History of the Caliphs

By: Rasūl Ja’farīan

Translation by: Ali Ebrahimi

p. 292-294

In was Ramadān, 19th 40 A.H. at dawn when Imām was preparing to head for Siffīn to battle once again with Mu‘āwiya but he was wounded by the most black-hearted man in the world named ‘Abd al-Rahmān Ibn Muldjam Murādī and martyred three days later on Ramadān 21st.

As reported by Ibn Sa‘d, three Khāridjites called ‘Abd al-Rahmān Ibn Muldjam, Burak Ibn ‘Abd Allāh Tamīmī and ‘Amr Ibn Bukayr Tamīmī allied in Mecca to kill Imām ‘Alī (a), Mu‘āwiya and ‘Amr Ibn ‘Ās. To visit his Khāridjites’ friends, ‘Abd al-Rahmān went to Kūfa. Once he went to meet a group from the tribe of “Taym al-Rabbāb”, he saw a girl called Qutām Bnt Shadjanna Ibn ‘Adī whose father and brothers had been killed in Nahrawān. When Ibn Muldjam proposed to her, she declared that her marriage portion should be 3000 (Dīnār!) in addition to Imām ‘Alī’s murder. He told that by accident with this very aim he had traveled to Kūfa.[1] He smeared his sword with poison and attacked Imām on the head. The deepness of the wound as well as the poison of the sword martyred Imām. Reportedly, Ibn Muldjam had been in Ash‘ath Ibn Qays’s house that night.[2]

Various narrations indicate that Imām was attacked by Ibn Muldjam inside the mosque.[3] In accordance to other ones, he attacked Imām while he was waking people up for prayer.[4] Many historical sources have referred to the former although many reports recorded say Imām was attacked while doing prayer. Maytham Tammār had reported that Imām had started his Dawn Prayer and no sooner had he recited eleven verses of the Sūra of “the Prophets” than Ibn Muldjam wounded Imām on the head.[5] As narrated by one of Dju‘da Ibn Hubayra’s descendants, Imām was wounded while doing his prayer.[6] The man above-mentioned, Dju‘da, had been Umm Hānī’s son who every so often had led the prayers as a substitute leader and narratedly he had been the one who completed the prayer when Imām was attacked. Shiykh Tūsī has also confirmed the aforesaid narration.[7] Yet, Muttaqī Hindī’s report had been that Ibn Muldjam had hit Imām when Imām was prostrating back.[8] Ibn Hanbal[9] together with Ibn ‘Asākir[10] has confirmed the report. Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr stated that there had been no consensus on whether Imām was attacked while doing the prayer or before it and whether any one substituted him or he himself led the prayer to the end. Many are of the opinion that Imām had Dju‘da Ibn Hubayra lead the incomplete prayer.[11]

A great number of hadiths have been narrated by the Holy Prophet’s Household and the Sunnis concerning how Imām felt during the night before being wounded. Ibn Abi l-Dunyā quoted Imām Bāqir(a) as saying that Imām had been fully aware of his martyrdom.[12] As soon as being injured, Imām shouted out, فزت ورب الكعبة “By Allāh of Ka‘ba, to salvation I reached.”[13]

Ibn Abi l-Dunyā has narrated Imām’s will in different ways which included both financial and religious issues. The salient issues recommended by Imām were as follows,

Observation of kinship, heed to the orphans and the neighbors, following the guidelines of the Holy Qur’ān, performing prayers as the pillar of the religion, Hadjdj, fasting, Djihād, Zakāt (tax alms) following the Holy Prophet’s infallible Household, serving Allāh’s servants, enjoining to good and forbidding from evil. Reportedly, on Ramadān 21st, while Imām was whispering, لااله الا الله “There is no God but Allāh” and the verse of, فمن يعمل مثقال ذرة خيراً يره ومن يعمل مثقال ذرة شراً يره “So he who has done an atom’s weight of good shall see it. And he who had done an atom’s weight of evil shall see it” Breathed his last.[14] According to another narration, after Imām’s martyrdom, Imām Hasan (a) and Imām Husayn (a), Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyya, ‘Abd Allāh Ibn Dja‘far as well as few numbers from the household took Imām (a) out of Kūfa nightly and hiddenly from sight buried him. It was because the Khāridjites and the Umayyads might exhume Imām.[15]

Upon hearing the news of Imām ‘Alī’s martyrdom, a group of the Exaggerators in Ctesiphon did never believe their ears. This group is the initiator of the exaggerating thoughts among the Shi‘ite Muslims whom we will address later. Ibn Abi l-Dunyā’s report in this respect referred to a person named Ibn al-Sawdā’ from the tribe of Hamdān know as ‘Abd Allāh Ibn Saba’. Elsewhere, the name of ‘Abd Allāh Ibn Wahb al-Sabā’ī, was mentioned and that such a claim had been made in Ctesiphon.[16] Both narrations reveal that the person had even been anonymous. See also ‘Uthmān’s Opponents.

[1] Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, pp. 35-38
[2] Maqtal al-imām Amīr al-Mu‘minīn, p. 36, No.13
[3] Ibid. p.29, No.4; p. 35, No.12
[4] Ibid. pp.28,33, No.11
[5] Ibid. p. 30, No.5
[6] Ibid. p.30, No.6
[7] al-Amālī, al-Djuz‘ al-thālith, No.18
[8] Kanz al-’Ummāl, vol.XV, p.170 (2nd edition); al-Amālī fī Āthār sahāba, pp. 103-104
[9] al-Fadā’il, p.38, No.63 (published in Qum)
[10] Tardjamat al-imām ‘Alī Ibn Abī Tālib (a), vol.III, p. 361 (2nd edition)
[11] al-Istī‘āb (in the margin of al-Isāba), vol.III, p. 59
[12] al-Istī‘āb. pp. 33-34, No.12; Abū Nu‘aym along with many others have narrated that the Prophet had already foretold his martyrdom. Ma‘rifat al-sahāba, vol.I, pp. 295-296.
[13] Ibid. p.39, No.20; footnote, al-Imāma wa l-siyāsa, p.160, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.II, p. 499
[14] Maqtal al-imām Amīr al-Mu‘minīn, pp. 45-46
[15] Ibid. p.79, No.68
[16] Ibid. p.92, No.85; p.96, No.91
Source: maaref-foundation.com


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