By: Ayatullah al-Uzma Naser Makarem Shirazi

PREFACE

1- In our era we witness a great deal of changes that are caused by Islam, which is the greatest of the Divine Religions. It has obtained a new birth. Muslims have wakened up and are returning to their origin. They are now seeking to remove their difficulties through the Islamic commandments, for not finding the solutions elsewhere.
As for the reason for the changes, one needs to discuss it separately. It is now important to know that the traces of the great changes, are seen throughout the Islamic world, and also in the NON-Islamic countries! Now the world wants to know what does Islam say and what a new MESSAGE for the people may it have? In such a critical condition, it is our duty to present Islam as what it really is, and without any embellishment; by a clear cut and simple language; in order to be understood by all, and to satisfy the thirst of those who need to know more about the religion. We should speak it ourself, and not to let anybody else to speak for us, or to decide for us.
2- It can not be denied that, Islam Too, like the other important religions consists of different sects. Each sect, has its own peculiarities, and yet, the differences are not such as to prevent co-operations and joint ventures among the groups. On the contrary, they may protect themselves through such mutual aids and co-operations, and stand firmly against the storms that are blown from West and East, preventing their enemies to do their tricks, and accomplish their purposes.
To develop such a mutual understanding and co-operation, needs to follow especial orders, the most important of which is that; different sects should know each other well, so as to remove suspicions and pave the path for collective actions.
The best way for the sects to know each other, is to know the root and branches of their faith, and to obtain the knowledge by first hand, and from the well versed and the learned that are known and accepted by all among the sects. If we take our knowledge about a sect from him who is not aware enough; or from him who is an enemy, love and hatred will prevent truthful understanding.
3- Owing to the two above mentioned points, we have decided to summarize the Islamic principles and commandments with our stress on some specialties of the SHIITE SECT; to provide a writing with the following qualifications:__
A- That it may consist of a concise of the whole; so as to make the readers free of want of reading voluminous books.
B- That the discussions be clear cut, and void of difficult technical words used by the experts, without diminishing the main subjects.
C- That our main object is to mention the beliefs but not to ignore giving reasons if necessary.
Our proofs are taken from the holy book, traditions and wisdom.
D- That the book may be free of concealments, flatteries courtesies and pre-judgements.
E- That modesty and the rules of etiquette be observed in relation to all religions and sects.
This pamphlet was written during my pilgrimage to Mecca, in which the spirit has more purity and vivacity. It was discussed in several several with the scholars and learned, and after much investigations it was finalized for publication.
We hope to reach the goals mentioned above and have it a saving in the resurrection day.
“Our lord! We have heard the call of one calling us to faith;” “Believe you in the lord.” and we have believed. Our lord! Forgive us our sins. Blot out from us our iniquities, and take to thyself our souls in the company of the righteous.
The Holy Quran 3:193
Qom : Amir al-Momenin (A.S.) Islamic Seminary
Naser Makarem Shirazi

CHAPTER ONE
THEISM AND MONOTHEISM
1- THE OMNIPOTENT’S EXISTENCE
We Believe that the Almighty, and omnipotent God exists as the Creator and Ruler of the universe; and that the traces and signs of His greatness, knowledge, and power is apparent through the different aspects of any thing that exists; i.e. in human, animals, vegetations as well as in the planets of the skies and the higher worlds.
WE BELIEVE that the more we think over and study the secrets of all being things, the more we shall get to know of God’s greatness, and the extent of his unlimited knowledge, and power.
The progress of scientific researches will open new doors, extending the dimensions of our thoughts, which serves to increase our love for HIM, and to take us closer to HIS sacred essence. The approach will draw us to the immense light of God’s glorious beauty. We do read in the Holy QURAN:
“On the earth are signs for those of assured faith; as also in your own selves. Will you not then see?”
THE HOLY QURóAN S51: 20 – 21
“BEHOLD! In the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of night and day – there are indeed signs for men of understanding.
Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, who contemplate the wonders of creation in the heavens and the earth; (with that thought they say:-) Our lord! Not for naught has thou created all this! Glory to thee, give us salvation from the penalty of the fire.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S3: 190 – 191
2- THE ATTRIBUTES OF HIS GLORY & BEAUTY
We believe that His essence is void of any defect, clean of deficiencies, and adorned with all perfection that may exist. He is mere perfection, or in other word:
Any perfection and beauty that may ever exist, has it’s source in His Holy ESSENCE.
“Allah is He besides whom there is no other God. The sovereign, the Holy one, the source of peace, the keeper of faith, the Gaurdian of
safety, (the PROTECTOR) and the exalted in might, the IRRESISTIBLE, the SUPREME. Glory to Allah who is above the partners that they attribute to HIM.
He is Allah the creator, the originator, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the most beautiful names. Whatever is in the heavens and on the earth give glory to Him, He is Almighty, the Wise one.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S59: 23 – 24
3- THE INFINITE ESSENCE OF GOD
WE BELIEVE that He is an infinite existence in all respects, such as knowledge, power, everlasting and pre-existence. Therefore He will not be contained in time and space, while He is in everywhere and at any time, for being above space/Time.
“It is He who is Allah in heavens and Allah on earth, and He is full of wisdom and knowledge.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S43: 84
“And He is with you where ever you may be, and Allah sees all that you do.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S 57: 4
Yes, He is nearer to us than ourselves. He is with our soul, and He is everywhere, and in the meanwhile He has not a certain place:
“It was we who created man, and We know the promptings of his soul …. For We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S 50: 16
“He is the first and the last, the visible and the invisible, and He has full knowledge of all things.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S 85: 15
Therefore if we read in the Holy QURAN that: `He is the owner of ARSH’ (which means either throne or empyrean) or `He sat upon His throne’; or `His throne does extend over the heaven and earth;’ none of these verses mean that He may have a certain place. (these are all metaphors) These are to express His sovereignty over every thing and every place. If we consider Him to have a certain place, we have limited Him by giving Him the attributes of His creatures, while we know that:- `nothing is like Him’. (Q – S 42: 11) And: there is none equal to Him! (Q – S 112: 4)
4- GOD HAS NO MATERIAL BODY AND NO EYE CAN EVER SEE HIM
WE BELIEVE that God can never be seen by the physical eyes; because the object of seeing by the eyes is a material body that has to have place, colour, form and direction. These are all the qualifications of the creatures, and not that of the creator. God is really far from that. Therefore the belief that one may physically see God is a sort of polytheism, and going astray in this field.
“No vision can grasp Him, but He grasps all visions.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S6: 103
This is why when the Israelites objected, asking Moses to let them see God: he took them to the Mount Sinai, and as mentioned in HOLY QURAN:–
“And when Moses came to a place appointed by us, (ON THE MOUNT SINAI) his lord addressed him; and Moses said,”o my lord! show thyself to me: (let me see you) that I may look upon You! Allah said,” By no means can you see me; but look upon the mountain, if it abides in its place, then you may see me.”
When his lord manifested His glory on the mountain it turned into dust, and Moses fell down into a swoon. When he recovered his senses, he said, “Glory be to thee! To thee I return and I am the first one to believe in you.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S7: 143
And by such incidents it was proved that God can never be seen.
WE BELIEVE that our Islamic traditions denoting the observance of God, aim at seeing Him by the mind and by the heart, and not by the sense of vision of the eyes at all. In one of his sermons collected in the famous book: NAHJUL BALAGHA, Imam Ali says:- “Eyes can not see Him, but He can be seen by the realities of FAITH”.
WE BELIEVE that the attributes of the creatures, such as: place, direction, material body, and physical observance should not be ascribed to God. If done so, it shall lead to polytheism, and remoteness from the true knowledge of HIM, who is above all, and nothing is similar to HIM.
5- MONOTHEISM IS THE VERY SOUL OF ALL THE ISLAMIC COMMANDMENTS
WE BELIEVE that one of the most important subjects of the knowledge of God, is the MONOTHEISM, i.e. the belief that there is but one God. As a matter of fact Monotheism (TOWHID) is not only a principle of the religion, but the most important of the tenets. It is the very soul and the base of all the Islamic ideas and beliefs. We can say that the roots, as well as the branches of Islam take their forms in the monotheism.
The UNITY and ONENESS is a general topic of conversation everywhere and in every field:- UNITY OF GOD’S ESSENCE, Unity of His attributes, and actions. In other word, also the unity of prophets and their teachings, the unity of the LAW, GHIBLEH, and the books. And after all, the unity of Moslims through their brotherhood and the unity of the resurrection day. From this point of view the HOLY QURØN declares POLYTHEISM as an unforgiveable SIN:-
“Allah does not forgive those who set up partners with Him, but He may forgive any sin inferior to that, of whom he wills.
He that sets up CO-SHARERS with Allah is guilty of a SIN which is most heinous indeed.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S4: 48
“It has already been revealed to you as it was revealed to those before you that:-” If you join gods with Allah, your deeds shall be fruitless, and you surely will be one of those who lose. (all spiritual goodnesses)
THE HOLY QURAN – S39: 65
6- THE BRANCHES OF MONOTHEISM
WE BELIEVE that MONOTHEISM, (TOWHID) has many branches among which four are the most important ones:-
A- THE UNITY OF ESSENCE
By that we mean: His absolute Holy Essence is one, indivisible, and no one is similar or like unto him.
B- THE UNITY OF HIS ATTRIBUTES
By that we mean:- knowledge, power, Eternality (EVERLASTING and PRE-EXISTENCE) and all other qualities and attributes of Him are in His Essence and are exactly the very self of His Essence. This is contrary to His creatures whose qualities are different to that of their bodies, and from each other too. This is a critical point and is to be thought upon with minute care.
C- THE UNITY OF HIS ACTION (ACT)
By that we mean that any action, movement, or effect, throughout the existence, have their causes in His will. In other word every thing depends on Him.
“Allah is the creator of all things, and He is the GAURDIAN and Disposer of all affairs.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S39: 62
“To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. He enlarges and restricts the sustenance to whom He wills, for He knows all things well.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S42: 12
Yes! In this world, nothing is effective but Allah. But this does not mean that we are forced in all respects, and all that happens is inevitable; on the contrary, we all have free will in our decisions.
