani Qaynuqa-‘, Bani Nadheer, Bani Quraydha and the Jews of Khaybar, all gave a suggestion of peace when they lost hope in their rebellion.

c) They had the spirit [and zeal] of attack.[525]

d) They would invent new ways and methods of warfare.[526]

It is undisputable that this [military] management took on a new form in the Battle of Hamra- al-Asad. During this battle, the Prophet (s) took the wounded and handicapped along with his army[527] and ordered that many fires be lighted[528] so that the enemy would think that the Muslim army was large and powerful.[529] In the Battle of Hudaybiyya, he pulled his cloak and his garment to one side and left his right arm openly visible and ordered the Muslims to do the same, saying: May Allah bless the one who displays the strength of his arm.[530]


C) Physical And Spiritual Traits

From the most evident spiritual traits of the Holy Prophet (s) was that he was never overcome by pride from his victories.[531] This was clearly seen when he returned from the Battle of Badr and the Conquest of Makkah. He also never became disheartened by loss,[532] just as the loss in the Battle of Uhud did not affect him, rather he quickly prepared for the Battle of Hamra-‘ al-Asad soon after. The breach of the treaty by the Bani Quraydha, who joined with the confederates [in the Battle of Ahza-b] also did not affect the Prophet (s) in the least, rather it strengthened his resolve and made him steadfast.

Another one of his traits was ‘precaution and restraint’, and he would assess the enemy in this way and would begin preparing and readying the resources and weaponry required to face them. Even during the time of prayer he would not leave precaution, rather he was careful and cautious. Another trait of his was ‘softness accompanied with firmness’ which would be seen in the different circumstances of battle and because of the quickly changing conditions, he would issue new commands and orders.

‘Speed in (issuing) command(s)'[533] was considered important by him in order to tackle the new circumstances [that came up in battle] and was a necessary condition for the ‘centralization of command'[534] which the Prophet (s) stressed upon and of which he was the protector in its essence and foundation. This was considered one of the loftiest personal traits of his command; because all of the struggles and military resources that were spent for attaining the goal would be recruited and organized by himself and in this way his renown as a commander spread both internally and externally and this was sufficient to cause the enemies to flee before having to march towards them.


1. Physical Traits

In modern science it has been proven that parts of the body of an individual have specific features which show their ‘strength and courage’, ‘beauty and appeal’, ‘ethics and intentions’ and ‘habits’. For example, a round face[535] shows wisdom and dignity; a wide mouth[536] shows strength; big black eyes[537] show beauty, intelligence, eloquence, humility, forbearance and dignity; arched and separated eyebrows[538] indicate awe, courage and might; and plenty of hair[539] on the body, chest, chin and head indicate might and intensity in combat. When we do a detailed and complete study we find that the Holy Prophet’s body had all these features that spoke of his ability and genius in leadership, and all this also agrees with what has been mentioned by the scholars of modern science.[540]


2. Spiritual Traits

As the extent of the scope of a person’s kindness gets larger and encompasses all human beings equally, it makes him a leader who is close to the hearts of the people and gives him greater control of different aspects of leadership and makes him more powerful as a commander.

The life of the Holy Prophet (s) had a completely humanitarian face and approach.[541] He (s) grew up as an orphan[542] and faced poverty and deprivation,[543] and had to bear patiently with the persecution and harassment of some of his relatives and community members.[544] The Prophet (s) addressed all the people and called them towards right guidance and urged them towards the advancement of humanity.[545] In this task, he began with his near relatives[546] and then gave the message to others[547] and finally addressed it to the entire world.[548]

He bestowed honor on the Children of Adam[549] and his dealings with his friends and community members was based on affinity[550] and reconciliation between them.[551] He strengthened the bond of trust and harmony among them[552] and inculcated the feeling of mercy for all human beings in their hearts.[553] He would be merciful to the young[554] and would show respect to the elderly.[555] He would take away some of their burdens and hardships[556] and forbade their killing in wars.[557] He would please the orphans and grant them refuge. He would show kindness to the poor and needy[558] and instructed the people to be good to their servants.[559] He even showed mercy to animals[560] and forbade the people from harming them.[561]

The attention and consideration of the Noble Prophet (s) would also include (inanimate) things such that he named his sword ‘Dhul Fiqa-r’, his shield ‘Dha-t al-Fudhul’,[562] his spear ‘Mathwa-‘,[563] his bow ‘al-Katum’,[564] and his quiver ‘Ka-fur’.[565]

One of the most important examples of his humanity was that when the Holy Prophet (s) sent forces to battle or for Sariya missions against the enemy, he would advise them to be friendly with the people[566] and not to carry out raids or night assaults on them. He always preferred to come to a compromise with the enemy instead of killing their menfolk and leave their women and children [without guardians].[567] He (s) always instructed that the elderly, the children and the women[568] were not to be tortured and the bodies of the dead[569] must not be disfigured.[570]

From his greatest humanitarian traits in war was that when the Quraysh had sought refuge with him, he ended the ‘economic blockade'[571] against them and accepted their request for importing grain from Yemen.[572] Despite what they had done to him, he freed the women and children prisoners of Bani Tamim.[573] The Noble Prophet (s) called for universal peace[574] in the world and avoided war except in cases where there was no other option.[575] The letters that he sent to the neighboring kings and rulers were adorned and embellished with calls for peace and conciliation.[576] And this is what he instituted as the start of conversation between the Children of Adam.[577]

The Holy Prophet (s) gave a new and specific meaning to leadership.[578] In some of the battles he appointed more than one commander.[579] He outlined the criteria for a befitting commander of the army and its strengthening and he established a bond between the principles of politics and the military.[580] He made obedience the secret of discipline, submission and compliance.[581] He laid the foundation of new planning, exemplary organization and better leadership.[582] He made the soldiers steadfast in [the quest for] good morals and knowledge[583] and put in their hearts the love for death and disinclination towards the life of this world.[584]

He (s) would select the commanders and leaders based on their merit and ability.[585] He brought the army and the people together equally under his leadership[586] and would grant them as much of the resources as were available.[587] In these matters, he included the young and old, the strong and weak, the men and women. He invited them to [follow his] leadership and the ideology of equality and made these two complementary counterparts to each other.[588] He always tried to elaborate these ideas and transform them so that he could arrive at his desired goal.[589]


[275] Wa-qidi 1:7; Ibn Sa’d 2:1 onwards; Ibn Atheer 2:203 onwards

[276] Al-Qalam: 4

[277] Q9:128; Bukha-ri (al-Jana-‘iz, al-Tawhid, al-Adab); Muslim (al-Jana-‘iz, al-Fadha-‘il, al-Tawba, al-Nudhur); Sana-‘i (al-Jana-‘iz, al-Taha-rah, al-Hajj); Ibn Ma-ja and Tirmidhi (al-Ahka-m)

[278] Bukha-ri (al-Adab, al-Nafaqa-t, al-Istina-bah); Muslim (al-Ima-ra, al-Birr, al-Jiha-d); Tirmidhi (al-Ahka-m).

