History of the Caliphs

By: Rasūl Ja’farīan

Translation by: Ali Ebrahimi

p. 335-337

One of Mu‘āwiya’s unforgivable crimes is martyring Imām Hasan (a) who was the apple of the Apostle’s eye about which there is no doubt historically. As usual, Mu‘āwiya hatched a plot and prompted Dju‘da, Imām’s wife and cursed Ash‘ath Ibn Qays’s daughter, to kill her husband. When Medina was plundered in the course of Harra event in 63 AH. this cursed woman’s house was plundered too. Nevertheless, due to her cooperation in her husband’s murder, her properties all were back. The report of Imām’s martyrdom by Dju‘da as well as Mu‘āwiya’s conspiracy is recorded in numerous sources.[1] As narrated by Haytham Ibn ‘Adī, Imām had been poisoned by Suhayl Ibn ‘Amr’s daughter prompted by Mu‘āwiya.[2] The poison had Imām stay in bed ill for forty days until he achieved martyrdom.[3]

Miswar’s daughter, Umm Bakr said, “Imām had been poisoned many times. Although each time he survived, the last time the poison was so strong that it made the pieces of his liver come out through his throat.” [4]

After he was martyred, he was supposed to be buried next to the Prophet’s grave according to his last will, but ‘Āyisha and Marwān, the ruler of Medina then, did not allow. Imām had advised that if they faced any problem, he should be buried in Baqī‘.[5] ‘Āyisha did reveal his sheer spite towards Zahrā (a), Her Excellency, and her son once more. No sooner had Imām’s corpse been approached to the Prophet’s grave than ‘Āyisha warned, هذا الأمر لايكون ابداً “Under no circumstances, such an action is possible.”[6]

Both Abū Sa‘īd Khudrī and Abū Hurayra addressed Marwān, “Do you prevent Hasan from being buried beside his forefather whereas the Apostle (s) had called him the master of the youth in Heaven?”

“If such individuals as you, said Marwān sarcastically, did not narrate the Prophet’s hadiths, they would be dissolved soon.”[7]

Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyya has narrated that when Imām was killed, Medina turned thoroughly mournful and all people wept. It was Marwān who let Mu‘āwiya know saying him,”They want to bury Hasan by the Prophet, but as long as I am alive, I will never allow them.”

Imām Husayn come up to the Prophet’s grave and ordered to dig the ground. Sa‘īd Ibn ‘Ās who was Medina governor pulled back but Marwān commanded the Umayyads to be armed on alert.

“It is impossible to let you”, said Marwān.

“It is non of your concern”, Imām Husayn (a) told him.

“You are not the governor, are you?” Marwān answered.

“No, but as long as I am alive, I will never let you do this”.

Imām Husayn (a) asked Hilf al-Fudūl (the agreement reached during pre-Islamic period for ensuring the safty of the pilgrims) who were always with the Hāshimites for help. A number of people belonging to the tribes of Taym, Zuhra, Asad and Dja‘ūba took up arms then. Imām Husayn (a) and Marwān holding a flag in hand each opened fire on each other. Yet a group of people demanded Imām to practice the will Imām Hasan had made.”If there were a probability that someone be killed, bury me beside my mother in Baqī‘.” At last they could convince Imām Husayn.[8] As inferred form another narration, Marwān who was deposed by then was intent to make Mu‘āwiya gratified with him by such an action.[9] When Marwān flourished to change Imām’s mind, he reported to Mu‘āwiya in a bombastic manner.[10]

He said,”How is it possible to see the son of ‘Uthmān’s murderer buried next to the prophet but ‘Uthmān in Baqī‘?”[11] Beyond any doubt, Marwān had been among the wickedest figures of the Umayyads throughout whose term as Medina governor cursed Imām ‘Alī as well as the Hāshimites.

Some believe that Imām was martyred in Rabi‘ al-Awwal, 49H. While some others have recorded it Rabi‘ al-Awwal, 50 H.[12] The former seems to be more reliable. As soon as Imām was martyred, the Hāshimites sent some persons to different spots of Medina and the suburbs to inform Ansār. Reportedly, no one could ever stay at home.[13] The Hāshimites women moaned his loss all day long for a month.[14] Tabarī has quoted Imām Bāqir (a) as saying that Medina people shut their shops mourning for him for seven days.[15] He added that in Imām’s burial ceremony the participants were so many that there was no elbow- room.[16] News of Imām’s martyrdom in Basra led the Shi‘ite Muslims there to mourn.[17]

After Imām Mudjtabā’s demise, Kūfiyān Shi‘ite Muslims wrote a letter of consolation to Imām Husayn (a), in which Imām’s demise was regarded, on one hand, a tragedy for all Umma and particularly for Shi‘ite Muslims, on other hand. This shows formation of “Shī‘a” and even its terminological usage around 50 H. They talked about Imām Mudjtabā (a) with these titles, “‘Alam al-Hudā and Nūr al-Bilād”, someone who was hoped to raise up religion and rehabilitation of conduct of the righteous people. They hoped God would return Imām Husayn’s right to him. [18] The letter had to be considered as one of the documents forming Imamate and ideological Shī‘a in Kūfa.

‘Amr Ba‘dja says, “The first humiliation that befell to Arabs was Imām Mudjtabā’s demise.[19]

[1] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, pp.175-176; Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.III, pp.55-88. Professor Mahmūdī has quoted the report above from many sources in the footnotes of the mentioned pages. Yet, Ibn Khaldūn, with his religious Prejudice and unlike all historical proof, has said, وحاشا لمعاوية ذلك “Never ever can Mu‘āwīya do so.” Tārīkh Ibn Khaldūn, vol.II, part 2, p.18
[2] Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.III, p.59
[3] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, p.176
[4] al-Muntakhab Min Dhiyl al-mudhayyal, p.514
[5] Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.III, pp.61, 64; footnotes of pp.61-62
[6] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, p.184
[7] Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.III, p.65; Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, pp.184-185
[8] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, pp.177-179
[9] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, pp.180, 187
[10] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d,, p.188
[11] Ibid. p.183. ‘Uthmān was not even buried in Baqī‘ because people prevented.
[12] Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.III, p.66; Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, pp.183, 189, 190
[13] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, p.181; Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn ‘Asākir, No.371
[14] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, p.182; Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn ‘Asākir, No.338
[15] Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘d, p.182
[16] al-Muntakhab Al-Muntakhab Dhiyl al-mudhayyal, p.514; al-Mustadrak ‘ala l-sahīhayn, vol.III, p.173; Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn Sa‘dp.182; Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan, Ibn ‘Asākir, No.372
[17] Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.V, p.224
[18] Tārīkh al-ya‘qūbī, vol.II, p.228
[19] Ibn Sa‘d, Tardjamat al-imām al-Hasan (a), p.183
Source: maaref-foundation.com


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