“We showed man the way: whether he is grateful or ungrateful.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S76: 3
“Man can have nothing except that which he strives for, and the results of his striving will soon be seen.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S53: 39
Such verses in the holy Quran, will clearly show that man has free will, and that we may refer man’s deeds and acts to God without any reduction in his responsibilities for what he does.
God wills that we do what we do, in freedom and by free will, so that He may examine us and lead us for ward in the way of perfection, which could be attained through free will and serving the LORD.
Any thing done by force is neither a sign of good not bad. Had We not free will, the missions of the prophets would be futile, and the holy books sent down could mean nothing, and the reward and punishments of the doomsday would be unjust. These are what we understand from the teachings of our Imams, for they say:- ” It is neither FREE WILL, nor FORCE MAJEURE, but something medium and in-between.”
D- THE UNITY OF WORSHIP
By that we mean; God is the only Being that deserves, and is worthy of being worshipped. No one is to be worshipped but Allah. This branch of Monotheism is one of the most important one among the other branches. The prophets have all laid great stress on the unity of worship.
“They are enjoined to worship none but Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true in faith, and attend to their prayer, and to pay the alms taxes. (TITHS)
That is the religion: right and straight.”
THE HOLY QURAN – S98: 5
To pass over the road to perfection, One has to go deeper in monotheism, and to withdraw his affections from everything and all, but Allah, his Merciful Lord. He has to seek Him and look for Him everywhere and think of nothing but Allah. Whatever keep man busy other than Allah, it is an idol for him.
WE BELIEVE that the branches of monotheism are not restricted to the four as mentioned above. We also know other branches of less importance and yet very important.– such as the UNITY OF OWNERSHIP:–
“Know you not that to Allah alone belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth?”
THE HOLY QURAN S5: 43
And also such as the UNITY OF SOVEREIGNTY, that only God has the supreme power and authority over all, and upon every thing.
“If any one does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then they are the unbelievers.”
7- THE MIRACLES
WE BELIEVE that the unity of acts put the emphasis upon this fact that:- the great miracles that were performed by the prophets were all with the permission of Allah as we read in the Book about the miracles of JESUS CHRIST:
“And remember when Allah said to JESUS; O,JESUS the son of Mary! Recount my favours to you and your mother. I strengthened you with the HOLY SPIRIT, So that you spoke to the people in childhood and in maturity. I taught you the book and wisdom the law, and the Gospel. And when you made out of clay the figure of a bird and by my permission you breathed into it and it became a (REAL) bird! And with my permission you healed the born blinds and lepers. You raised the dead by my leave. I restrained the children of Israel from (HARMING) you when you showed them the clear signs, and the unbelievers among them said,” This is nothing but evident magic.”
THE HOLY QURAN- S5: 113
When Solomon decided to have the throne of Bilqis transported to his court, so as to alter it to a basis of faith and religion of unity, a large powerful JINN, and one of his ministers volunteered to bring the throne thus:-
“One who had knowledge of the book said,” I will bring it to you in a twinkle of an eye!”
Then when Solomon saw the throne placed in front of him, he said,” This is by the Grace of My Lord, so as to test me if I am grateful or not.
And he who thanks; thanks for the benefit of his own soul, and my Lord is free of all needs.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S27: 42
8- THE ANGELS
WE BELIEVE in the ANGELS of God who are assigned to perform different duties.
Some of them were to take God’s Divine Guidance through inspiration to the prophets and apostles.
A group of the angels register the acts of men and women. Some of them take out the souls at the time of death. A group helps the believers who are steadfast to their principles. Some help the believers in the sacred battles. Another group’s duty is to punish those who transgress the bounds of decency. They do, all that they do with the permission of God; and in His charge, and these fulfillments are not contradictory with the belief of Monotheism, and the unity of acts. This also proves that the intercession of the prophets and saints on behalf of the guilty people, is in accordance with Monotheism, for it is done by the leave of the LORD GOD.
“No intercessor can plead with the LORD, except after His Permission. (Has been obtained)
THE HOLY QURAN – S10: 3
We shall give more details about this in our discussion on the prophethood.
9- WORSHIP NO ONE BUT ALLAH
WE BELIEVE, that no one is to be worshipped but the LORD GOD. If any one worships any other than Him, he is surely a polytheist. The missions of all the prophets were turning around the center of the unity of worship. This is frequently mentioned in the Holy QURAN and all the scriptures. It’s remarkable that We Muslims have to repeat in our daily prayers as a slogan that:-
“You alone We worship, and only Your aid We seek.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S1: 5
It is evident that the belief in the Prophet’s -T¨S intercession which is found in the Holy QURóAN, is not a sort of worshipping of the prophets or saints. Also, to ask a prophet or saint for a help in solving our problems, is neither worshipping them, nor is it contrary to the unity of acts, the detail of which is given in the chapter on the prophethood.
10_ NO ONE CAN EVER KNOW THE DEPTHS OF HIS SUBSTANCE
WE BELIEVE that although the manifestations of His Essence is found everywhere and in everything; His substance is not known to any one! That is; no one can ever know the innermost depths of His substance. This is because whatever HIS SUBSTANCE might be, is an infinite being in all aspects and without limits of any kind; just as we are limited in contrast to HIM. On this basis, no one can ever know what HIS substance really is!
“Behold! it is HE that encompasses all things.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S41: 54
“AND Allah surrounds them from behind.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S85: 20
How long would you boast of the wisdom of yours, this road can not be travelled by thought?
You could reach the innermost depth of HIS substance, if a straw could reach the bottom of an ocean.
A tradition is narrated from the Messenger of God:- “MY LORD! WE didn’t worship as you deserved; and we couldn’t know you as we should have.” Of course this tradition (HADIS), doesn’t mean that IF We cannot know HIM thoroughly; We cannot know HIM partially too: or in the limitless knowledge of HIM We should suffice by learning some words, the meaning of which we cannot go through. This is because the Holy QURØN and all the Gospels and scriptures are sent to man to help him to know God better and more. There are other instances of this matter too:_ As an example We do not know what our soul really is and yet we are sure that it exists and we can observe its effects and signs.
A tradition (HADIS) is narrated from Imam BAGHER as fallows:-
“Any thing that you may think of is not the Lord who is the creator, but it is rather a creature created by your thoughts, and conjectures- some creatures just like yourselves, and God is greater than all.” *Imam Ali has also said,” God has not given to the wisdom, the knowledge of HIS Essence or Attributes, and yet HE has not left the wisdom unaware of HIM.( BAHAROLANVAR _ vol.66 _ Page 293;GHORAROLHAKAM)
11 _ NEITHER SUSPENSIOIN, NOR COMPARISON
WE BELIEVE, that, as it is not right to suspend our attempts to achieve knowledge of HIM and HIS Attributes, it’s also wrong to wander in the fields of COMPARISON, and seeing HIM some how like one of HIS creatures, that both the ways lead to EXTREMES.

CHAPTER TWO
THE MISSION OF THE PROPHETS
12_ THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE PROPHETHOOD
WE BELIEVE that God has sent a long line of prophets and apostles for the guidance of mankind towards salvation and perfection. If not so; the creation would fail to serve the creator’s purpose, and man would be drowned in the whirlpool of aberrations.
(WE SENT THE APOSTLES) Who gave glad “tidings as well as warning; so that mankind, after the coming of the apostles, may have no plea against Allah, the exalted in POWER the WISE.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S4: 165
WE BELIEVE that among all the prophets there are five ARCHPROPHETS, who are the most prominent ones, who have had LAW, DIVINE book and new religions. THE first was NOAH, the second was ABRAHAM. then came Moses, The fourth of them was JESUS CHRIST; and the last of all was MOHAMMAD.
“And remember when We made a covenant with you, as we did with the other prophets:– with NOAH and ABRAHAM, with Moses and Jesus the son of Mary. We took from them a solemn covenant, so that Allah might question the truthful about their truthfulness. Allah has prepared for the unbelievers a grievous punishment.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S33: 7
“Bear up them with patience as did the ARCHPROPHETS before you, and be in no haste about the unbelievers.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S46: 35
WE BELIEVE that the holy prophet Mohammad closed the long line of APOSTLES, and he is the LAST of the prophets, His Islamic law will cover all the mankind, and will remain until the end of the world. That is to say: _ the nature of his doctrine and Islamic commandments is so becoming, that will satisfy all the needs of man up to the end. And that; if any one claims to be a prophet after him, the claim is false.
“Mohammad is not the father of any of you men, but he is the apostle of Allah, and the SEAL of the prophets. Allah has full knowledge of all thing.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S33: 40
13_ THE SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN THE FOLLOWERS OF DIVINE RELIGIONS
Although we believe that, Islam is at present the only official religion accepted by God, it doesn’t mean that there cannot be a symbiosis between the followers of Divine Religions, whether they live in the Islamic countries or elsewhere. This has an exception of those non-Muslims who are combatants against Islam and Muslims.
“Allah for – bids you not, to be kind and equitable to those who have neither made war on your religion, nor driven you out from your homes. Allah loves the equitable.
THE HOLY QURAN S60 : 8
WE BELIEVE that we can make known the truthfulness of Islam to man, by logical and fair discussions. Islam is so logically attractive, that if it be presented clear and pure, many will be attracted to it, particularly now a days, that we see so many eager ears ready to listen. This is why we believe that we need not to impose our religion on people by force.
“There is no compulsion in religion. Truth is cleared out from error. Whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah, has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that never breaks. Allah hears and knows all things.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 256
WE BELIEVE that if the Muslims do what their religion tells them to do, their deeds are enough to present and spread Islam, and no force or compulsion is needed for that
14_ THE PROPHETS ARE INNOCENT FOR’ LIFE
WE BELIEVE that all the prophets are INNOCENT through out their lives. This means that by the GRACE of GOD they are always guiltless, before and after their prophetic mission. If not so; people would lose their confidence on them, and would not know them good mediators to act between them and God.