[279] Bukha-ri (al-‘Ilm, al-Adha-hi, al-Ima-n, al-Magha-zi); Muslim (al-Ima-n); Da-wud (al-Adab)

[280] Bukha-ri (al-Jizya, al-Adab, al-Ima-n, al-Sayd, al-Magha-zi); Ibn Ma-ja (al-Sadaqa-t, al-Jana-‘iz, al-Jiha-d)

[281] Q3:34; Bukha-ri (al-Nika-hm Fadha-‘il al-Saha-bah); Muslim (Fadha-‘il al-Saha-bah)

[282] Bukha-ri (al-Istindha-n, al-Buyu’, Tafseer Surah 59: 65, al-Adab, Fadha-‘il al-Saha-bah); Muslim (al-Jiha-d, al-Zaka-h, al-Eima-n); Abu Da-wud (al-Wasa-ya-, al-Hudud, al-Diya-t, al-Ada); Tirmidhi (al-Liba-s, al-Birr, al-Mana-qib); Nasa-‘i (al-Qadha-‘, al-Qasa-mah, al-Jana-‘iz)

[283] Aa-l ‘Imra-n: 103, 110; A’ra-f:157, 199; Tawba:112; Bukha-ri (al-Fitan, Badw al-Khalq, al-Shurb); Muslim (al-Uqdhiyyah, al-Zuhd); Ibn Ma-ja (al-Fitan)

[284] Ibn Ma-ja (al-Fitan)

[285] Al-Mu’minun: 37

[286] Bukha-ri 3:2

[287] Da-rimi, al-Muqaddimah: 34, 57; Bodyle, al-Rasul (The Life of Muhammad), translated into Arabic by ‘Abd al-Hamid Judah: 54

[288] Al-An’a-m: 124

[289] Al-Nubha-ni, al-Anwa-r al-Muhammadiyya min al-Mawa-hib al-Daniyya: 22; Ja-d al-Mawla-, Muhammad al-Mumathil al-Ka-mil: 20; Cobold, al-Bahth ‘an Allah: 51; Carlyle, Muhammad Rasul al-Huda- wa Shari’at al-Kha-lidah, translated into Arabic by Muhammad al-Saba-‘i: 49

[290] Ibn Hisha-m 2:58; Ibn Sa’d 2:6

[291] Al-Zuhri: 79; Wa-qidi 2:44; Suhayli 3:276; and see also: Muhammad Rawa-s Qal’echi, Dira-sa-t al-Tahliliyyah li Shakhsiyyat al-Rasul Muhammad (s): 226-232 (Tr.)

[292] Ibn Hazm: 207; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:13; Kala-‘i 1:127

[293] A group of people from Yathrib met with the Prophet (s) in Mina- and made two pacts with him (that later became known as the first and second pledge of ‘Aqaba) in which they promised to support and protect him. When the first battle between the Muslims and the polytheist took place, only the Muha-jirs participated in it, meaning that the Prophet did not involve the Ansa-r in battle before the Battle of Badr, because they had agreed to protect the Prophet only in Madina. For this reason, in the Battle of Badr, out of the 313 fighters, more than 240 were from the Ansa-r. (Tr.)

[294] Ibn Khayya-t, Ta-rikh Khalifah ibn Khayya-t 1:15; Tabari 2:403, 405

[295] The Quraysh would travel for trade twice a year. In the winter they would go to Yemen and the southern areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and in the summer they would go towards the north. (See: Jawa-d ‘Ali, al-Mukhtasar fi Ta-rikh al-Isla-m, under the section about Makkah) (Tr.)

[296] This refers to the Mountain of ‘Aynayn. This was the same place where the Prophet (s) had ordered the Muslims to keep watch in the battle of Uhud. (Tr.)

[297] Ibn Sa’d 2:41

[298] See Haydaraba-di, Majmu’ah al-Watha-‘iq al-Siya-siyyah lil ‘Ahd al-Nabawi wal Khila-fa al-Ra-shidah: 15-21 (Tr.)

[299] Al-Fath: 29

[300] Ibn Sa’d 2:136

[301] Wa-qidi 1:402, 2:755, 3:989; Tabari 3:100; Ibn Hazm: 220.249

[302] Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:41

[303] Wa-qidi 1:404; Ibn Hisha-m 3:302; Ibn Sa’d 2:45; Ibn Hazm: 203; Kala-‘i 1:124; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:91; Ibn Katheer 4:156

[304] Wa-qidi 3:112; Ibn Sa’d 2:137; Tabari 3:185; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:281

[305] Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 1:7, 11, 19, 22, 32, 43; Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah 2:711 onwards; M. Watt, Muhammad fi al-Madina: 4; in this pact, five people from the Aus tribe gave allegiance to the Prophet (s). (Tr.)

[306] Ibn Sa’d 1:147; Ibn Atheer 2:94

[307] Tabari 2:355; this pact is also known as Bay’at al-Harb. 11 people from the Aus and Khazraj pledged allegiance to the Prophet (s). This pact laid the groundwork for the migration of the Prophet to Madina. (Tr.)

[308] Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 4:1473; Ibn Atheer, Usd al-Gha-ba fi Ma’rifat al-Saha-ba 4:370; Harawi, al-Hiyal al-Harbiyya: 75

[309] Ibn Sa’d 1:148; Tabari: 356

[310] Ibn Sa’d 2:1; Suhayli 2:252

[311] Zuhri: 63; Wa-qidi 1:182, 194, 203, 337, 395, 404 onwards; Ibn Hisha-m 2:268

[312] Ka’b ibn Ashraf was one of the heads of the Jews and was a staunch enemy of the Muslims and especially of the Holy Prophet (s). He would compose poems mocking the Prophet and would encourage the disbelievers to rise up against the Muslims. The Prophet (s) asked his companions if anyone from among them would be willing to take up the mission of assassinating him. Muhammad ibn Maslamah took up the challenge. In order to accomplish the mission, he tricked Ka’b into leaving his companions and coming with him to a remote place and after talking with him for some time, he suddenly took out his sword and killed him. When the Prophet (s) heard the news he was very happy and embraced Ibn Maslamah and praised him. (See Wa-qidi 1:90) (Tr.)

[313] Abdullah’s mother used to live among the Jews and hid her faith from them. At night he and some others entered into Khaybar and took refuge at his mother’s house. They hid their weapons and once they had found out where Abi al-Huqays’s mansion was, they sought to meet with him on the pretext that they had brought him some gifts. Once inside, they killed him with their swords. In this way, in the month of Ramada-n, in the year 6 A.H. one of the greatest enemies of Isla-m was assassinated. However it should be noted that, contrary to what the author has mentioned, the Prophet (s) did not sent ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ateeq on this mission, rather, when he heard how Abi al-Huqayq was insulting and mocking Isla-m and the Prophet, he felt a sense of responsibility and thus took the initiative himself to do away with him. (See Wa-qidi 1:391; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:120) (Tr.)

[314] Ibn Sa’d 2:6, 25, 34, 40, 44, 53

[315] Wa-qidi 1:97, 2:440, 3:885 onwards; Ibn Hisha-m 3:64, 224, 4:80; Ibn Sa’d 2:25, 47, 108; also see Rawa-w Qal’echi, Dira-sah Tahliliyyah lishakhsiyyat al-Rasul Muhammad (s): 228-229

[316] In the battle of Uhud, the Prophet wanted the Muslims to remain in Madina but because of the insistence of the young zealous fighters, he was forced to move out. After a short while, the same people came to the Prophet (s) and told him they were ready to remain in Madina and wait for the enemy. The Prophet replied that it was inappropriate to change the decision as everything had already been prepared. (Tr.)

[317] When the Muslims began losing in the battle of Uhud, the Prophet quickly transferred the command post of the army to the mountain and assumed a defensive position. (Rawa-s Qa’ehchi: 29) (Tr.)

[318] For example, when the Prophet (s) was injure in the battle of Uhud, this did not prevent him from playing his role as the leader of the army. (Tr.)

[319] Al-Uqqa-d, al-‘Abqariyyat al-Isla-miyyah: 220, 250; M. Watt, Muhammad fi al-Madina: 511; Cobold: 121

[320] Wa-qidi 1:1; Kala-‘i 1:57

[321] Wa-qidi 1:13; Ibn Hazm: 105; Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr, al-Istee’a-b 3:878; Ibn Katheer 3:248

[322] In the month of Rajab in the first year of Hijra, the Prophet (s) send ‘Abdullah ibn Jahash with seventeen men on a mission to Wa-diyu al-Nakhlah. There he was to launch an attack on the caravan of the Quraysh. After some fighting, ‘Abdullah returned to Madina victorious (see: Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:359) (Tr.)

