بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَضَلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:1]

Good deeds without submission to the will of Allah (Islam) will be rendered null and void on the day of judgement. Total submission implies obedience to all commands of Allah and the Holy Prophet. In addition to the disbelievers, those also who came in the fold of Islam and worshipped Allah in the manner and style shown to them by the Holy Prophet concerning salat, sawm, zakat, hajj etcetera, but went against the commands of Allah and the Holy Prophet by not accepting the wilayah and imamah of Ali ibn abi Talib in order to establish a social order contrary to the principles laid down in the Quran, are not entitled to receive the reward of their deeds. In view of the deviation from and violation of the final and decisive settlement of the viceregency of the Holy Prophet, to be strictly followed by his followers after him, covenanted at Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Ma-idah: 67), they have forfeited the right to be called true Muslims. This deviation led to harassment, persecution and murder of the children of the Holy Prophet.

As stated above total submission to the will of Allah implies belief in His oneness (tawhid), in His book and in His messenger. A true believer accepts as true every verse revealed to the Holy Prophet, otherwise he will be in the position of a disbeliever. Therefore there is no escape from the consequences of the declaration made by the Holy Prophet at Ghadir Khum when verse 67 of al Ma-idah was revealed to him. Without the belief in Ali’s wilayah and imamah, the faith is neither complete nor will it be accepted on the day of judgement.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The repeated reference to the belief in the Holy Prophet excludes the people of the book (Jews and Christians) from “the believers”, though they may believe in Allah. because they do not believe in the final revelation (the Quran) revealed to the last messenger of Allah, the Holy Prophet.

 

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَآمَنُوا بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۙ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:2] (see commentary for verse 1)

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا اتَّبَعُوا الْبَاطِلَ وَأَنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّبَعُوا الْحَقَّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ أَمْثَالَهُمْ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:3] (see commentary for verse 1)

فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَضَرْبَ الرِّقَابِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَثْخَنْتُمُوهُمْ فَشُدُّوا الْوَثَاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً حَتَّىٰ تَضَعَ الْحَرْبُ أَوْزَارَهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ وَلَوْ يَشَاءُ اللَّهُ لَانْتَصَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ لِيَبْلُوَ بَعْضَكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَلَنْ يُضِلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:4]

This verse commands every believer to kill or be killed when he fights disbelievers. If slain the rewards from Allah are many. According to Baqarah: 154 and Ali Imran: 169 to 171 the martyrs are not dead, they are alive, getting sustenance from Allah, rejoicing in the grace and mercy of Allah; and Hajj: 58 and 59 say that they occupy the highest position near Allah. If the believer prevails over the enemies of Allah, he destroys the power base of evil, disorder and corruption.

Those who deserted the Holy Prophet in the battles of Uhad and Hunayn (see commentary of Bara-at: 25 to 27 and other references mentioned therein) and ran away to save their lives must be identified and condemned in view of this verse.

The ordinance to kill the disbelievers is applicable when they launch an attack on the believers, not when they have surrendered. Islam prescribes effective defence in the event of an unprovoked aggression. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah 190 to 193.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

When once the enemy is brought under control, the release of prisoners with or without ransom is recommended. The slaughter of captives was never allowed by Islam. How a believer deals with the captives is a test. Some take ransom, some let them go for the sake of Allah; and some take care of them, shelter them and feed them with no strings attached.

 

سَيَهْدِيهِمْ وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَهُمْ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:5]

These verses refer to martyrs. See commentary of verse 4.

 

وَيُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:6] (see commentary for verse 5)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ تَنْصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنْصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:7]

Study this verse in the light of verses 11 and 12 of Anfal and verse 27 of Ibrahim.

The undertaking to firmly plant the feet of believers is conditional-if the believers serve the cause of Allah. Allah is able to do all things, but He wants to test the mettle of every believer and distinguish his calibre in the eyes of the people. When his qualities are manifested to the highest degrees, he is chosen to carry out and fulfil His will. Those who fail to serve the cause of Allah, their feet falter and run on the road leading to cowardice, desertion and confusion. See commentary of Bara-at: 25 to 27 and other references mentioned therein.