If in the Holy QURAN, guilt’s are ascribed to them, it is only:_ “PREFERRING THE BETTER OVER THE BEST.” In other word, they may choose one of the two which is less good and not that which is bad. Some times a good work of a good believer might be a sin for the nearest to God: and every one is expected to do what is becoming to HIM.
15_ THEY ARE GOD’S OBEDIENT SERVANTS
WE BELIEVE that it has been the greatest honour of the prophets to be the obedient servants of God. This is why we repeat in our daily prayers the following phrase:_ ” I TESTIFY THAT MOHAMAD IS THE SERVANT OF GOD; AND HIS MESSENGER TOO.”
WE BELIEVE that none of the prophets have claimed to be a god.
“It is impossible that a man to whom is given the SCRIPTURES, WISDOM, and PROPHETHOOD; should say to people:_ “WORSHIP ME INSTEAD OF GOD.”
On the contrary he would say:
“Be you all devouted servants of God, who is truly the cherisher of all, for you have studied and been taught the scriptures.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S3: 34
And that JESUS CHRIST has never asked people to WORSHIP him.
“Christ does not disdain to serve and worship Allah; nor do the nearest angels feel contempt to do that.
Those who disdain His worship and who are arrogant will be gathered together in front of HIM. (TO ANSWER)”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S4: 172
The histories written today show that among the early Christians in the first century (A.D.), the TRINITY did not exist at all. It appeared later.
16_ MIRACLES AND THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE UNSEEN
Being the servant of God doesn’t prevent the prophet to know the unseen, or the future and the past by the leave of God.
“God alone knows the UNSEEN, nor does HE make any one aware of HIS Mysteries, Except an apostle whom He has chosen.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S72: 26_27
We know that one of the miracles performed by Jesus, was to inform people of some of the mysterious affairs.
“… And Jesus said I declare to you what you EAT and what you store in your houses…”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S3: 49
Mohammad the prophet of Islam too, declared many secrets by the way of God’s inspiration.
“That is of the unseen reports which we reveal by inspiration unto you.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S12 _ 102
So the prophets may inform of the unseen through the inspiration of God. It is in the Holy QURAN that the prophet says:_
“I tell you not that, with me are the treasure of Allah; nor do I know what is hidden, (THE UNSEEN) nor do I tell you that I am an angel. I only follow that which is revealed to me.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S6: 50
This, of course, refers to the substantial knowledge, and not the knowledge obtained by Divine teachings to the prophets.
WE BELIEVE that these reverend prophets have performed miracles and super natural acts by the leave of God; and because we believe their miracles to be with the permission of God, we don’t consider that a sort of polytheism. According to the HOLY QURAN; Jesus Christ raised the dead to life again, but by the leave of God, and healed the incurable diseases:_
“By Allah’s leave”, said Jesus; “I shall give sight to the blind, and heal the lepers, and I raise the dead to life, (with the permission of God.)”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S3: 49
17 _ THE INTERCESSION OF THE PROPHETS
WE BELIEVE that all the prophets, particularly our prophet, are in a position to intercede with God on behalf of a certain group of sinners. This intercession must be, and is by the leave of God.
“No intercessor can plead with Him, except after His leave.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S10: 3
“Who is there to intercede in His presence, except with His permission?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 255
If in some of the Holy QURANIC verses we see that intercession is rejected: it refers to the absolute intercession, and not that which is by God’s leave:_
“O, Believers! Bestow in alms a part of that which we have given you, before that day arrives in which there shall be neither trading, nor friendship, and nor intercession.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 254
Here the independent intercession is meant which is not by the leave of God. We have always repeated that some of the Holy QURANIC verses describe some other.
WE BELIEVE that the intercession is a good means for training and turning the sinners to the right path. It enjoins virtue and sanctity, and inspires hope in these who deserve it. It also is a notice to the sinners:_ not to ruin the bridges behind themselves, and live a little way of return to their Merciful Lord.
18_ THE QUESTION OF RESORTING
WE BELIEVE that resorting too, is similar to the intercession, which permits those who have problems and difficulties to resort to the prophets and saints for a help; so that they may pray to God asking HIM to solve the problems of the resortees:
“When they oppressed themselves, would they have come to you (i.e. MUHAMMAD) to ask Allah’s forgiveness for them, they surely would have found Allah an acceptor of their repentance and the Most Merciful.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S4: 64
In the story of JOSEPH the dreamer, found in the HOLY QURAN, when his brothers felt regret and repented, they resorted to their father (JACOB) to ask God to forgive them their sins. The old father agreed with their request, and promised to ask for their salvation in due time. In this respect the HOLY BOOK has:_
“They said,”O, our father! Ask forgiveness for our sins, for we were really at fault.”
He said,” Soon I shall ask my LORD to forgive you all, for HE is indeed often forgiving and Merciful”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S12: 97_98
Of course one should not transgress the logical bounds by thinking that the prophets could do as they liked without the permission of God. One should not try to change a case of resorting or interceding into a case of worshipping the prophets and the saints which is then mere Polytheism. They substantially can do nothing unless God permits them to do it.:–
“Say:_” I have no power over any good or bad to myself, except by the will of Allah.
If I had the knowledge of the hidden, I would have availed myself of much goodness, and no harm would have touched me at all.
I am only a Warner to all of you and a bearer of glad tiding to those who have faith.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S7: 188
19_ THE PRINCIPLES OF ALL THE PROPHET’S MISSIONS ARE ONE
WE BELIEVE that all the prophets pursued the same aim which is the prosperity of mankind, through faith in God and the resurrection, and by religious training. This is why we respect all the prophets. We learn from the HOLY QURAN:–
“The Apostle (i.e. Mohammad) believes in that which is revealed to him from his LORD, and so do men of faith they all believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, and in all HIS APOSTLES. They say:_ “We make no distinction between any of the prophets. They also say: we hear (THE PROPHETS) and we obey. OUR LORD! We seek thy forgiveness, that to you end all the roads.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 285
By the elapse of time, man was prepared to have newer and better training. The religions too, gradually turned deeper and deeper, till at last Islam was revealed with that perfection needed to cover all purposes and all times
“The unbelievers at this day have all abandoned to despair of vanquishing your religion. Have no fear of them, and only fear me.
This day I have perfected your religion for you, and have completed my favour to you, and have chosen for you, ISLØM to be your religion.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S5: 3
20 _ REPORTS OF THE FORMER PROPHETS
WE BELIEVE that many of the former Prophets have informed their followers of the coming of the next one. For instance, Moses and Jesus have given a clear account of the mission of the last of the prophets, Muhammad.
“Those who follow the Apostle the unlettered prophet whom they find mentioned in their own scripture in the LAW and the GOSPEL. He commands them what is just and equitable, and forbids them what is evil….”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S7: 157
This is why we read in the history that a little while before the coming of Mohammad, a group of Jews came and settled in MEDINA, waiting for the prophet they expected to appear, as it was foretold in their scripture.
Deut. 18:15 _ JOHN 14: 16_25 _ JOHN 15:26 _ JOHN 16:7
When the prophet came, some of them accepted his doctrine and converted to faithful believers, and some found their material benefits and political positions endangered and rejected the invitation to Islam.
21_ THE PROPHETS AND THEIR REFORMS IN ALL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LIFE
WE BELIEVE that the Divine Religions sent through the Apostles _particularly Islam_ not only improves the social life of the individuals, or heeds the moral and ethics of people. It also covers all the different aspects of the human life. Even the roots of some necessary sciences are taken from them.
WE BELIEVE that one of the main objects of the Divine leaders and Apostles, is to achieve complete social justice:_
“We sent our Apostles with clear signs, and sent down with them the Book and the SCALE (OF RIGHT & WRONG) that man might do justice.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S57: 25
22_ RACIAL AND TRIBAL ADVANTAGES REJECTED
WE BELIEVE that all the prophets, especially our prophet Muhammad, admitted no Racial or Tribal advantages for any one. To them, all the races, nations languages, and color of skin, were of equal value and at the same rank:_
“O MANKIND! We have created you all, from a male and a female; and made you into nations and tribes so that you may know each other. The most honoured among you all, in the sight of Allah is the most virtuous one. Allah is All- knowing, All-aware.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S49: 13
We have a famous tradition that Muhammad (S.A.W.) was in MINA during the performance of the rites of pilgrimage (HAJ). He made a speech for an audience while he was on his camel. He said,
“O PEOPLE! Know that your God is only one; and all of you are the descendants of one father. No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab and vice versa; Neither a black is better than that with a redskin, except for their PIETY. Do you all fallow me? “Yes we all understood,” said the audience. “Then let those who are present,” continued the Messenger of God:” convey that to those who are absent.”
23 _ ISLAM AND THE HUMAN NATURE
WE BELIEVE that Monotheism, belief in God, and the commandments of the Apostles, are all natural, and based upon the human instinct. The prophets have only watered and grown this fruitful seed.
“So set your face steadily in devotion to the true religion the natural pattern on which God has made mankind.
(Let there be) No change in this natural pattern created by Allah. That’s the standard religion which most people do not understand.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S30: 30
This is why throughout the history; Man has had some sort of deity and Religion. Even those nations, who bore the heavy pressures of anti-religion policies and propagandas, have returned back towards their religion as soon as they obtained some freedom.
Of course it can not be denied, That Man, for his low culture has often had his true religion mixed with superstitions, and the prophets main roles were to remove that and clean the mirror of the hearts.( TAFSIR GHARTABI_ VOL.9: 6162)

CHAPTER THREE
The Holy Qur’an and the Scriptures
24_ THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE REVELATION OF DIVINE BOOKS
WE BELIEVE that, for the guidance of man, God sent down several DIVINE BOOK, among which we may name:_ The SOHOF, given to NOAH; the LAW, given to Moses; the GOSPEL given to JESUS, and the Holy QURAN given to Mohammad.
Were these books not sent, human would have been led astray, falling afar off from the natural path of piety, ethics, and straight path of truth.