[323] Tabari 2:512; Ibn Hazm: 160; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:6; Kala-‘i 1:101, 102

[324] Usa-ma bin Zayd ibn Ha-ritha was a young man of about nineteen who was appointed as the commander by the Prophet (s) because of his ability and leadership skills. He was given the authority above the older companions (like Abu Bakr). His appointment came in the last days of the Holy Prophet’s life. Many of the companions complained to the Prophet (s) because of his young age. The Prophet became angry and said that he was chosen because he was a capable commander like his father was. (see Wa-qidi 20:769; Ibn Hisha-m 4:272) (Tr.)

[325] Wa-qidi 1:12; Ibn Sa’d 2:4; Tabari 2:408

[326] It is worthy to note here that the author has unfortunately fallen prey to sectarian bias as is evident in his selection of personalities. Though, it is a known and acknowledged fact that ‘Ali ibn Abi Ta-lib (‘a) was one of the most effective commanders in battle, he has neglected to even mention his name. Even though the author has made an effort to remain impartial, it is in instances such as these that the lack of impartiality becomes clear. When the main sources from both the sects are studied, it can be seen that ‘Ali (‘a) was the driving force in some of the major battles and without his participation in them, victory would not be forthcoming. He was among the first warriors to participate in the Battle of Badr and was the first to kill an enemy of Isla-m (see: Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih, al-Iqd al-Fareed 5:96). When the life of the Holy Prophet (s) was in danger, it was ‘Ali (‘a) who stood by him and courageously defended him in the Battle of Uhud (see: Usd al-Gha-bah fi Ma’rifat al-Saha-bah 1:154; Ibn Jawzi, Tadhkirat Khawa-s al-Ummah: 16). The historians are also in agreement that he played a primary role in the Battle of Khandaq wherein he killed the giant ‘Amr bin ‘Abd Wudd (see: Ba’lami, Ta-rikhna-me Tabari 1:205). His victory over the Jews in Khaybar was a feat that many other companions failed to accomplish and this is recorded in many sources such as Ibn Hisha-m 2:334; Bala-dhuri 2:93; Ibn Jawzi: 16. In the Battle of Hunayn, where many of the ‘great’ companions fled from the battlefield, ‘Ali (‘a) stood next to the Prophet (s) and fought with valor (see: Ibn Sa’d 2:151; Ya’qubi, Ta-rikh al-Ya’qubi 2:47). In fact the instances of great courage and leadership displayed in battle are greater for ‘Ali ibn Abi Ta-lib (‘a) than for any other companion. Unfortunately, we cannot elaborate on all of these here. (Tr.)

[327] Wa-qidi 1:194; Ibn Sa’d 2:24; M. Watt: 130

[328] Wa-qidi 1:195; Ibn Sa’d (Ibid.); Ibn Hisha-m 3:50

[329] Zuhri: 76; Ibn Sa’d 2:25; Tabari 3:9; Dhahabi, Ta-rikh al-Isla-m 1:183

[330] Ibn Hisha-m 2:58, 64, 199, 224, 633

[331] Wa-qidi 1:220; Ibn Hisha-m 3:69; Kala-‘i 1:102, 103, Ibn Qayyim Jawzi, Za-d al-Ma’a-d 2:241

[332] Wa-qidi 2:649

[333] Ibid. 2:645

[334] Hakeem, Masa-‘il Manhajiyyah ‘Ilmiyyah fi Nadhariyyah al-Harb wa Tatbiqiha- min Wihjat al-Nadhar al-Sufitiyyah: 121 onwards

[335] Ibn Saydah, al-Mukhassas 13:25; Ra-zi, Jumal Ahka-m al-Fira-sah: 8; Carlyle, Muhammad Rasul al-Huda- wa.: 29

[336] Al-Hijr: 75; al-‘Ankabut: 38; Qa-f: 22; Qasas: 80

[337] Al-An’a-m: 124; See also: Abu Na’im al-Isfaha-ni 4:26

[338] Bukha-ri (al-Ta’beer); Tirmidhi (al-Ru’ya-)

[339] Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 2:669; Ibn Atheer 2:371; Suhayl ibn ‘Amr was the representatives of the Quraysh in the Treaty of Hudaybiyya. During the Conquest of Makkah, the Prophet invited him to accept Isla-m and he did so. In this way, the polytheists lost one of their most valued people. (Tr.)

[340] Ibn Ma-jah (al-Fitan); Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d); al-Dhahabi 1:227

[341] Al-Baqarah: 125; Qasas: 57; Nur: 55

[342] Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 4:449; Ibn Atheer 4:418

[343] In the 4th year of Hijrah, Abu Barra-‘ sought permission to take 70 Qurra-‘ (Qur’a-n reciters) with him to propagate the religion among the people of Najd. The Prophet (s) advised him against this move, but he was insistent. When they reached a place known as Bi’r Ma’unah, they were surrounded by some members of the tribe of Saleem and were all martyred. (Tr.)

[344] Wa-qidi 1: 348; Ibn Hisha-m 3:194; Ibn Sa’d 2:36; Ibn Khayya-t 1:42

[345] Bukha-ri (al-Magha-zi 29); Ibn Hanbal 2:262; Ibn Hisha-m 3:243

[346] Zuhri: 52; Ibn Hisha-m 3:325; Ibn Sa’d 2:70; Kala-‘i 1:127

[347] Wa-qidi 2:756; Ibn Sa’d 2:39; Ibn Khayya-t 1:56; Suhayli 4:80; Kala-‘i 1:176. In the year 8 A.H. the Prophet (s) dispatched a contingent to fight the Romans in the Battle of Muta. He made Zayd bin Haritha the commander saying that if he will martyred, the command would go Ja’far bin Abi Ta-lib and if he too was martyred then the command would go to ‘Abdullah bin Rawa-hah. This is exactly what happened. First Zayd was martyred, then Ja’far became the commander but after some time, he too was martyred, and finally ‘Abdullah became the commander, but in the end he was also martyred. By this time the reinforcements had arrived under the command of Kha-lid bin Walid who then took the remaining troops back to Madina (Tr.)

[348] Wa-qidi 3:996, 990; Ibn Hisha-m 4:161, 169; Ibn Sa’d 2:119, 120; Ibn Atheer 2:280

[349] In the year 9 A.H. the Prophet (s) was informed by the Nabtis that Roman forces had gathered in Syria, so he led an army of thirty thousand towards Tabuk. When they arrived in Tabuk there was no sign of the Romans. Either the information they had been given was false or the Romans had fled after hearing about the approaching Muslim army. So in the end, the Prophet (s) was forced to return to Madina – for more details see Wa-qidi, Futuh Sha-m (Tr.)