History is witness to the fact that the feet of the Imams of Ahl ul Bayt were firmly planted in the ground of submission to the will of Allah, so they never deviated or drifted from the right path in lure of worldly gains. Neither persecution nor death could sway them from the way of Allah.

The Holy Prophet said:

“My Ahl ul Bayt are like the ark of Nuh. Whosoever sails on it is saved and whosoever holds back is drowned and lost for ever.”

The greatest evidence of steadfastness in the cause of Allah was established by Imam Husayn and his relatives in Karbala and after Karbala.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

To preserve and keep alive goodness and righteousness in thought and action in the worst circumstances is the surest sign of firmness in faith. The weak in faith stumble at the slightest hint of inconvenience or by the faintest glimpse of advantage.

 

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَتَعْسًا لَهُمْ وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:8]

As said in the commentary of verses 1 to 3 and 4 of this surah, all good deeds of the disbelievers, hypocrites and deviators are rendered null and void because they have disobeyed the commands of the Holy Prophet which amounts to disobedience to Allah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Verse 9 says that the good deeds of those who dislike any revelation, or even its part, are rendered null and void.

Tabari has reported the following conversation between Ibn Abbas and the second caliph:

“The elders of Quraysh did not like prophethood as well as caliphate to be given to the house of Hashim, so they chose their own candidate.” said Umar.

Ibn Abbas quoted this verse and said: “No wonder the Quran had already pointed out those who dislike the revelations from Allah. If they had chosen the man whom Allah had chosen, it would have been better for them.” See commentary of verse 30.

 

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:9] (see commentary for verse 8)

أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ دَمَّرَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ أَمْثَالُهَا {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:10] (see commentary for verse 8)

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَأَنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ {11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:11]

The word mawla (master and guardian), used for Allah in this verse, has been used in the same sense for the Holy Prophet in Ma-idah: 55 and Ahzab: 6; while the Holy Prophet described himself and Ali as mawla in relation to all the believers at Ghadir Khum (see commentary of Ma-idah: 67) in precisely the similar purport and purpose.

 

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يَتَمَتَّعُونَ وَيَأْكُلُونَ كَمَا تَأْكُلُ الْأَنْعَامُ وَالنَّارُ مَثْوًى لَهُمْ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:12]

Beasts eat food like human beings but have no higher interest. Men who covet the world exclusively are no better because their pleasures and enjoyments rise no higher than the beasts. They have no desire for spiritual happiness. As the human beings have been endowed with intellectual and spiritual faculties, if they live in this world as the beasts live, their abode will be hell in the hereafter.

Refer to Anfal: 55 and Furqan: 44.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Had Adam continued to live in the garden where he and Hawwa were first lodged, they would have remained satisfied with the physical pleasures and enjoyments available to them there, never knowing what are the intellectual and spiritual challenges man can face, and rise to the higher realm of spiritual perfection as the Holy Prophet did in the night of ascension (see commentary of Bani Israil: 1).

 

وَكَأَيِّنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ هِيَ أَشَدُّ قُوَّةً مِنْ قَرْيَتِكَ الَّتِي أَخْرَجَتْكَ أَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ فَلَا نَاصِرَ لَهُمْ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:13]

Makka was the city the pagan dwellers of which drove out the Holy Prophet because he preached the religion of Allah.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse was revealed when the Holy Prophet was migrating from Makka to Madina. This conveyed to the idolatrous Makkans clear prediction of their utter rout and annihilation-a great prophecy.

The Holy Prophet, while leaving Makka, said:

“O Makka, I love you dearly. Had I not been persecuted by your idol-worshippers, I would never have left you; and it is also the command of my Lord.”