Such divine Books, like the clouds of mercy, have rained upon the plane of the hearts, making to fruitful the seeds of knowledge, wisdom and virtues.
“The APOSTLE (MOHAMMAD) believes in that which is revealed to him from his LORD, and so do man of faith they all believe in ALLAH, His angels, His books, and in all His apostles.
They say:_ “We make no distinction between any of the prophets.” They also say: “We hear the prophets and we obey.” Our LORD! we BEG Your forgiveness that to you ends all the road.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 285
Unfortunately through long elapse of time, many of the scriptures have been tampered with, and altered to some extent, by the interference of some ignorant and unauthorized people, resulting in the replacement of some wrong thoughts and immoral ideas. Among these an exception is the Glorious Quran, which has remained unaltered and exactly is the same as it was; and It has always been shining like the bright sun, throughout the ages and the nations, alighting the hearts.
25_ QURAN, IS THE GREATEST OF THE MIRACLES OF OUR PROPHET
WE BELIEVE that QURAN is the greatest and the most important one, among the many miracles of Islam’s prophet: Not only for its eloquence, fluency, vividness and expressiveness, but rather for other important aspects and wide dimensions of the book, about which broad descriptions have been given by the experts and commentators in their books.
WE BELIEVE that no one can ever bring a book like the Holy QURAN, even not a chapter comparable to it! This is because, the Holy QURAN frequently asks the doubtful to do it if they can, and all who have endeavoured have failed!
“Say:_ “If the whole of mankind and JINNS gather together to make out a book like this QURAN, they cannot do it even if they back up each other with help and support.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S17: 88
“If you are in doubt of what we have revealed to our servant (Mohammad), then produce only one chapter comparable to this book; and call your witnesses or helpers to help you, if there are any besides Allah to assist you; if what you say be true. But if you fail to do so, and certainly you will fail, then fear the FIRE whose fuel is man and STONES prepared for the unbelievers
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 23_24
WE BELIEVE that age will not make the Holy QURAN old and out of date; but rather its miraculous points and views shall appear more and more clearly, and its greatness shall become more evident to the world.
We have a tradition narrated by Imam Jaafar Sadiq that:_ “God has not made QURAN to answer a certain age or distinct group of people. It shall always remain fresh, New, and lively.”
26_ QURAóN IS NOT ALTERED AT ALL
WE BELIEVE that this book, _ (QURAN)_ which is now at the hands of the Muslims, is the exact and unaltered copy of that which was revealed to our prophet Muhammad _ nothing less and nothing more.
A group of trustworthy scribes chosen by the prophet himself took note of the revelations from the very beginning up to the end, and Muslims had it a duty of must, to read and recite the verses by day and night. A large group of Muslims committed the book to memory and a group of them had it on the scrolls.
Those who had the book in their memory and those who could recite it for the others, had always had a very respectful position among the believer. Such customs and else, prevented the least amount of changes or any alteration to take place in the book.
Besides that, God Himself has promised and guaranteed to look after His book and keep it safe and secure until the end.:–
“We have without doubt, sent down the QURAN, and We will assuredly guard it.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S15_9
All the learned, and researcher of Islam, whether SHIITE or SUNNI, agree that the least alteration has not ever occurred in this Holy Book.
Some literate persons discuss some rare and obscure tradition (HADITH) that may mean that some changes have taken place, but the highest majority of those who have the knowledge of Islam, reject that, taking it false and the mistake of some unaware commentators.
Such improvident who lack forethought, by such false ideas strike upon the validity of the most important DIVINE BOOK, in contrast to the belief of all the learned Muslims of different sects, which maintain that QURAN is unaltered for the least of words. These unwise friends, water the mills of the enemy through their ignorance, and bring into question the book which is sent by Allah, and has been promised to be guarded by Allah.
If we carefully study the ways that the book was revealed to the prophet and collected by the chosen scribes, and how it was guarded, written, memorized and recited by so many firm and true believers, no doubt remains as to any alteration or the change of even an epsilon in the whole work.
On the other hand, of the imaginary or assumed Quran with some alteration, not ever a copy exists anywhere, or in any hand, so as to differ with the famous HOLY QURAN which all the Muslims hold as their SACRED DIVINE BOOK.
Today the Holy Quran is found in every house and in every library. Even those Qurans written several hundred years ago are kept in our MUSEUMS and those in the non Islamic countries, and no one can find the least differences in all the existing Qurans throughout the wide world.
Today the roads to investigations are open to all, and anyone who doubts, may look for it himself and make sure that QURAN has not been altered for the least.
“So announce glad tidings to My Servants _ to those who listen to My PRECEPTS, and follow what is the best in them. Those are the ones that Allah has guided and those are endued with understanding.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S39: 17_18
Today, in our religious schools, the knowledge of QURAN is extensively taught, and one of the most important of our lessons in this field is the UNCHANGEABILITY OF QURAN.
27_ QURAN AND THE SPIRITUAL AND PHYSICAL NEEDS OF HUMAN
WE BELIEVE that whatever is needed in SPIRITUAL AND PHYSICAL dimensions of man is fundamentally found in the holy QURAN. All the governmental and political tenets, all the social principles, the bases of symbiosis, the fundamentals of war and peace, the elements of judgements and economics, and whatever is needed, can be traced in the BOOK and taken out for use, so as to alight the space of human life:__
“And We have sent down to you the BOOK, explaining all things, It is a GUIDE, a Mercy, and Glad tidings to Muslims.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S16: 89
This is why WE BELIEVE that Islam is not APART of politics and diplomacy. This belief makes the Muslims to rule over themselves, so as to revive the precious Islamic values in their societies, leading towards justice and equity. A Muslim Must be just and fair to his enemy as he does justice to friends:_
“O, Believers! Stand up firmly to hold JUSTICE, and be as a witness to ALLAH, even against yourselves or your parents or your kins, and whether it be against rich or poor for God is preferable to all that.
Follow not your lusts, lest you swerve. If you fail to do justice, verily Allah is aware of all that you do.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S4: 135
“O, BELIEVERS! Stand up firmly for the sake of Allah, and bear true witness, and let not the hatred for other men, turn you away from doing justice. Deal justly. Justice is nearer to PIETY. Have fear of Allah. He is aware of all that you do.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S5: 8
28_ RECITATION, CONTEMPLATION, AND ACTION
WE BELIEVE that the recitation of QURAN is the best of worship, because it inspires the reciter to think and to contemplate, by which actions may result. QURAN addressing the prophet says:_
“Keep vigil all the night (i.e. stand in prayer) except for a few hour,half the night, more or less; and with measured and.” rhythmic tone recite the QURAN.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S73: 2_4
And addressing all the Muslims, QURAN has:_
“Read you the QURAN as much as you can.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S73: 24
“Do they not contemplate the QURAN, (so as to catch its meanings) or their hearts are locked up?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S47: 24
“And We have indeed made the QURóAóN, easy to understand and remember. Then is there anyone who may receive admonition?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S54: 17
“And QURAN is a book which We have revealed as a blessing: So follow it, and be righteous, so that you receive God’s Mercy.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S6: 158
Therefore those who read QURAN, without any contemplation, and action, lose a lot for ignoring two main, important elements (thought and act) and grasping only one. (reading)
29_ THE DEVIATING DISCUSSIONS
WE BELIEVE that some mysterious hands have always tried to deviate and swerve Muslims from contemplation and thought over the verses of QURAN.
The OMAYYED and BANIABBAS dynasties engaged the Muslims on void disputes, to answer the question whether QURAN is old or new!? Is it created or is eternally old as God!? Such prolong controversies divided the united Muslims into rival groups altercating and fighting each other. Today we know that thousands of bloods have been shed upon such arguments about nonsense, and quarrels for nothing! While any one with a common sense can answer that easily:_ If by QURØN, the paper and ink, the cover and the painting is meant, it is certainly created and is something new. On the other hand if by QURAN the meaning is the aim, it is certainly among the knowledge of God, and as the God’s Attributes are not apart of His substance, one may say that QURØN is as old as God Himself.
But the inhuman, merciless governors tried to keep Muslims busy on these useless subjects; and nowadays too, we see that the same thing and similar affairs happen in Muslim societies, so as to keep them aside of contemplation and thought.
30_ RULES AND REGULATIONS OF COMMENTATING QURAN
WE BELIEVE that the words of QURAN should commonly be taken for their fundamental meanings and not for their connotations, with the exception of some, that clear reasons prove them to mean other ways. The verses in QURAN should never be commentated on the basis of conjectures or self interests. As an instance when we read in QURAN:_
“And he who was blind in this world, will be blind in the hereafter (next world), and most astray from the path.(of salvation)
THE HOLY QURAN _ S17: 72
We are sure enough that blind in this verse does not mean, sightless. It rather means some one who has lost his sense of understanding and judgement, and not him who has lost his sense of vision. This is because there is many a blind one, who is virtuous and truthful, and on the contrary, there are many who can see well with their eyes, but who are out of mind and their hearts are locked up and cannot use even their common sense! As another example we may consider the following verse about the enemies of Islam:_
“The parable of those who reject faith is that of a man (i.e. the prophet) who calls an animal that can hear nothing except a shout or cry. DEAF, dumb and blind are they, and void of wisdom. (they understand nothing)
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 171
It is evident that those heretics, who are addressed here, were not deaf, dumb or blind. We then may conclude that they were mentally such. Therefore when we read in Qur’an such verses that:_
“The HANDS of God are widely out stretched.
THE HOLY QURAN S5: 67
OR
“O,NOAH! construct the ark under OUR EYES.”
S11: 37
We don’t understand that God has physical hand or eye. We rather take hand to mean GOD’S POWER and the EYE to mean HIS KNOWLEDGE. This is because any material or matter consists of parts and needs time and space, as well as direction and is of course perishable. God the Almighty is far Greater and clear of having such attributes.
We never take the fundamental meaning of such words as mentioned above which is not reasonable.