[350] Zuhri: 252; Wa-qidi 1:344; Ibn Hanbal 3:351; Tabari 2:356; Kala-‘i 1:127

[351] Wa-qidi 1:193; Ibn Hisha-m 3:342; Ibn Sa’d 2:25; 47, 118; Ibn Hazm 3:27

[352] Wa-qidi 2:670, 673; Ibn Hisha-m 3:344, 347; Ibn Sa’d 2:2, 5, 18, 21, 39, 64

[353] Ibn Sa’d 2:6, 25, 44, 45, 53, 56, 77; Ibn Hazm: 201

[354] Zuhri: 71, 79, 84; Kala-‘i 1:122, 134; Ibn Katheer 4:264, 247, 344

[355] Wa-qidi 1:2-8, 2:444; Ibn Hisha-m 3:70; Tabari 2:512; Kala-‘i 1:101

[356] Zuhri: 79; Wa-qidi 2:974; Ibn Hisha-m 4:159; Ibn Sa’d 2:118; Qurtubi, al-Ja-mi’ al-Ahka-m al-Qur’a-n 14:133

[357] Wa-qidi 2:796; Ibn Sa’d 2:2, 3; Kala-‘i 1:138

[358] Saff: 4; Wa-qidi 2:825-828; Ibn Sa’d 2:1, 9, 98; General Akram, Sayfullah Kha-lid bin Walid: 114

[359] Majmu’ah al-Ta’lif fi Akadimiyyah Frunza al-‘Askariyya (al-Takteek): 103 onwards

[360] Ibn Sa’d 2:6, 26, 47, 66, 77, 93, 136; Tabari 2:421, 499

[361] Zuhri: 66; Wa-qidi 1:22, 26, 32, 96, 100, 2:644, 666, 670, 680, 685, 700; Ibn Hisha-m 2:276, 313, 320, 3:344, 347, 358; Tabari 2:644, 3:10 & 16

[362] Ibn Sa’d 1:133-150; Tabari 2:298-387; Dhahabi 1:139, 146, 166, 168, 188

[363] Hajj: 39-41; al-Tawba: 11,191,193; al-Nisa-: 75; Ibn Hisha-m: 147, 150; Suhayli 2:252

[364] Zuhri: 76, 79; Wa-qidi 1:97, 2:440; Ibn Hisha-m 3:64, 224; Ibn Sa’d 2:25, 47; Ibn Hazm: 156, 158; Kala-‘i 1:104,114; Tabari 2:9

[365] Wa-qidi 1:2-8; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:122, 223

[366] Wa-qidi 1:9-19; Ibn Hisha-m 2:241, 257; Ibn Sa’d 2:1-6; Ibn Khayya-t 1:15-16; Tabari 2:408-421; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:224-241

[367] See Wa-qidi 1:173, 147, 184; Ibn Hisha-m 5:54

[368] Wa-qidi 1:181, 363, 2:552; Ibn Sa’d 2:20,40; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:296, 2:48

[369] Wa-qidi 1:121; Ibn Hisha-m 2:241; Ibn Khayya-t 1:15; Ibn Hazm: 100

[370] Wa-qidi 1:9-19, 182, 193; Ibn Hisha-m 3:46, 49, 50; Ya-qut Hamawi 1:152, 341

[371] After the Battle of Uhud, in order to uplift the spirits of the Muslim army and to show the enemy that they were prepared, the Prophet (s) immediately sent the same soldiers who had participated in Uhud to pursue the enemy, and he even prevented the recruitment of new forces and also took along the injured and wounded. This was very effective in strengthening the morale of the forces and putting fear in the enemy. (See: Ibn Hisha-m 3:128; Ibn Sa’d 2:34) (Tr.)

[372] Wa-qidi 1:335; Kala-‘i 1:105

[373] See: Zuhri: 72 onwards; Wa-qidi 1:342; Ibn Hisha-m 3:192; Ibn Sa’d 2:35-47; Ibn Khayya-t 1:139; Tabari 2:546; Ibn Hazm: 178

[374] Ibn Hanbal 4:91, 262; Bukha-ri (al-Magha-zi 29); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Fitan 35); Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d 156)

[375] Wa-qidi 1:9, 27; Ibn Sa’d 2:7

[376] Wa-qidi 1:182, 194, 195; Ibn Hisha-m 3:46; Ibn Sa’d 2:21,23,24; Ibn Khayya-t 1:27

[377] Wa-qidi 1:182; Ibn Hisha-m 3:46; Ibn Sa’d 2:21; Ibn Khayya-t 1:27; Ibn Hazm: 152

[378] Seven days after the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (s) got the news that a number of men from the Bani Saleem and the Ghatfa-n were gathering at the watering hole of the Bani Saleem which was known as ‘Kadar’ with the aim of launching an attack on the Muslims. He ordered a contingent to march there but when they arrived they found no one. There was only a young shepherd who was taken captive and then released. (Tr.)

[379] See: Wa-qidi 1:193, 2:23; Suhayli 3:136; Ya-qut Hamawi, Mu’jam al-Bulda-n 1:252

[380] Wa-qidi 1:182, 194, 395, 404

[381] Wa-qidi 1:196, 2:563

[382] Wa-qidi 1:194; Ibn Sa’d 2:24

[383] Ibid. The Sariya of Bahra-n was conducted in 3 A.H. but there was no combat involved. (Tr.)

[384] Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 4:1682; Ibn Atheer 5:219

[385] Wa-qidi 1:342; Ibn Sa’d 2:35; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:39; Ya-qut Hamawi 4:374

[386] It was in the 4th year of Hijra when the Prophet (s) sent Abu Salamah al-Makhzumi along with 125 men to the tribes of Bani Asad. They travelled by night and would hide during the day in order to conduct the surprise attack. Three men were taken as captives, one was killed and the rest fled. (Tr.)

[387] Wa-qidi 1:403; Ibn Sa’d 2:44

[388] Wa-qidi 1:404; Ibn Hisha-m 3:302; Ibn Sa’d 2:45; Ibn Hazm: 203; Kala-‘i 1:124; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:91; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi 3:278

[389] Ibn Hazm: 203-204

[390] Ibn Hisha-m 3:302; Ibn Sa’d 2:45; al-Bakri, Mu’jam Masta’jam 4:1220; Ya-qut Hamawi 5:118

[391] The Bani al-Mustalaq had united with other tribes in order to fight against the Holy Prophet (s). In Sha’ba-n, 6 A.H. a fierce battle took place in which ten infidels were killed and the rest were taken captive. A lot of booty was acquired by the Muslims, including two thousand camels and five thousand sheep. (Tr.)

[392] Wa-qidi 1:194, 338, 391, 402

[393] Wa-qidi 1:396; Ibn Sa’d 2:53; Kala-‘i 1:123; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:106; Ibn Katheer 4:246; ‘Azmi: 230; Miksha: 118

[394] Ibn Hisha-m 3:64; Ibn Sa’d 2:25; Tabari 2:268; Pola-tof, al-Mufa-ja-t al-Taktikiyya: 5

[395] Ibn Hanbal 4:262; Bukha-ri (al-Magha-zi 29); Kala-‘i 1:114

[396] Wa-qidi 2:796; Ibn Sa’d 2:24; Tabari 3:75; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:304; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi 2:299; ‘Azmi, Dira-sa-t fi Harb al-Kha-tifah: 234

[397] Zuhri: 62,76,92, 106, 111; Azraqi, Akhba-r Makkah :4, 198; Ya-qut Hamawi, Mu’jam al-Bulda-n 5:83; Jawa-d ‘Ali 1:196, 221; Majmu’ah al-Ta’lif fi Akadimiyyah Frunza al-‘Askariyya (al-Takteek): 335; Miksha, al-Harb al-Kha-tifah: 118

[398] Misha-n, Ta-rikh al-Jaysh al-Aa-lma-ni: 547; ‘Azmi: 9, 88

[399] Miksha, al-Harb al-Kha-tifah: 60, 65, 82

[400] Liwa-‘ Hamawi, Mata-lib al-Harb al-Haditha: 76 onwards; ‘Azmi: 233

[401] Zuhri: 86; Wa-qidi 2:510, 522, 574, 637, 642, 650; Ibn Hisha-m 4:42, 63

[402] Wa-qidi 3:889, 893; Ibn Hisha-m 4:83

[403] Dhahabi 1:267

[404] Ibn Sa’d 2:109

[405] Wa-qidi 3:903

[406] Ibn Katheer 4:237

[407] Ibn Hisha-m 4:85

[408] Kala-‘i 1:143

[409] Majmu’ah al-Ta’lif fi Akadimiyyah Frunza al-‘Askariyya – al-Takteek: 437; Mujmu’ah Muha-dharaat alqayt fi al-Akadimiyyah al-‘Askariyyah al-‘Ulya- fi al-Jumhuriyyah al-‘Arabiyyah al-Suriyyah, Mawri Bek; Gha-yat al-Aa-ma-l fi Fanni al-Harb wal-Qita-l 2:50

[410] Wa-qidi 1:181; Ibn Khayya-t 1:128; Tabari 2:483; Suhayli 3:136; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:296

[411] These days pursuing the enemies is considered ‘taking advantage of the victory’ to finish off the enemy completely. (Tr.)