 

أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَمَنْ زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:14]

It has repeatedly been mentioned in the Quran that good and evil can never be alike and equal so as to warn people to keep this fact in view when they choose a leader to guide them. See Ma-idah: 100; An-am: 50; Rad: 16; Zumar: 9 and Mumin: 58. Not to lose the right path it is essential to keep one’s eyes open to see the traps laid by the false leaders. See commentary of Hud: 17; and Yunus: 35. According to Ankabut: 69 Allah Himself guides every sincere seeker who wants to identify and follow the true guides. The first and the foremost leader is the Holy Prophet and after him Ali ibn abi Talib and the Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt are the true leaders, all of whom have been appointed by Allah after thoroughly purifying them. See commentary of Fatihah: 6 and 7; Baqarah: 2 to 5, 30 to 39, 124, 143; Ali Imran : 7, 61, 101 to 115, Bara-at (introduction), Yunus: 35, Rad: 7; Maryam: 41 to 50; Anfal: 20 to 25; Bara-at: 41; Bani Israil: 71; Ta Ha: 9 to 98; Ahzab: 33, Fatir: 32; Sad: 86; Shura: 23; Saba: 47, 67 to 79; and Furqan 57 and several other verses.

 

مَثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ فِيهَا أَنْهَارٌ مِنْ مَاءٍ غَيْرِ آسِنٍ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ لَبَنٍ لَمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ طَعْمُهُ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ خَمْرٍ لَذَّةٍ لِلشَّارِبِينَ وَأَنْهَارٌ مِنْ عَسَلٍ مُصَفًّى ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ كَمَنْ هُوَ خَالِدٌ فِي النَّارِ وَسُقُوا مَاءً حَمِيمًا فَقَطَّعَ أَمْعَاءَهُمْ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:15]

Refer to Zukhruf: 73 and Saffat: 67.

The word maghfirat used in this verse confirms our interpretation of this word in verse 55 of Mumin. It means protection not pardon, otherwise it must be concluded that the dwellers of paradise will also transgress and sin in the land of eternal bliss and will be pardoned and forgiven by Allah now and again.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Whatever is described in this verse is a figurative presentation of the life of bliss and satisfaction in the hereafter.

 

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا خَرَجُوا مِنْ عِنْدِكَ قَالُوا لِلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ مَاذَا قَالَ آنِفًا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:16]

Imam Ali said:

“Those who have been given knowledge” refers to us.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Up to verse 15 comparison has been made between the believers and the disbelievers.

From this verse the hypocrites have been described and identified.

All those who saw, heard and lived with the Holy Prophet, though they embraced Islam, were not alike in the degree of submission to Allah. Therefore the theory which propagates that all companions are righteous and guiding stars is contrary to the Quran.

According to Imam Ali there were men of ordinary intelligence and understanding among the companions, and among them were some who opposed the Holy Prophet, and some had no interest at all in the message he preached.

Refer to An-am: 25, Yunus: 43 and Ankabut: 49.

 

وَالَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا زَادَهُمْ هُدًى وَآتَاهُمْ تَقْوَاهُمْ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:17]

فَهَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا السَّاعَةَ أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمْ بَغْتَةً ۖ فَقَدْ جَاءَ أَشْرَاطُهَا ۚ فَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمْ إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ ذِكْرَاهُمْ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:18]

Refer to Yunus: 107 and Zukhruf: 66

The time is running out and when a wrong or an injustice is done the time for the punishment is drawing near every movement, therefore the time for repentance is right here and now, because when punishment comes, it is too late for repentance and amendment.

According to the Holy Prophet when the following signs manifest in the world Imam Mahdi al Qaim will come to bring order, justice and harmony in the human society by introducing Islamic laws in letter and spirit, and after expiry of his term the world will come to an end. All will die and then they will be brought to life again to face the day of judgement:

Regular praying of salat will be discontinued.

Carnal passions will be enjoyed unabatedly.

Sincere believers will have no control over the lawlessness prevailing among the people.

Evil will be praised as good, and good will be condemned as evil.

The unreliable will be considered dependable and the reliable will be regarded untrustworthy.