“We sent not any Apostle, except to teach in the language of his own people, in order to clear things for them.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S14: 4
31_ THE DANGER OF SELF COMMENTARIES
WE BELIEVE that self commentary of QURAN (i.e. to use one’s own views and interests in comments) is a very dangerous programme in relation to QURAN, and of course one of the few DEADLY SINS. Through a tradition God says:_
“He who commentates any words with his own views and self interest does not believe in Me!”
Evidently had he been a believer, he would not commentate the words of God to accord with his lusts and conjectures.
In many important books among which we may name SAHIH TIRMIDHI page 304: It is written that the prophet has said:_
“He who commentates QURAN by his fancies, and on the basis of self interest, or what he knows not, he should prepare himself to join the Fire of HELL.”
By self commentary we mean to describe or explain the Quranic verses by one’s own point of view. Such a commentator is not a follower of Quran, He rather tries to make Quran to follow his caprices and conjectures. If the gates of self commentaries be kept open to Quran, the sacred Book will lose importance and soon will be of no value among all, because every one could then seek to compare and conform his false ideas to Quran, as an evidence to prove.
Self commentary is also in contrast with the accepted rules and regulations of Arabic literature and linguistics,. The likening of QURAN’S verses to one’s fancies and conjectures will cause deviation and swerving in the straight path of the book.
Self commentary consists of several branches, among which, to USE OUR the self interests is one. To make it short, as the unreasonable grasp of the fundamental meaning of the words may lead to deviation from the truth, so is self commentary,; both ways will keep the believer far apart from the excellent commandments and blessfull teaching of the Glorious Quran.
32_ THE PROPHET’S METHODICAL WAY, (SUNNAT) IS TAKEN FROM THE BOOK OF GOD. (QURAN)
WE BELIEVE that no one should say the Book of God is enough for our guidance, ignoring the true traditions that we have received as to what the prophet said or how he behaved. For these traditions may serve to explain the realities, and clear the meanings of some of the more difficult verses in the Book to show us better the roots and branches of our religion.
This is because Quran has declared that the words, and the methodical ways (SUNNAT) of the prophet should serve as an example for us; as that of the God’s.
“….. So take whatever the Apostles assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you, and fear Allah, for Allah is strict in punishment.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S59: 7
“It is not becoming to a believer, whether man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and by His Apostle, to have any option. If anyone disobeys Allah and His Apostle he is on a clearly wrong path.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S33: 36
“He (i.e. Muhammad) does not speak out of his own fancy, His speech is none except that which is inspired to him from God. (i.e. what he says is none but inspired revelation)
THE HOLY QURAN _ S53: 2_3
Those who are indifferent to the SUNNAT of the prophet are in fact ignoring QURAN and the inspired REVELATION. Of course whatever is related to the prophet must be clearly proved: That, it really is said by the prophet, and it is not forged.
We cannot easily accept whatever is ascribed to the prophet to be truly of Him!
Imam Ali in one of his speeches WHICHIS collected in the famous book, named NAHJOL BALAGHEH has said,
“So many lies were forged and ascribed to the prophet. So much so that one day he got up and said to an audience. `He who ascribes a lie to me should prepare himself to take his place in the Fire of Hell.'”
A similar tradition is also written in the famous book SAHIH BUKHARI volume one; page 38.
33_ THE IMAM) METHODECAL WAY (SUNNAT)
WE BELIEVE that the traditions and orders of the innocent Imams are all taken from the prophet, through their fathers, and are all to be obeyed. There is a famous tradition related by successive witnesses:_
“I have left among you two heavy things to prevent you being misled:_ The Book of Allah and my nearest KINS.”( SAHIH TIMIDHI_ volume 5 _ P.662)
On the other hand, whatever the saints have said, are narrations from the prophet: The prophet foresaw the future and to solve its problems, laid the key in the hands of his nearest kins, and THE BOOK OF ALLAH; and how can a true Muslim ignore such a firm and important Hadith? If the above tradition was considered precisely, our present difficulties in faith, comments, and the disputes in jurisprudence, would not exist.

CHAPTER – FOUR
RESURRECTION AND THE LIFE AFTER DEATH

34 _ WITHOUT RESURRECTION, LIFE IS VOID
WE BELIEVE that all men and women will be raised up in a certain day after death. They all will be judged, and those who are good and virtuous shall live in PARADISE (THE GARDEN OF BLISS), and the sinners will join the fire in Hell.
“Allah, there is no God but He. Of a surety He will gather you all together in the resurrection day about which there is no doubt, and whose word can be truer than Allah?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S4: 87
“As for he who transgressed and chose this present life, his abode will be Hell-Fire. And as for those who feared to stand before their LORD, and restrained their souls from lusts, (LOW DESIRES) their abode will be PARADISE.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S79: 37_41
WE BELIEVE that this world is only a bridge that man should pass it over so as to join an eternal life; or in other word it may be a farm, to sow here and to harvest in hereafter or else it may be taken as a market here to provide for the next life to come.
About this life of ours, Imam Ali says:_
“This WORLD is a place of truth for him who confronts it with truthfulness. It is a house (means) for being FREE OF WANT, for him who gathers provisions from it and stores for his next life. It is a place of awareness for him who takes advice from it. It is the mosque of the friends of God, a place of worship for the angels; where God’s inspirations is sent down, and a trade market for God’s friends.”
35 _ THE REASONS FOR THE RESURRECTION ARE CLEAR ENOUGH
WE BELIEVE that the reasons to prove the resurrection are very clear, because, it can easily be seen that this mortal life cannot be a reasonable object, and the final goal for such a creation; i.e. to come and live here for a short period, living with immense hardships and difficulties, and then end to nothing or to some dusts! Is that what is meant by our complex creation?
“Do you think that we have created you for nothing, (IN JEST) and that you would not return to us?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S23: 115_
Secondly; in this world the evildoers are usually in one line with the beneficent and some times higher; a none equity which doesn’t read with the great justice of God. So there must be somewhere or some how to distinct bad from good and false from truth.
“Do the evildoers think that they are equal in OUR SIGHT, with the believer who does good works, so that their lives and deaths are alike? How bad they judge!
THE HOLY QURAN _ S45: 21
Thirdly; the Infinite Mercy of God NECESSITATES that His Mercy and Bounties come not to an end by man’s death.
“Say to who belongs all that heavens and the earth contain? say to Allah; He has inscribed Mercy for Himself and willl gather you all on the day of resurrection. That day is sure to come. Those who have lost their own souls are those who will never have faith.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S6: 12
Quran, addressing those who doubt about the resurrection asks: How do they doubt the Power of the Almighty to raise the dead? While they already have seen God’s first creation, BEGINNING to make them out of the soil:_
“Were we weary with the first creation that they should be in confused doubt about a new creation?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S50: 15
“And he (the unbeliever) makes comparison for Us, and forgets his own creation. He asks:_ `Who will give life to the rotten bones?’ say:_ `He who created them for the first time will give them life again, He has knowledge of every creature.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S36: 78_79
Besides that; is the creation of man important in comparison with that of heavens and the earth? He who was able to create such a vast, and strange world, is He not able to raise the dead?
“Do they not see that Allah who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation can raise the dead to life? Yes, He Has Power to do everything.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S46: 33
36 _ RESURRECTION IS CORPOREAL
WE BELIEVE that not only the SOUL, but the soul and body of man both will be raised to life in resurrection. This is because whatever is done here is done by both the soul and the body; so the reward too should be given to both of them.
Most of the Quranic verses which refer to resurrection have put the stress on corporeal raise of the body as well as the soul.
In answer to the amazed questioner, who asked the prophet:_ who raises the dead? Quran answers:_ He who gave them their first creation can easily raise them once again.
“Does man think that we cannot assemble his bones once again? Yes! We are able to remold the very Tips of his fingers.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S75: 3_4
Such verses also denote that the resurrection is corporeal too. There are also verses that report of getting out of our graves, proving the raise to be bodily
37 _ THE STRANGE WORLD, AFTER DEATH
WE BELIEVE that whatever is going on after death, and in the PARADISE & HELL, is far above what we see here!
“No one knows what delights of the eyes,(THE REAL BLISS THAT GIVES MOST SATISFACTION) are kept hidden for them as a reward for their good deeds.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S32: 17
Through a famous tradition God says:_
“I have prepared for my virtuous servants.
BOUNTIES that not eye have ever seen, no ear has ever heard, and no heart has ever comprehended.”
As a matter of fact, in this world we are similar to a FOETUS in the mother’s womb! If the fetus could have a mind and wisdom he could certainly KNOW nothing of whatever is outside the womb, such as the sun, the bright moon, the beautiful flowers AND the roaring sea-waves. So is this world COMPARED to the hereafter? It is comparable with the womb in relation to the next. Please note carefully.
38 _ RESURRECTION AND THE RECORD OF OUR DEEDS
WE BELIEVE that in DOOMSDAY, the RECORD BOOK of whatever we have done, will be given to us. The record of those who are sanctified will be given to their right hand, and that of the wrongdoers shall be given to their left. By reading the book of their deeds the virtuous will be happy and the evildoers anxious.
“He who is given his record in his right hand will say:_ `Take mine and read it! I knew that I would come to my account.’ And he will be in a blissful life, in a lofty garden with clusters of fruit within his reach.
We shall say to him: Eat and drink to your happiness.’ Here is your reward for what you did in days gone by.’ And as for him whose book is given to his left hand, will say: `Ah! Would that my record had not been given to me! Would that I knew nothing of my account. Would that death had made an end of me. “My wealth has availed me nothing, and I AM BEREFT OF ALL MY POWER.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S69: 19_25
As for the book; how it is written or read, no one knows enough, but it exists, no one can deny. The particularity of that day is such that we cannot know it in detail, but generally we know what is going to happen.
39 _ THE WITNESSES IN THE FINAL JUDGEMENT
WE BELIEVE that in the final judgement, besides God who is controlling all the judgements, there are other witnesses too; such as the hands and feet; the skin and even the ground upon which we live. All of these will testify as to what we have done before!