[412] Wa-qidi: 395; Ibn Hisha-m 3:231; Ibn Sa’d 2:43; Muslim 2:142 (Ghazwat Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘ 50); Tabari 2:556; Ibn Hazm: 182; Kala-‘i 1:112; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:52; Ibn Qayyim 2:275

[413] Wa-qidi 2:537; Ibn Hisha-m 3:293; Ibn Sa’d 2:58; Ibn Khayya-t 1:43; Tabari 2:601; Ibn Hazm: 201; Kala-‘i 1:123; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:84; Ibn Qayyim 2:294

[414] Wa-qidi 2:546, 547; Ibn Sa’d 2:58; Hamawi 4:321; Elward (Monister), Risa-lah fi Fann al-Harb: 74

[415] Wa-qidi 2:546; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:39, 103; Ibn Sa’d 2:35

[416] Ibn Sa’d 2:35

[417] Zuhri: 151; Wa-qidi 3:117; Ibn Hisha-m 4:191; Ibn Sa’d 1:136; Tabari 3:184; Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 1:99; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:281

[418] Wa-qidi 3:117; Ibn Sa’d 2:56, 61, 62, 65, 85; Ibn Katheer 4:61

[419] Wa-qidi 1:195; Ibn Hisha-m 3:50; Ibn Sa’d 2:24; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:304

[420] Wa-qidi 1:182, 404; Ibn Hisha-m 3:46, 302; Ibn Sa’d 2:21, 45; Ibn Hazm: 152; Kala-‘i 1:124; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:94; Ibn Katheer 3: 278, 344

[421] Wa-qidi 2:496, 562, 633, 3:117; Ibn Hisha-m 3:244, 342, 4:291; Ibn Sa’d 2:53, 65, 77, 281; Muslim: 1357; Tabari 2:181, 3:9; Ibn Hazm: 18; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:68, 109, 130; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi 2:299; Ibn Katheer 3:206, 4:116; Pola-tof, al-Mufa-ja-t al-Taktikiyyah: 13, 27, 37

[422] In the 4th year of Hijra, after the Battle of Bani Nadheer, the Prophet (s) was informed that the Bani Muha-rib and the Bani Tha’labah from the tribe of Ghatfa-n had started gathering in Dha-t al-Ruqa-‘ and were preparing to launch and assault on the Muslims. The Prophet (s) made Abu Dharr his deputy in Madina and led the Muslim army until the Valley of Nakhla and it was here that he faced the large army from the tribe of Ghatfa-n, but no war took place. In this battle, the moment the Prophet got the information (about the enemy troops), he quickly proceeded towards them before they could get the opportunity to launch an attack. (See: Ibn Hisha-m 3:214; Ibn Sa’d 2:61) (Tr.)

[423] Wa-qidi 1:395; Ibn Hisha-m 3:213; Tabari 2:55

[424] Wa-qidi 2:652; Ibn Hisha-m 3:344; Muslim 3:1361; Ibn Qutayba, ‘Uyun al-Akhba-r 2:114; Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 1:122; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi 2:292

[425] Wa-qidi 2:670; Na-dhif, al-Ta-j 4:422

[426] Wa-qidi 2:652; Ibn Hisha-m 3:344

[427] Wa-qidi 3:117; Muslim 3:1357

[428] Wa-qidi 3:1117, 1122; Ibn Katheer 3:261

[429] Shayba-ni, Sharh Kita-b al-Sayr al-Kabir 1:119 onwards; Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 1:122 onwards; Majmu’ah Muha-dhara-t Alqaytu fi Aka-dimiyya al-‘Ulya- fi al-Jumhuriyyah al-‘Arabiyyah al-Suriyya

[430] Shayba-ni 1:119; Na-sif, al-Ta-j 4:372

[431] Wa-qidi 1:53; Ibn Sa’d 2:9; Muslim (al-Birr); Tirmidhi (al-Birr)

[432] Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 3:1377; Ibn Atheer 4:330; Ibn Hajar 6:63

[433] Ibn Is’ha-q: 319; Ibn Katheer: 704

[434] Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d); Muslim (al-Jiha-d); and see also the chapters on Jiha-d in Sunan Abi Da-wud, Ibn Ma-jah and Tirmidhi, and the use of trickery and deception by Na’im bin Mas’ud against the enemy tribes and bringing about divisions among them in the Battle of Khandaq to such an extent that they were unable to attain their objectives and lost all hope, forcing them to turn back. (Tr.)

[435] Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d, Magha-zi); Muslim (Tawba)

[436] Wa-qidi 2:651, 652; Ibn Hisha-m 3:344

[437] Wa-qidi 2:796; Ibn Sa’d 2:96. When the Prophet set out for the Conquest of Makkah, he did not let anyone know that his intention was to conquer Makkah and even sent a contingent towards another place in order to deceive the enemy (see: Ibn Sa’d 2:296) (Tr.)

[438] Wa-qidi 2:796; Ibn Sa’d 2:96; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:161

[439] Wa-qidi 2:815; Ibn Hisha-m 4:39

[440] Wa-qidi 2:764; Ibn Hisha-m 4:21; Kala-‘i 1:136

[441] Wa-qidi 1:11, 12, 56; Ibn Hisha-m 2:245, 248, 251; Ibn Sa’d 1:1; Tabari 2:259; Ibn Hazm 100-102; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:226

[442] Wa-qidi 1:56, 2:583; Ibn Hisha-m 4:85; Ibn Sa’d 2:2; Ibn Qutaybah 2:114; Tabari 2:853; Kala-‘i 1:143; al-Dhahabi, Ta-rikh al-Isla-m 1:167

[443] Wa-qidi 3:903; Ibn Hisha-m 3:69; Tabari 2:507 onwards; Ibn Hazm: 239

[444] Wa-qidi 1:395; Ibn Hisha-m 3:213; Ibn Sa’d 3:43; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:79, 104, 147

[445] Wa-qidi 1:54; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:25; Ibn Katheer 4:237

[446] Wa-qidi 2:496, 633; Ibn Hisha-m 3:244, 342; Ibn Hazm: 18

[447] Wa-qidi 2:499; Kala-‘i 1:111; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:201

[448] Unfortunately the author has not given any reference for this (Tr.)

[449] Wa-qidi 1:13, 343, 2:35; Ibn Sa’d 2:41; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:50

[450] Wa-qidi 1:9; Ibn Hisha-m 3:68; Ibn Sa’d 1:7, 47

[451] Wa-qidi 1:81 onwards, 3:901 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 1:10 onwards, 2:109 onwards

[452] Wa-qidi 2:496, 499; Ibn Hisha-m 3:244 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 2:53 onwards

[453] Ibn Hazm: 200; Suhayli 3:305; Kala-‘i 1:122; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:83

[454] Ibn Sa’d 2:3, 19, 20, 23, 25, 40, 43, 44, 53, 77; Tabari 2:408, 487, 583 onwards

[455] The Prophet (s) fought many battles against individual Jewish tribes and managed to defeat them and curtail their evil from Madina. The battles of Bani Nadhir, Bani Qaynuqa-‘, Khaybar and Bani Quraydha are examples of these. The Prophet would always try to keep these tribes divided and attack them separately, not allowing them to come to the aid of one another (Tr.)