The liars will be accepted as the truthful and the truthful will be rejected as the liars.

Teenagers will preach religion from the pulpit.

Fun and frivolity will be a popular pastime among the people.

Spending in the way of Allah will be avoided by the rich as an unjust punishment.

Children will not obey their parents.

Comets will frequently appear.

Droughts will devastate the world now and again.

Those who are in need of help will be looked down as burden on the society.

The devil will conquer the hearts of the people, even though they may appear as human beings.

Homosexuality will be legalised.

Men will dress like women, and women will attire themselves in men’s clothes.

Masjid will be adorned with gold and silver, like the heathens adorn their temples.

People will pose as friends but harbour ill will and hostility in their hearts.

The Muslim men will wear silk and gold.

Usury and bribe will become a mode of daily life.

Musical instruments and games of chance will be the main source of enjoyment.

Irreligiousness will be a sign of distinction.

The rich will go to pilgrimage as a picnic or a pleasure trip, the middle class will use it for making money, and the poor to pose as pious.

The Quran will be studied to show off, not to seek the truth.

There will be a large number of bastards among the people.

Women will abandon hijab (veil) and freely indulge in immorality.

Unseasonal rainfalls will be in abundance.

Adultery will become fashionable.

Due to decline in birthrate there will be one man among fifty women.

 

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:19]

Refer to the commentary of Mumin: 55 and verse 15 of this surah for wastaghfir lidhambika. The Holy Prophet is commanded to seek Allah’s protection “from falling into errors in future” for the believing men and women so that they may follow his pattern of life. Forgiveness is sought for the sins already committed in the past and protection is sought against the errors (one has not committed) as a precaution that may keep the seekers of protection from falling into the trap prepared by Shaytan and his comrades.

Every thought or deed influences character formation which will be the main asset at the time of reckoning before the Lord who knows the seen as well as the unseen, therefore every sincere believer must always pray to seek Allah’s protection against falling into the trap of sin and evil.

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as Sadiq said:

“Just as a flutter of wind or a strong shaking brings the dried leaves of a tree on the ground, istighfar helps man to get rid of sins.”

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Istighfar is a request made to Allah to keep the supplicant free from sinning by His grace and mercy. It is the highest form of worship. Every true servant of Allah uses this means to stay away from falling unintentionally into the pit of sin and evil, but a divinely commissioned leader (Imam) not only prays for himself but also for those who follow him, because their welfare is his responsibility.

 

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌ ۖ فَإِذَا أُنْزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ مُحْكَمَةٌ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا الْقِتَالُ ۙ رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِيِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ ۖ فَأَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:20]

The men of faith and loyalty are eager to serve the cause of Allah and wipe out the evil for ever. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 214, 215; Ahzab: 1 to 3, 9 to 27; Ali Imran: 13, 121, 122, 128, 140 to 159; Anfal: 5 and 16; Bara-at 25 to 27 for the battles of Badr, Uhad, Khandaq, Hunayn for the decisive role Ali played in the defensive wars the Holy Prophet fought, and for “those in whose hearts is a disease”, the deserters, who used to abandon the Holy Prophet and the cause of Allah at the slightest possibility of defeat because in reality they were hypocrites. The disease is hypocrisy, disloyalty to the cause, want of courage and spirit of self-sacrifice, and lack of true knowledge and conviction.

 

طَاعَةٌ وَقَوْلٌ مَعْرُوفٌ ۚ فَإِذَا عَزَمَ الْأَمْرُ فَلَوْ صَدَقُوا اللَّهَ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ {21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:21]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“If they were true to Allah” proves that they were not sincere and loyal. It is a condemnation. Ibn Abbas had interpreted this verse as such. The command of Allah must be obeyed. There is no room for personal opinions.

 

فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَنْ تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُوا أَرْحَامَكُمْ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:22]

If the evil is not destroyed, it is sure to spread all over the world and prevalence of evil will not respect ties of kith and kin.

As in the preceding verse, the reference here is to the Quraysh, not applicable to ansar.