“That Day, We should set a seal on their mouths, (SHUT THEM UP) and their hands will speak to Us, and their feet shall bear witness to all that they did.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S36: 65
“When they reach it, their ears and their skins will testify to their misdeeds! `Why did you speak against us?’ they will say to their skins? And their skins will reply:_ “ALLAH, who gives speech to all, has made us to speak.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S41: 20
“When the Earth is shaken to her utmost convulsion, and man asks:_ `What may this mean?’ On that DAY will she declare her reports, because your LORD has inspired her to do so?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S99: 4_5
40 ö THE PASSAGE_WAY, (BRIDGE) AND THE SCALE TO WEIGH DEEDS
WE BELIEVE that in the Doomsday, the PASSAGEWAY (SERØT) and the scale for weighing our deeds do exist. By the PASSAGE_WAY, a bridge is meant, which is laid over the Hell, and every one must pass over that bridge to reach PARADISE! Yes! The bridge or passage way that may lead to Paradise, hangs over the FIRE.
“There is not one of you who shall not pass through the confines of the Hell! Such is the absolute decree of your LORD. We will deliver those who fear Us, but the wrongdoers shall be left to endure its torments on their knees.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S19: 71_72
Passing through that hard passage-way, depends on what MAN had done before. We read a famous tradition thus:_ “Some people will pass the bridge as quick as a lightning! Some pass it over as, fast as a speedy horse, others like the pedestrians. A group will go on, leaning on their hands and feet, and some are hanged by their hands, trying to pass over the blaze of Hell. So the Hell catches some and leaves some to go to the gardens of BLISS; As for the SCALE, it is a means by which the human deeds are measured and weighed so as to specify their values.
“We shall set up the scales of justice on the day of judgement, and not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it to account; and enough are We as the accountant.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S21: 47
“Then he whose scales (OF GOOD DEEDS) are heavy, shall dwell in BLISS, but he whose balances (OF GOOD DEEDS) are light, the ABYSS shall be his home.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S101: 6_9
WE BELIEVE that salvation in the next life, depends only on one’s deeds and acts and not on his fancies and thoughts. There; No one can be redeemed unless by piety and good deeds, and the Grace of God.
“Every soul will be held in pledge for its deeds.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S74: 38
This is a brief description about the scale, the detail of which we know not, because the world to come is far above the lower world within which we are imprisoned.
41_ INTERCESSION IN DOOMSDAY
WE BELIEVE that in doomsday the prophets and the innocent saints might intercede on behalf of some sinners with God, and plea for their forgiveness. We should not forget that such intercession is only permitted for those who have not entirely cut off their relation with God, and His Apostles. Therefore the intercession is not done unconditionally.
“He knows what is before them and what is after them, and they (i.e. the APOSTLES) offer no intercession except for those who are conformed, to the will of God, and they (ALL) stand in awe and reverence of God’s GLORY.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S21: 28
As we have already mentioned, intercession is a way to train man, a means of preventing him to drown in the sea of sins, while it may teach him to repent and return to his Merciful Lord from evil.
Certainly the highest rank of intercession belongs to the APOSTLES, and then it lowers to the saints, to the learned, the martyrs, and true believers to some relative extents.
In a tradition narrated by Imam Sadiq we have:_ “There are none among the first and the last, who are not in need of Mohammad’s intercession in doomsday. And also in another tradition we have:_
“There are five intercessors in Doomsday:_1_ QURAN 2_OBSERVATION OF BONDS OF KINSHIP. 3_TRUSTEESHIP 4_YOUR. PROPHET (MOHAMMAD). 5_YOUR PROPHET’S NEAREST KINS.”( BIHAR _ Vol.8 _ P.42)
We have also received another tradition from Imam Sadiq:_
“In the resurrection day God raises the Ascetic worshipper and the LEARNED BELIEVER to life. He will say to the ASCETIC WORSHIPPER:_ `Go and live in MY PARADISE.’ But He will say to the learned:_ `Stay here, and intercede on behalf of the people.’
This tradition contains a minutely fine point about the philosophy of INTERCESSION.
42_ THE WORLD OF THE DEAD (BARZAKH)
WE BELIEVE that between death and resurrection, there is a third WORLD, called BARZAKH, in which the souls of all the human beings who die will live there until they are raised again:_(1)
“When death comes they say:_ “`My Lord! Turn me back to life in order that I may do the good works which I have neglected.’ No! BY NO MEANS! (Is the answer to their request?) This is what they ask, but over them is the BARZAKH.” (A world in which people shall live ofter death and before judgement.)
THE HOLY QURAN _ S23: 94_100
We know not much about this world which is in between the raise and death and is called BARZAKH,
.- KANZ UL AAMAL_ Vol.14 _ P.390
but we know that therein the sanctified souls, like the martyrs and the pious live a blissful life:_
“Do not think of those who are slain for the sake of God, as deads. No! They are ALIVE, and have their sustenance in the presence of their Lord.
They rejoice for what Allah gives them out of His BOUNTY; and with regard to those left behind, (THE BELIEVERS WHO ARE NOT DIED YET) who have not yet joined them, the martyrs give glad tiding, not to fear, nor have they any cause to grieve.
They give good news of the BOUNTY of ALLAH, and that God will not leave the rewards of the faithful to be lost.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S3: 169
On the other hand the souls of the oppressors and the rebels and their followers and evildoers are all under torture in their life in BARZAKH.
They are brought (i.e. THE PHARAOH’S FOLLOWERS) in front the fire morning, and evening, and when they are raised for the FINAL JUDGEMENT, the companion of PHARAOH are cast into the severest penalty.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S40: 46
A third group with less guilt are neither among the first group nor among the second ones. In the world after death they are some how like a sleeper who sleeps by death and awakes by resurrection.
“When the hour of doom overtakes them, the wrong doers will swear that they tarried not in (BARZAKH) but an hour, and thus they are ever deceived.
But those who are endued with knowledge and faith will say:_ `You have stayed till the day of resurrection, as was decreed by Allah, and this is the day of resurrection yet you did not know it.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S30: 56
In an Islamic tradition it is narrated by the prophet who said, “The grave is either a GARDEN OF BLISS OF the Paradise: or AN ABYSS of the Hell.”( SAHIH TIRMIDHI VOL.4 _ CHAP.26;BAHAR AL ANWAR_ VOL.6 _ P.2148218
43_ THE CORPOREAL AND INCORPOREAL REWARDS
WE BELIEVE that the rewards in Hereafter are corporeal as well as incorporeal; (i.e. SPIRITUAL) because the resurrection is Spiritual as well as PHYSICAL.
Whatever is written in the HOLY QURAN about the fruitful Gardens in paradise with streams flowing beneath its trees (S9: 89) with perpetual foods and shades, (S13: 35) and the beautiful clean wives there in, with whom they marry (S3: 15), and also about the penalty and punishments in hell, and that burning fire, are all evidences that the rewards there are corporeal.
And more important are the SPIRITUAL rewards that are promised the faithful believer, such as being near to God, and seeing the manifestations of God’s GLORY and beauty. These are among the pleasures that no eyes has seen and no tongue can describe.
Some of the verses in QURAN that denote the material bounties and Graces of God in the Paradise, end with phrases like:_ THE PLEASURE OF ALLAH:_
“But the greatest of all the bliss, is the PLEASURE of God which is the supreme FELICITY.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S9: 72
There is not an enjoyment higher for a man THAN SEEING that he is accepted by his LORD, and God is pleased with him!
A tradition is narrated by Imam Zeinul Abedin saying, ”God will say to those in Paradise:_ ‘My love and pleasure for you is far above the bounties with which you live in FELICITY.’ ”(TAFSIR AYYASóHI AND TAFSIR AL-MIZAN S9:72)
What a pleasure can be higher for a man who is addressed by his LORD that:_
“O,YOU SERENE SOUL! Return to your LORD! Joyful, and pleasing in his sight. Enter My Paradise and join My Servants.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S89: 27_30

CHAPTER FIVE
IMAMAT LEADERSHIP

44- THERE IS ALWAYS AN IMAM
WE BELIEVE that as God has decreed to send His Apostles with divine Guidance, so also for any age or time, God Has appointed an Imam to look after the people, leading them to the righteous path, and to guard the divine Law against ay deviation. Imam has to know clearly, the necessities of the ages, and lead the people to the true path of God. He invites and teaches the people to obey the prophets and to follow the LAW. If not so, man will fail to obtain the goal for which he is created i.e. prosperity and perfection. Then the LAW will be abandoned, and people have to wander!
This is why we believe that after our prophet, in any age or time there has always been, and there will be, an Imam to teach and to lead.
* (IMAM primarily means: `HE WHO IS FOREMOST’ hence a religious leader, a MODEL, a PATTERN or one who leads the congregational prayer._ (the translator)
“O,You who believe! Fear Allah and be with those who are truthful.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S9: 119
This verse of QURAN does not point a certain time or a distinct age. It rather unconditionally orders the people to be the followers of the truthful Imam.
All the famous commentators have taken the word:_ TRUTHFUL to mean an innocent Imam who is free of guilt and sin.
45_ THE REALITY OF IMAMAT
WE BELIEVE that Imamat is not only the apparent rulership or leadership of a caliph, but rather a high spiritual or religious position. Besides ruling and governing the Islamic society, an Imam has the overall leadership of this mortal life of people as well as that of Hereafter. He guides the Soul and Mind of people, and guards against any deviation to occur in the LAW, meanwhile he drives at the targets assigned by the prophet.
This is the same high rank that God gave to ABRAHAM after passing the stages of prophethood and the steps of apostleship and many other exams.
When ABRAHAM asked his Lord to assign the position of Imamat to some of his near kins, he was answered that this title or position will not be given to the oppressors or SINNER.
“And remember when ABRAHAM was tried by his Lord with certain commandments which he fulfilled.
God said to him,”I will make you an Imam to the people.” He said,” What about making Imams out of my offspring?” God answered, “No! My covenant is not within the reach of the oppressors.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 124
It is evident that such a high moral and religious position cannot be abridged or lowered to the apparent rulership or leadership, or else the verse will not hand over a reasonable meaning or sense.