[456] Ibn Sa’d 2:19, 40, 53, 77; Tabari 2:479, 581, 3:9, 234; Ibn Hazm: 239 onwards

[457] Majmu’ah al-Ta’lif fi Akadimiyyah Frunza al-‘Askariyya – al-Takteek: 400 onwards; Miksha, al-Harb al-Kha-tifah: 237, 239; ‘Azmi, Dira-sa-t fi Harb al-Kha-tifah: 230 onwards; General Fuller, Ida-rat al-Harb: 70

[458] Ibn Hanbal 4:23; Bukha-ri 5:27, 71, 74; Abu Da-wud 3:28; Tirmidhi (al-Adab 78)

[459] Zuhri: 71, 79, 84; Ibn Sa’d 1:2, 4:19, 23, 34, 40, 56, 77, 108, 118

[460] Ibn Hisha-m 2:245, 4:260, 290; Ibn Sa’d 1:2, 19, 35, 56, 85, 94, 117, 136

[461] One of the most important facets of the military forces is their training and exercise which is one of the surest ways to achieve success in war. By continuously sending contingents to different battle zones, the Prophet (s) prepared and trained them in new strategies and maneuvers. (Tr.)

[462] Zuhri: 79, 151; Wa-qidi 1:121, 2:496, 537, 3:1117, 1122; Ibn Hisha-m 2:251, 3:224, 4:291; Ibn Sa’d 2:1, 53, 58, 186; Ibn Khayya-t 1:43; Tabari 2:181, 601, 3:184; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi 2:291, 294

[463] Wa-qidi 2: 445, 464, 493; Ibn Hisha-m 2:230, 360; Tabari 1:511, 568; Ibn Hazm: 16; Kala-‘i 1:15

[464] Ibn Sa’d 2:21, 35, 43, 62, 95; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:294m 203, 2:38, 91, 158, 105; Ibn Atheer: 174, 192, 232

[465] Wa-qidi 1:177, 496, 499; Ibn Qutayba 2:111; Kala-‘i 1:116; Ibn Atheer 2:217; Na-sif 4:422

[466] Wa-qidi 1:190, 196, 198; Ibn Hisha-m 1:264, 265, 271; Ibn Sa’d 2:7, 9, 21, 43; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:251; Ibn Atheer 2:188

[467] Zuhri: 63; Wa-qidi 1:19, 295, 406, 2:534, 550, 640, 802, 808; Ibn Hisha-m 4:271; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:167

[468] Ibn Is’ha-q: 328; Ibn Hisha-m 3:71; Tabari 2:507

[469] Wa-qidi 3:902, 903; Ibn Hisha-m 4:85; Ibn Sa’d 2:109; Tabari 3:75; Ibn Hazm: 239; Kala-‘i 1:143; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:193

[470] Wa-qidi 1:173, 184, 391; Ibn Sa’d 1:18, 19, 20

[471] Wa-qidi 2:445, 492; Ibn Hisha-m 2:220, 231, 265; Ibn Sa’d 2:44, 56, 64, 86, 136; Tabari 2:566

[472] Wa-qidi 1:342; Ibn Sa’d 2:21,35,43,62, 95; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:39

[473] Wa-qidi 1:396, Ibn Sa’d 2:53; Kala-‘i 1:123; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:39

[474] Wa-qidi 1:395; Ibn Hisha-m 3:213; Ibn Sa’d 2:43; Tabari 2:556; Kala-‘i 1:113; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:39, 79, 102, 145, 146

[475] Majmu’ah min al-Mu’allifeen al-‘Askariyyeen 1:581 onwards

[476] See Q2:74 and Q2:154; Q3:157; Q4:36, Q4:74; Q9:111; Q22:39, Q22:58; Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d, al-Magha-zi); Muslim (al-Ama-rah, al-Eima-n); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Jiha-d); Tirmidhi (al-Eima-n); and see al-Sa’eed, Fusul fi ‘Ilm al-Nafs al-Askari: 94 onwards

[477] Q8:72, Q8:88; Q9:41, Q9:79; Ibn Is’ha-q: 328; Muslim (al-Jiha-d, al-Magha-zi, al-Riqa-q, al-Ama-rah); Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d); Nasa-‘i (al-Zaka-t)

[478] Wa-qidi 1:211, 360; Ibn Hisha-m 3:181; Muslim (al-Eima-n 8)

[479] Zuhri: 87; Wa-qidi 2:479, 3:1123; Ibn Hisha-m 4:46; Ibn Sa’d 2:28, 49, 79, 97, 137; al-Sa’eed: 26 onwards

[480] Q8:60; Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d 38); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Jiha-d: 3, 5, 71); Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d 17); Ibn Sa’d 2:119

[481] Zuhri: 86, 87; Wa-qidi 2:780 onwards; Ibn Hisha-m 4:31, 46; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi 2:386, 390; al-Sa’eed, Shakhsiyyah al-‘Askariyyah: 12 onwards

[482] Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d 122); Muslim (al-Masa-jid 3); Tirmidhi (al-Seerah); al-Sa’eed: 99 onwards

[483] Q2:190-192, Q2:246; Q4:75, Q4:90; Q22:39; Suyuti al-Rahiba-ni, Mata-lib al-Nuha- fi Sharh Gha-yat al-Muntaha- 2:50 onwards

[484] Wa-qidi 3:990-996; Ibn Hisha-m 4:161; Tabari 3:101; Kala-‘i 1:155; Haydara-ba-di, Majmu’at al-Watha-‘iq al-Siya-siyyah lil ‘Ahd al-Nabawi wal-Khila-fat al-Ra-shidah: 15-20

[485] Bukha-ri (al-Adab 127); Muslim (al-Eima-n 93, al-Ama-rah 47, al-Jiha-d 133, al-Birr 68); Nasa-‘I (al-Qisa-mah 10-14); Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:197-199

[486] Wa-qidi 1:13, 534, 2:757, 868, 3:1117; Muslim 3:1357; Kala-‘i 1:161

[487] Zuhri: 88; Ibn Hisha-m 1:205-245; Tabari 3:61; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi 1:51 onwards

[488] Zuhri: 52; Ibn Hisha-m 3:322; Ibn Sa’d 2:41, 70; Tabari 2:552, 573, 575; Ibn Hazm: 208; al-Zahili, Atha-r al-Harb: 149

[489] Q3: 19, 83, 85; Q5:3; Q9:33, 36; Q48:28; Q61:9; Zuhri: 55; Bukha-ri (al-Diya-t 6, al-‘Ilm 29); Muslim (al-Ama-rah 173); Tirmidhi (Tafseer Surah 33; al-Mana-qib 32); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Rahun 5, al-Fitan 33, al-Tala-q 27); Abu Da-wud (al-Ama-rah 26, al-Mala-him 14)

[490] Q2:115; Q5:67; Q6:19; Q55:2; Q15:94; Wa-qidi 1:347; Ibn Hisha-m 3:178, 194; Bukha-ri (al-‘Ilm 1:23, 24, 34, 40, 42) Ibn Ma-jah (al-Zuhd, al-Muqaddimah); Tirmidhi (al-Zuhd)

[491] Q2:121; Q3:173; Q5:5; Q15:5; Q16: 106; Q23:1; Q49:11; Wa-qidi 2:215, 216; Bukha-ri (Magha-zi 46, al-Adab 42); Muslim (Fadha-‘il al-Saha-ba 161); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Fitan 23); Nasa-i (al-Tala-q)

[492] Q9:129; Q33:6, 21; Q48:29; Q68:4; Zuhri: 92; Wa-qidi 1:74 onwards; Bukha-ri (al-Kifa-yah 5); Muslim (al-Fara-idh 16); Tirmidhi (Tafseer Surah 44); Nasa-i (al-Eidayn 22); Tabari 3:75