 

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمَىٰ أَبْصَارَهُمْ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:23]

Cursing the hypocrites (tabarra) is a godly act.

 

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:24]

Islam is not a blind faith. The religion of Allah is based upon reason, intellect and wisdom. What the study of the history of human society brings to light confirms the inevitability of the laws of Islam as the only source of establishing order and justice.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ ارْتَدُّوا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَى ۙ الشَّيْطَانُ سَوَّلَ لَهُمْ وَأَمْلَىٰ لَهُمْ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:25]

This verse applies to the hypocrites and those who deviated from the path of Allah in their mad rush for power, pomp and position after the departure of the Holy Prophet from this world.

It is related in Sahih Muslim and other books, from the Holy Prophet, that on the day of judgement a group of his companions will be thrown into the fire because, after his departure, they turned on their heels and became disbelievers, and revolted against Allah and the Holy Prophet. They exercised authority without permission and thus unleashed forces of corruption and disorder. The history of the so-called followers of the Holy Prophet, at every turn, records the crimes committed against the Ahl ul Bayt and their followers. The tragedy of Karbala is more than enough to condemn and curse the so-called followers of Islam for ever, despite the apologies put forward by their theoreticians, because verse 28 clearly says that all their deeds will be rendered null and void, and wrath of Allah will seize them.

 

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا لِلَّذِينَ كَرِهُوا مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ سَنُطِيعُكُمْ فِي بَعْضِ الْأَمْرِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِسْرَارَهُمْ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:26] (see commentary for verse 25)

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:27] (see commentary for verse 25)

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اتَّبَعُوا مَا أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ وَكَرِهُوا رِضْوَانَهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:28] (see commentary for verse 25)

أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ أَنْ لَنْ يُخْرِجَ اللَّهُ أَضْغَانَهُمْ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:29]

Disease of the heart refers to hypocrisy, because infidelity is a manifest opposition to Allah and His prophet. The hypocrites took cover of Islam to continue opposition so that one day they might turn the table on the true followers of the religion of Allah. In Ali the hypocrites faced an unassailable force not only in the lifetime of the Holy Prophet but also after his departure. Ali and his sons, the Imams of the Ahl ul Bayt, kept the torch of true Islam lighted in all ages. No intrigues, plans and machinations of the hypocrites, even with the unbridled temporal power at their disposal, could corrupt or disfigure the true message of Allah. Every true seeker of truth finds the truth in the teachings and life patterns of the holy Imams who successfully defied and repelled the hatred and hostility of the hypocrites in all ages.

 

وَلَوْ نَشَاءُ لَأَرَيْنَاكَهُمْ فَلَعَرَفْتَهُمْ بِسِيمَاهُمْ ۚ وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِي لَحْنِ الْقَوْلِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ أَعْمَالَكُمْ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:30]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This verse refers to those hypocrites who remained under cover. Abu Said Khudri says that in the time of the Holy Prophet the believers used to recognise such hypocrites by the tone of their speech. Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari and Obadah ibn Thamit say:

“We used to test our children with the love they had for Ali.”

The Holy Prophet said:

“O Ali, loves you not but a believer; and hates you not but a hypocrite.”

Ahmad ibn Hanbal says that from verse 22 onwards the reference is to Bani Umayyah.

In my opinion the tribe of Umayyah is included, but it cannot be confined to them, excluding other hypocrites from among the Quraysh who hated and actively opposed Ali on the pretext that risalat and imamat should not be given to the two sons of Bani Hashim.

Reproduced below is a conversation between Ibn Abbas and Umar bin Khattab, recorded by Ibn Athir in his Tarikh al Kamil. Allama Mutazili has also recorded it in his Sharh al Nahj al Balagha, vol. 3, p. 107.

Umar said: “O Ibn Abbas, do you know what made the ummah deprive you (Bani Hashim) of the khilafat after Muhammad?”