WE BELIEVE that all the Arch Prophets had the dignity and grade of Imamat through their prophethood. This is because whatever they decreed by their prophethood they put it to ACTION as an Imam. So was the great prophet of Islam, when at the beginning of his mission he conveyed the messages of God to His servants, and meanwhile he carried on his leadership teaching people and leading them to the path of truth.
WE BELIEVE that after the prophet Mohammad, his mission was continued by the innocent Imams who succeeded him from among his nearest kins and their offspring.
By the definitions given above, to reach the high rank of an Imam, very difficult and heavy conditions are to be observed, such as piety to the level of innocence, having the highest level of knowledge of religion and the LAW, and also full acquaintance with the human needs in any age or time.
46_ IMAM MUST BE INNOCENT
WE BELIEVE that an Imam should be free of guilt or SIN. As a matter of fact one who is not innocent, can not be trusted to teach the realities of the LAW and the tenets of a divine Religion. It is for his innocence that we hold an Imam’s word or deed as a religious proof.
47_ IMAM IS THE GUARDIAN OF THE LAW
WE BELIEVE that an Imam has to know all about the roots and branches, and the commandments of Islam. He has to know the full meanings and the EXEGESIS of QURAN, and that he takes his knowledge from the prophet or the previous Imam; and it is such a knowledge which is trustworthy among our people.(THE SHIITE)
48_ IMAM MUST BE APPOINTED OPENLY AND CLEARLY BY THE PROPHET
WE BELIEVE that Imam who is the successor of the prophet must be clearly and openly appointed by the Messenger of God. Imam’s appointment also is like that of the prophet and has to be decided by God Himself.
This is because the distinction of piety at the level of innocence, and such that high level of knowledge needed to make some one an Imam, is at the power of God and His Apostle, and no one else. We therefore know not our Imams to be elected by the vote or choice of people.
50_ THE SHIITE IMAMS ARE APPOINTED BY THE PROPHET HIMSELF
WE BELIEVE that the prophet of Islam appointed all the twelve Imams as his successor’s one after the other.
In SAHIH MUSLIM, (A FAMOUS SUNNI REFERENCE BOOK) We read:_
“In a place between Mecca and Medina which is named KHUMM GHADIR, the prophet made a speech for thousands of Muslim, through which he said,
“I am near to leave you for good. I am leaving two heavy things among you after me:_ QURØN is the first one in which you may find light and guidance; and my nearest kins are the second. I advice you all not to forget God in relation to my Kins. not to forget God in relation to My Kins.”
The same tradition is also written in SAHIH TIRMIDHI, (ANOTHER FAMOUS SUNNI’S REFERENCE BOOK). The prophet added then:_ “If you grasp the two heavy thing that I leave among you; you will never go astray.”
The above mentioned incident is brought and found in so many famous Islamic books such as:_
SAHIH MUSLIM_ VOL.2 _ P.1873
SAHIH TIRMIDHI_ VOL.5 _ P.662
SUNAN DARMI_ VOL.2 _ P.432
KHASAES NESAIE P.20
MUSNAD AHMAD _ VOL.5 _ P.182
Therefore, No Muslim can deny this tradition which is related by successive witnesses and important writers.
WE RELY also on another famous tradition which is narrated in the SAHIH MOSLIM and SAHIH TERMAZI, SAHIH ABIDAWOOD and other famous books that our prophet has said,
“Islam will stand up to the resurrection day and until twelve Imams all of whom are from Quraish; rule over you as my successors.”
WE BELIEVE that there is no acceptable commentaries for such traditions as mentioned above except that belief which is found among our sect; the SHIITE.
51_ IMAM ALI’S DESIGNATION BY THE PROPHET
WE BELIEVE that the prophet, in several occasions has introduced and designated Imam Ali as his successor by the decree of God, an instance of which was in the GHADIR KHUMM somewhere near JOHFEH.
When the prophet was returning from his last pilgrimage (HAJJ) he made a speech for a great gathering of his companions and followers, saying:_
“Do I not have priority over your souls?” “Yes, of course” they all answered. “Then all of you know that,” continued the prophet. The MASTER of whoever I am, Ali shall be his master.(This tradition is narrated by more than 110 companions of the prophet and by 84 men from their second generation, and it is written in 360 famous Islamic books).
Here we do not intend to go deep through reasoning to prove our ideas; we also do not intend to insist upon our assertion. We may only add here that such an important TRADITION is not something to be ignored easily, or changing what it means, as by taking the MASTER=MOWLA to mean a friend particularly when we see that the prophet has put so much stress and emphasis upon the word, so as to make it known to all!
Is this not the same case that; IBN ASIR has brought in his important history book saying:_
“At the beginning of his prophetic mission, the prophet was ordered by God:(QURAN _ S26: 214) to admonish his nearest kindred. He invited some forty men of them to a dinner, and by a miracle, he fed all of them from a single portion of food! He then made a speech and finally said to them: `which of you is willing to give me a truthful hand in this Divine Mission of mine, and become my brother and successor among all?”( KAMIL IBN ASIR VOL.2 _ P.63)
No one answered him there, except Imam Ali, who said, I will be your companion and minister: and the prophet pointed at Imam Ali and said, He is my brother and my successor among you. Thus we see the prophet to designate his VICEGERENT and Imam, from the beginning of his mission.
The same case also happened at the end of his mission when the prophet was at his death bed. He asked those who were round him to get him a pen AND paper to write an order which would prevent them from going astray. One of them rejected and refused to provide pen and paper and even accused the prophet of uttering delirious speech!
To repeat again, we hereby only declare our belief in brief and a little reasoning.(SAHIH BOKHARI_PAR5_P.11 AND SAHIH MUSLIM_VOL.3_ P.125q)
52 _ EACH IMAM EMPHASIZES HIS SUCCSSOR
WE BELIEVE that each one of the twelve Imams are introduced and emphasized by the previous ones. The first of them was Imam Ali the son of ABUTALIB, who was succeeded by Imam Hassan his first son, and Imam Hussain the Master of the Martyrs his second son. The third Imam was Ali the son of Imam Hussain then it came to his son Muhammad al-Bagher_ He Appointed his son Jaafar, who was succeeded by Musa, then his son Ali Ibn Musa al Reza. The ninth of them was Muhammad Al Taqi- then his son Ali al-Naqi.
After him was his son Imam Hassan Askari who was the father of Al-Mahdi the twelfth and the last of all whom we believe to be already living.
The idea of a SAVIOUR who has to come to fill the world with justice, when it has been full of oppressions is accepted almost by all the Muslims of different sects, and many of the SUNNI scholars and men of knowledge have cited that in their books.
A few years ago, in answer to A question about the existence of AL-MAHDI, the Islamic World Relations Society, issued a pamphlet to emphasize that of a surety he will come, and in that pamphlet many evidences and documents were presented to prove that. Many of the Muslims believe that Al-Mahdi will be born in future, but the SHIITES believe that he has already been born, and so far he has lived a long life, and by the decree of God, he shall appear one day to fill the world with justice.
53_ NONE OF THE PROPHET’S COMPANION COULD EXCEL IMAM ALI
WE BELIEVE that none of the prophet’s companions did, or could excel Imam Ali in any respect; and that Imam was at the highest religious position other than that of the prophet’s.
Of course we know it unlawful to mispresent the Imam by overstating him and by exaggerations. Those who prove for him the position of deity or something like that, are all heretics in our sight, as are those who undervalue him, and we are absolutely disgusted with their belief, although they might call themselves the SHIITE of Imam Ali and mingle their names with ours.
The leading SHIITES and the orthodox have always rejected the two groups who overvalue or undervalue the Imam, and have called them, and taken them as heretics, for going to extremes.
54_ THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS AT THE COURT OF WISDOM AND HISTORY
WE BELIEVE that there were many great men of devotion and chastity among the companions of the prophet; but all of them were not so, because the HOLY QURAN declares many among them as being hypocrites!(1)
There were also men who broke their allegiance with the VICEGERENT OF GOD, after the prophet, and made wars and shed the blood of thousands of Muslims upon the soil.
.- (THE VERSES IN: Sq _ S29 and S63 WHICH IS CALLED THE HYPOCRITES)
In other word, how can we judge that both of the two parties who made the battles of Siffin and Jamal were rightful and, on the righteous path? How can both of the two groups of combatants be honest and truthful?
Some bring forth the foot of religious researches and self exegesis on the ground by saying that:_ `Surely one of the two parties was wrong and oppressive, but as they were taking their decisions by their EXEGESIS, both parties were on righteousness in the sight of God! This we cannot accept easily.
How could one with his own exegesis and self comprehensions break his allegiance and loyalty to the VICEGERENT OF GOD, who is entitled to obedience, and create such fearful wars between Muslims, grouping them and shedding streams of their blood. with the justification that his exegesis and self researches have decreed him to do so!? What else then can not be justified by such personal comprehensions and self commentaries?
Let us be more frank, that every one, even the nearest companions of the prophet are held in pledge of their deeds and are responsible for what they have done and have to answer for it:_
“The most honoured of you in Allah’s sight, is he who is the most virtuous (chaste) of you.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S49: 13
The above holy verse is true for all even for the nearest companions of the prophet.
We therefore have to judge them by their deeds, and we should have a reasonable definition for them all. Those who were truthful at the presence of the Apostle, at his absence too, did their best to guard the religion and to observe his commandments. They remained faithful to their covenant and respected their promises.
On the other hand, those among his companions who were hypocrites and vexed him, did the same after him.
Whatever they did, was against Islam and Muslims.
“You shall find no believer in Allah and the last judgement to love those who oppose Allah and His Apostle, even though they be their father, their sons, their brothers, or their nearest kindred. Allah has inscribed the faith in their hearts and Has strengthened them with a SPIRIT OF HIS, God will admit them to the GARDENS OF BLISS, beneath which streams flow, wherein they shall live for ever. They are the PARTY OF ALLAH, and Allah’s party shall achieve felicity.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S58: 22
We believe that those who harmed the prophet in his presence or absence do not worth admire.