[493] Majmu’ah min al-Mu’allifeen al-‘Askariyyeen 1:767; Harawi: 111 onwards; al-Sa’eed, Fusul fi ‘Ilm al-Nafs al-Askari: 26

[494] Bukha-ri (al-Sala-h 438)

[495] Ibn Hisha-m 3:344

[496] Wa-qidi 2:670

[497] Wa-qidi 2:666; Ibn Katheer 4:198

[498] Wa-qidi 2:670

[499] Wa-qidi 1:9; Ibn Hisha-m 2:245; Ibn Sa’d 2:2

[500] Wa-qidi 1:11; Ibn Hisha-m 2:241; Ibn Sa’d 2:3; Ibn Khayya-t, Ta-rikh 1:7; Ibn Hazm: 100; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:224

[501] Wa-qidi 1:182, 395; Ibn Hisha-m 3:46, 213; Ibn Sa’d 2:21, 43; Ibn Khayya-t 1:27; Tabari 2:556; Ibn Hazm: 152, 182; Kala-‘i 1:111

[502] Ibn Hisha-m 4:169, 205-245; Ibn Sa’d 2:120

[503] Wa-qidi 2:780, 3:885; Ibn Hisha-m 4:31, 80; Ibn Sa’d 2:96, 108; Ibn Hazm: 223, 236, 187; Ibn Qayyim 2:384, 438

[504] Wa-qidi 3:1091; Ibn Sa’d 2:44; Suhayli 4:196

[505] Q 59:2; Tabari 2:557; Ibn Katheer 4:76

[506] Wa-qidi 2:535; Ibn Hisha-m 3:292; Ibn Sa’d 2:65; ibn Hazm: 200; Ibn Atheer 2:188

[507] Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:109; Ibn Atheer 4:16; Ibn Qayyim 2:299; ibn Hajar 4:299; Wa-qidi 2:562; Ibn Sa’d 2:65; Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 3:1089

[508] Wa-qidi 2:563; Ibn Sa’d 2:65

[509] Wa-qidi 2:563

[510] Wa-qidi 2:727; Ibn Sa’d 2:87; Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 1:171; Ibn Atheer 2:226; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:147; Ibn Qayyim 2:361

[511] Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 3:1249; Ibn Atheer 4:166

[512] Wa-qidi 2:729

[513] Zuhri: 57; Wa-qidi 2:627, 628; Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 4:1612; Suhayli 4:37; Ibn Atheer 3:360; Ibn Qayyim 2:308

[514] Ibn Hisha-m 4:254, 255; Ibn Katheer 2:262

[515] Wa-qidi 1:338; Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr 3:1314; Ibn Atheer 4:390

[516] Ibn ‘Abd al-Birr: 1508; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 3:62; Ibn Atheer 5:33; ibn Qayyim 2:292. Na’im was successful in causing a rift between the Quraysh and the Jews and without the help of the Jews the siege of Madina lost its strength and the Quraysh were forced to return to Makkah without accomplishing their objective (Tr.)

[517] Wa-qidi 1:9-19; Ibn Sa’d 2:2-5; Kala-‘i :58; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:224, 227

[518] Zuhri: 106; Wa-qidi 3:989; Ibn Hisha-m 4:159; Ibn Sa’d 2:118; Ibn Khayya-t 1:64; Tabari 3:10; Ibn ‘Asa-kir, Ta-rikh 1:107; Ibn Qayyim 3:3

[519] Wa-qidi 2:536; Ibn Hisha-m 3:293; Ibn Sa’d 2:57; Kala-‘i 1:122; ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:83

[520] Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d – al-Khawf, al-Adab, al-Dhaba-‘ih); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Jiha-d, al-Iqa-mah); Abu Da-wud (al-jiha-d, al-Safar, al-Sawm); Muslim (al-Ima-rah, al-Musa-firin, al-Siya-m); al-Nasa-‘i (al-Isti’a-rah, al-Khawf, al-Jiha-d)

[521] Wa-qidi 1:182, 196, 406, 2:460; Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d 100)

[522] Q3:123

[523] Wa-qidi 2:563, 666, 7:29; Ibn Hisha-m 2:285, 3:243; Ibn Sa’d 2:17

[524] Wa-qidi 2:563, 729; Ibn Katheer 4:198

[525] Wa-qidi 1:9, 99; Ibn Sa’d 2:1, 6; Tabari 2:546-565; ibn Hazm: 175; Kala-‘i al-Balansi 1:104, 105; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:296, 2:48, 105, 110, 207

[526] Wa-qidi 1:56, 177, 368, 2:499; Ibn Hisha-m 3:244; Ibn Sa’d 2:47, 48; Tabari 2:583, 3:9, 75; Ibn Hazm: 239; Dhahabi, Ta-rikh al-Isla-m 1:267

[527] Wa-qidi 1:335

[528] Ibid. 1:338

[529] Ibn Hisha-m 3:107; Kala-‘i 1:105; Ibn Katheer 4:49

[530] Ibn Hanbal 1:229; Bukha-ri (al-Hajj 80). The Prophet (s) did this in order to frighten the enemy and show the strength of the Muslims (Tr.)

[531] Zuhri: 66; Wa-qidi 1:96; Ibn Hisha-m 4:56, 69; Tabari 2:466, 3:61; Kala-‘i 1:139

[532] Wa-qidi 1:199, 334, 464; Ibn Hisha-m 2:64, 128, 3:232; Ibn Sa’d 2:25, 34; Tabari 3:9, 29, 2:586; Ibn Hazm: 156; Kala-‘i 1:104 onwards

[533] Tabari 3:26, 70; Suhayli 3:168

[534] Wa-qidi 2:800, 819; Ibn Hisha-m 4:42; Ibn Sa’d 1:147; Ibn Atheer 2:303

[535] Abu Ta-lib Ansa-ri, al-Siya-sah fi ‘Ilm al-Fira-sah: 41; Hakam, al-Fira-sah: 16

[536] Ra-zi: 23; Abu Ta-lib Ansa-ri: 30

[537] Ra-zi: 2 onwards; Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 2:104; Nuwayri, Niha-yat al-Urub 2:111

[538] Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih 6:108; Abu Ta-lib Ansa-ri: 21

[539] Ra-zi: 2; Nuwayri 2:102; Abu Ta-lib Ansa-ri: 20 onwards

[540] Al-Bala-ya-, al-Mujaz fi Maba-di al-Tashrih wal-Ghara-‘iz al-Bashariyyah: 16 onwards; Mahmud al-‘Aqqa-d, ‘Abqariyyat al-Isla-miyyah: 483; Boudley, Haya-tu Muhammad: 53

[541] Ibn Hisha-m 1:167; Ibn Sa’d 1:287 onwards; Ibn Qutaybah 1:150; Tabari 1:39; Dhahabi 1:18 onwards

[542] Q93:6; Ibn Hisha-m 1:166, 177

[543] Ibn Hisha-m 1:177; Ibn Sa’d 1:73; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 1:37; Dhahabi 1:35; Nuwayri, Niha-yat al-Urub 16:87

[544] Q11:49; Q46:35; Q52:48; Q76:24; Ibn Hisha-m 1:380 onwards

[545] Ibn Hisha-m 4:54; Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d 102); Muslim (al-Ama-rah 117); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Iqa-mah 25, 14, al-Zuhd 28); See also Q2:21; Q4:170; Q10:108; Q35:5

[546] Q26:214; Ibn Hisha-m 1:280; Ibn Sa’d 1:132; Ibn Atheer 2:60

[547] Ibn Hisha-m 2:63, 73, 86, 4:205 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 1:45, 2:39; Ibn Atheer 2:94; Nuwayri 16:302 onwards

[548] Q6:19; Ibn Hanbal 5:257; Abu Da-wud (Sunan 10); ibn Atheer: 210

[549] Q17:70; Q49:13; Ibn Hanbal 2:277; Abu Da-wud (al-Adab 101)