“The ummah,” he continued, “did not want to see both the prophethood and the caliphate resting with you (Bani Hashim) for fear that you might injure the interests of the nation and trample her at your will. The Quraysh, therefore, chose the caliphate for themselves. They made a right decision and were successful in getting it.”

Ibn Abbas said: “Regarding your remarks that the Quraysh chose the caliphate for themselves, that they were right and were successful in obtaining it, I have to observe that the Quraysh would have been right and none would have questioned their claim to the caliphate or been jealous of them only if they had chosen it for themselves in accordance with the will of Allah. As to the remark that the Quraysh did not want to see both the prophethood and the caliphate resting with us (Bani Hashim), I remind you of the words of Allah, who described a nation that disliked Allah’s choice: ‘This is because they disliked what Allah caused to descend and so Allah destroyed all their deeds (Muhammad: 9).”

Umar said: “Woe to you, Ibn Abbas, you have been reported to have said that we deprived you (Bani Hashim) of the caliphate through jealousy, injustice and oppression.”

Ibn Abbas said: “As to injustice and oppression, all educated and uneducated persons know it to be so. As to jealousy, there is no wonder if you, as children of Adam, are jealous of us who are (also) his children.”

Umar said: “By Allah, you (Bani Hashim) have always been jealous.”

Ibn Abbas said: “You should not attribute the impurity of jealousy to the hearts of that group of persons from whom Allah has kept away all sorts of impurities and uncleanliness and purified them with a thorough purification.”

 

وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّىٰ نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ مِنْكُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَ أَخْبَارَكُمْ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:31]

To know who is the mujahid (he who strives in the way of Allah) see commentary of verses mentioned in verse 20, which also points out the deserters who used to abandon the Holy Prophet at the slightest hint of defeat.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَشَاقُّوا الرَّسُولَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْهُدَىٰ لَنْ يَضُرُّوا اللَّهَ شَيْئًا وَسَيُحْبِطُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:32]

See commentary of verses 25 to 28.

It is clearly laid down in this verse that the deeds of those who oppose the Holy Prophet will be rendered null and void.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:33]

Doing good deeds is highly commendable and shall be rewarded provided the doer of good is a believer who not only obeys Allah but also carries out the commands of the Holy Prophet. Any deviation from any command of the Holy Prophet would destroy all the good deeds done by the deviator.

Refer to the commentary of Nisa: 65; known as hadith al qartas, to know about the person who not only refused to obey the Holy Prophet but branded him mad and a delirious old man.

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:34]

فَلَا تَهِنُوا وَتَدْعُوا إِلَى السَّلْمِ وَأَنْتُمُ الْأَعْلَوْنَ وَاللَّهُ مَعَكُمْ وَلَنْ يَتِرَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:35]

إِنَّمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ ۚ وَإِنْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا يُؤْتِكُمْ أُجُورَكُمْ وَلَا يَسْأَلْكُمْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:36]

Refer to the commentary of An-am: 32 and Ankabut: 64.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“Will not ask for you possessions” is in no way connected with zakat and khums. It refers to the Holy Prophet regarding his return for his mission.

 

إِنْ يَسْأَلْكُمُوهَا فَيُحْفِكُمْ تَبْخَلُوا وَيُخْرِجْ أَضْغَانَكُمْ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:37]

هَا أَنْتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ تُدْعَوْنَ لِتُنْفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يَبْخَلُ ۖ وَمَنْ يَبْخَلْ فَإِنَّمَا يَبْخَلُ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ الْغَنِيُّ وَأَنْتُمُ الْفُقَرَاءُ ۚ وَإِنْ تَتَوَلَّوْا يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُونُوا أَمْثَالَكُمْ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 47:38]

Spending in the way of Allah has been commanded in the overall interest of the people. If they are niggardly they destroy their own souls and create disorder in their own society. Allah is self-sufficient, independent. The whole universe belongs to Him. See commentary of Ma-idah: 54.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The last portion of this verse refers to the non-Arab people who would be more loyal to the true faith.

 
Source:quran.al-islam.org


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