[550] Bukha-ri (al-Fitan 1); Muslim (32, 40); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Akha-m 23); Tirmidhi (al-Qiya-mah 3); Tabari 3:49

[551] Wa-qidi 1:7; Ibn Sa’d 2:116; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr 3:1249

[552] Wa-qidi 2:756; Ibn Katheer 2:238, 4:248, 253

[553] Ibn Hanbal 3:112; Muslim (al-Fadha-‘il 63); Abu Da-wud (al-Adab 58); Tirmidhi (al-Birr 12, 15)

[554] Muslim (al-Fadha-‘il 63); Abu Da-wud (al-Adab 58); Tirmidhi (al-Birr 12,15)

[555] Bukha-ri (al-Adab 89); Tirmidhi (al-Birr 75)

[556] Bukha-ri (al-Adha-n 45); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Mana-sik 43); Abu Da-wud (al-Sawm 3, 35, 58, al-Jiha-d 30)

[557] Ibn Hanbal 4:24, 3:425; Da-rimi (al-Siyar 25); Q93:9; Ibn Ma-jah (al-Adab 6, 12)

[558] Da-rimi (al-Riqa-q 118); Tirmidhi (al-Mana-qib 46, al-Qiya-mah 48); Sana-‘i (al-Jana-‘iz 43)

[559] Bukha-ri (al-‘Itq 15, al-Kaffara-t 6, al-Jiha-d 145); Muslim (al-‘Itq 22, 23); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Adab)

[560] Bukha-ri (al-Adab 37, Bad’ al-Khalq 16, al-Hanbala-‘ 45, al-Madina 4, al-Dhaba-‘ih 4)

[561] Bukha-ri (al-Adha-n 90, Bad’ al-Khalq 16); Muslim (al-Birr 135); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Zuhd 30)

[562] Ibid.

[563] Ibn Sa’d 1:174; Tabari 3:176; Dhahabi 1:291

[564] Ibn Sa’d 1:174; Tabari 3:176; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:318; Dhahabi 1:291

[565] Dhahabi 1:291

[566] Wa-qidi 1:391, 2:560; Ibn Hisha-m 3:287; Ibn Sa’d 2:56; Ibn Atheer 2:209

[567] Shayba-ni, Sharh al-Siyar al-Kabeer 1:38, 79; Bukha-ri (al-Adha-n 17, al-Adab 27, 38); Muslim (al-Qadr 8); Abu Da-wud (al-Eima-n 21, al-Sala-h 167); Tirmidhi (al-Qiya-mah 48); Sana-‘i (al-Adha-n 8)

[568] Shayba-ni 1:42; Wa-qidi 2:534, 778; Ibn Hanbal 1:224, 2:91, 3:435, 4:24; Ibn Ma-jah (al-Jiha-d 30); Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d 82)

[569] Ibn Hanbal 3:403; Muslim (al-Bill 117); Abu Da-wud (al-Ama-rah 33)

[570] Ibn Hanbal 4:264; Bukha-ri (al-Madha-lim 30, al-Dhaba-‘ih 25, al-Magha-zi 36); Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d 110, al-Hudud 3)

[571] Muslim 3:1386

[572] Ibn Hisha-m 4:287 onwards; Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr 1:215; Ibn Atheer 1:247

[573] Wa-qidi 1:7; Ibn Sa’d 2:116; Ibn Sayyid al-Na-s 2:203

[574] Q4:94; Q5:16; Q6:54; Q8:61; Bukha-ri (a;-Iqa-mah 1, al-Sala-h 56); Muslim (al-‘Itq 16)

[575] Wa-qidi 3:1117; Ibn Hisha-m 2:241, 245, 251; Ibn Sa’d 2:6; Ibn Hazm: 235

[576] Ibn Hisha-m 4:454; Ibn Sa’d 1:152; Tabari: 2:644 onwards; Ibn Atheer 4:210 onwards

[577] Bukha-ri (al-Isti’dha-n 9, al-Ashribah 28); Muslim (al-Adab 37, al-Liba-s 12); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Adab 13, 18); Abu Da-wud (al-Adab 91); Tirmidhi (al-Isti’dha-n 2, 11); Sana-‘i (al-Tatbiq 100)

[578] Shayba-ni 1:60, 156; Bukha-ri (al-‘Itq 17, al-Nika-h 90, al-Adhan 54); Muslim (al-Ama-rah 20); Abu Da-wud (al-Ima-rah 504); Tirmidhi (al-Fitan 77); Nasa-i (al-Ama-rah 3, 5, 11)

[579] Shayba-ni 1:61; Zuhri: 150; Bukha-ri (al-Ahka-m 22, al-Jiha-d 164, al-Magha-zi 60); Muslim (al-Masa-jid 279, 291); Q2:261; Q8:28, 60, 65; Ibn Hanbal 1:46, 229, 3:475, 4:23; Da-rimi (al-Jiha-d 14); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Jiha-d 19); Abu Da-wud (al-Jiha-d 14, 23); Nasa-i (al-Kha-yl 8); As the Prophet (s) appointed three commanders in the Battle of Muta. (Tr.)

[580] Wa-qidi 2:800, 801, 812, 819, 820; Ibn Hisha-m 2:42; Haydara-ba-di: 15-21

[581] Q3:132; Q4:13, 59, 69, 80; Q5:92; Q8:1, 20, 46; Q24: 54, 56; Zuhri: 54; Bukha-ri (al-Ahka-m 4); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Muqaddimah 6); Abu Da-wud (al-Ima-rah 9, al-Yabu’ 31); Nasa-i (al-Eima-n 45, al-Bay’ah 27)

[582] Wa-qidi 1:7 onwards; Ibn Sa’d 1:147; Suhayli 2:525; Ibn Atheer 3:303; Haydara-badi :15-21

[583] Bukha-ri (Mana-qib al-Ansa-r 33, Fadha-‘il al-Saha-ba 27, al-Adab 39); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Jiha-d 19, 25, al-Muqaddimah 17); Tirmidhi (al-‘Ilm 19, al-Birr 71); Nasa-‘I (al-Tatbiq 100)

[584] Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d 110, al-Magha-zi 35, al-Ahka-m 43); Muslim (al-Ama-rah 80-81); Tirmidhi (al-Siyar 34)

[585] Zuhri: 150; Wa-qidi 2:142; Ibn Hisha-m 4:15; Ibn Sa’d 2:92; Tabari 3:36; Muslim 4:1884; Ibn ‘Asa-kir, Ta-rikh Dimishq 1:92

[586] Wa-qidi 2:443; Ibn Sa’d 2:47, 48; Bukha-ri (al-Jiha-d 68, al-Ahka-m 49, al-Jana-‘iz 39); Muslim (al-Ama-rah 89); Ibn Ma-jah (al-Jiha-d 43)

[587] Q9:20, 41, 88; Q8:74; Q61:11; Bukha-ri (al-Riqa-q 34, al-Jiha-d 13, 31, al-Adab 100, al-Magha-zi 53); Muslim (al-Ama-rah 116); Abu Da-wud (al-jiha-d 12); Tirmidhi (Fadha-‘il al-Jiha-d 22); Sana-‘i: 20, 45

[588] Zuhri: 150; Wa-qidi 1:21, 2:43; Ibn Hisha-m 4:272; Ibn Sa’d 2:47, 48

[589] See how the stance of the army changed from defensive to offensive (Ibn Hisha-m 3:266) and how it transformed from internal battles to external wars, like the Battle of Tabuk (al-Zuhri: 106 onwards; Wa-qidi 3:989 onwards). And see the transformation of the army after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s) (Ta-rikh Ibn Khayya-t 1:103; Ibn Atheer 2:342, 349, 372; Ibn Katheer 6:316)


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