Of course we must not forget that some of the companions of the prophet showed the utmost truthfulness and sincerity with the greatest self sacrifices and have been admired by God Himself and so were a group who followed them later:_
“The vanguard of Islam; the first of those who forsook their homes, and of those who gave them aid; and also those who followed them in good deeds:_ Well pleased is Allah with them and they with Allah. For them is prepared GARDENS OF BLISS, under which streams flow. They dwell therein for ever. That’s the Supreme Felicity.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S9: 100
This was our belief in brief about the companions of our prophet.
55_ IMAM TAKES HIS KNOWLEDGE FROM THE PROPHET
According to the order of our prophet:_ `To observe QURAN and HIS NEAREST KINS’: and also to the innocence of the Imams, our jurisprudence of divine Law, is also based upon the words, deeds and consents; (doing something in front of them without having their objection) of the innocent Imams. The three factors, i.e. words, deeds, and consent of our Imams are accepted proofs for us. We have to note also that whatever an Imam says; it is a narration of the prophet through his fathers. This is to say what ever an Imam says it has been said by the prophet.
Imam Baqir told one of his students named Jabir:_ “That which we convey to you is what we have taken out of a treasure that belongs to our Prophet Muhammad.” .(Jami al-Ahadith, VOL.1 _ P.18)
Through another tradition from Imam Jaafar Sadiq we read:_ “Some one asked him a question and the Imam answered him. The man began to dispute about the answer. Imam told him: `The answer I gave you was that of the prophet and you have no right to dispute.”
Another remarkable point to note is about the important books on collected traditions such as; KAAFI _ TAHZIB ESTEBSAR_ and MAN LA YAHZAROHOL FAGHIH, that we have and we use. Although these books are much trusted in our sight, but still it doesn’t mean to us that whatever is written in them is true and acceptable by us.
Besides the above mentioned tradition books we also have the books of WHO IS WHO About personalities, (ALREJAL=THE MEN) Through such books we investigate about the personalities of the narrators of the tradition and also about their chains of documents and references so as to make sure if a tradition is true and correct. Therefore, however important and trustworthy a book might be, to accept a tradition from it has to convince us that it reads and is compatible with our standard, or else we shall reject it.
Some Islamic sects have their own collection of traditions (HADIS) which they know them to be correct. (SAHIH) The authors have named their book, `THE CORRECT=SAHIH and some men of importance might have admitted that these are CORRECT, but in our sight, that tradition is correct which is reasonably proved to have been said by the prophet.

CHAPTER SIX
MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTS

Besides what was said in the previous chapters about our BELIEF; there are other specialties in our ideas that will follow in this chapter.
56- THE RATIONALE GOODNESS AND BADNESS
WE BELIEVE that human wisdom can appreciate many good things to distinct from the bad ones, and the right from wrong; by his blessful power of distinction, which God has given him. Even before coming of the prophets with the LAW, Man could rationally distinguish many good and bad. For instance he could easily understand that justice is good and oppression is bad. Man could know that some ethics like: truthfulness, honesty, bravery and generosity are good deeds; and that, lying; betrayal and jealousy are bad morals. But as the wisdom is not able to comprehend all that is good or bad, and his knowledge, whatever, is limited, The prophets were sent with book for guidance and the LAW to improve man’s faculty and morals, helping his wisdom in that.
Of course we deny not the value of the independent WISDOM which comprehends the facts. If so; the Monotheism, the prophetic missions, and the Divine religion, will all be futile! For all these important tenets are basically proved by the reasoning of the wisdom. It is evident that the LAW and the commandments are only acceptable when the principles which are Monotheism and prophethood have been proved to us through wisdom, and by the religion itself.
57 _ GOD’S JUSTICE
So do we believe in God’s JUSTICE, and we say it is impossible for God to oppress any creature of His at the least amount, or to punish His servants without any reason or to forgive them without a reason. It is also Impossible that God may leave His promises unfulfilled.
We also know it to be impossible that God may abandon His servants without giving them necessary guidance.
All these are ugly and indecent, of which the Omnipotent God is far and clear.
58_ MAN’S FREEDOM
So do we believe that God has created Man free? He has given us FREE WILL, and we have options to do what we may do. If not so, why should He punish a sinner who is supposed to be compelled to do so.?
To make it short, rational good and bad as mentioned above, and independent wisdom are bases for the acceptance of divine Religion, Scriptures, and the prophets, but not enough, because we have a limited wisdom, by which we can not grasp all that we need. So we have to have divine guidance for improving our WISDOM and understanding.
59_ WISDOM SERVERS AS A REFERENCE IN OUR RELIGIOUS JURIS-PRUDENCE
Following what we mentioned above, one of the principle references in Islam is wisdom’s reasoning. The wisdom comprehends something definitely and then judges. For instance; if we find no reason or proof in the book or in the prophet’s methodical way, (SUNNAT) to show us that OPPRESSION, BETRAYAL, LYING and committing MURDER, are too bad and unlawful deeds, We would certainly reject them by the reasoning of our wisdom, and we make sure that God never likes us to do such things. This is why we conclude that the wisdom too, is a DIVINE BASE of our religious judgements.
The Holy QURØN is full of verses showing the importance of the wisdom as a base or reference for the judgements in religious researches.-
“In the creation of the heavens, and the earth, and the alternation of DAY and night, there are indeed SIGNS for men of wisdom and understanding.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S3: 190
Some reveal the aim of sending the scriptures to improve the power of wisdom and understanding of Man:_
“See how we have explained our SIGNS variously so that they may understand.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S6: 65
“We have sent it down as an Arabic QURAN, in order that you may use your wisdom.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S12: 2
Some of the verses urge people to use their minds so as to distinguish good of bad_
“….. Say can a blind be held equal to one who can see? Why don’t you then think?”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S6: 50
And the worst of the moving creatures in the sight of God are those who do not use their common sense so as to understand:_
“…..For the worst of BEASTS in the SIGHT OF GOD, are those who are deaf and dumb, not using their wisdom to under stand!”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S8: 22
So how can we ignor the importance of the wisdom, understanding, and thinking in Islam?
60_ MORE ABOUT GOD’S JUSTICE
As we have already mentioned we BELIEVE that God is JUST and He never oppresses; because cruel acts are indecent and unbecoming to Him:_
“…..And thy LORD will treat no one with injustice.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S18: 49
If some people are punished in this world or in the Hereafters, it is due to their own deeds:_
“It is not God who oppresses them, but they wrong their own soul.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S9: 70
Not only Man, but rather no creature in the world is ever oppressed by God:_
“Allah wants no injustice to any of His creatures.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S3: 108
All these verses are some how a guidance towards making use of our wisdom.
REJECTION OF WHAT YOU CANNOT DO
WE BELIEVE that God will never oblige a duty to any one who cannot do it:_
“Allah will not charge a soul with a duty that cannot be fulfilled by him.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S2: 286
61 _ THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE PAINFUL ACCIDENTS
WE BELIEVE that the painful accidents that sometimes occur, such as the earthquakes, calamities, and misfortunes, might be that of God’s punishment, as it was with the case of the people of LOT:_
“When our decree was issued, we turned (THEIR CITIES) upside down, and rained down on them brimstones, hard as baked clay, spread layer on layer.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S11: 82
And about the ungrateful and rebellious people of SABA, GOD says:_
“But they turned away (FROM THEIR LORD) and we sent against them the flood from the DAMS.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S34: 16
Some other painful incident are to admonish people and to teach them lessons:_
“Mischief has appeared on land and sea by what the hands of MAN have earned, that Allah may give them a taste of some of their deeds, in order that they may return back from evil.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S30: 41
Other pains are what our hands make it and are due to our ignorance and carelessness:_
“Whatever good (O Man) Happens to you is from Allah: but whatever evil happens to you; is from yourself.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S4: 79
62_ THE EXISTENCE IS RULED BY THE BEST OF ORDERS
WE BELIEVE that the created world or the world of creation is the scenery on which the bests of orders act. In other word, the existing order that controls the world is the best one that can possibly exist. Here, every thing has an account of its own. There is nothing in contrast to justice and goodness; and if bad is seen, it belong to people, or the creatures.
We repeat again that God’s justice is one of the most important bases of Islamic insight, without which the tenets such as the MONOTHEISM, PROPHETHOOD and DOOMSDAY will be endangered.
We have a tradition that Imam Sadiq has emphasized on Monotheism and God’s justice as the main principles of the religion and then he adds:_
“Whatever is becoming and fit for you, is not allowable to God. Justice is that you do not relate something to God, which doing it puts a blame upon you.” (Bihar al-Anwar VOL.5 _ P.11)
63_ THE FOUR SOURCES OF OUR RELIGIOUS JURIS PRUDENCE
Our religious jurisprudence and researches are based on four sources:_
FIRST:_ QURAN, the BOOK of Allah is the Main Source and the principle document of all the Islamic commandments.
SECOND:_ The prophet’s Methodical way, the so called SONNAT, and also that of the Innocent Imams.
THIRD:_ Agreeing in opinion or determination, formed by UNANIMITY of all the jurisprudents, and the learned, supposing to be COMPETENT to Imam’s views.
FOURTH:_ It is the WISDOM, by which absolute reasons of the wisdom we intend, and not conjectures and surmises.
When the teacher of LAW believes on some thing to be done which is not found in the scripture or Sunnat, he cannot propose his ideas as a divine decree. So also grasps to analogies and conjectures in relation to religious laws is not accepted by us.
But in cases where a man is quite sure of some thing, as we are all sure that theft, lying, betrayal and offence are bad and evil; here we can accept that,. What is lawful by wisdom is also lawful by religion scriptures and tradition, in all fields; such as economical, social, political, ethical and other matters. THAT makes us free of want to go here and there and to do this way and that way by our fancies and conjectures, forming an opinion without good means of knowledge or sufficient evidence.
As for some newly appeared problems we can also find general commandments in the book and sunnat, by which we need not to use our imaginations.
64_ THE DOORS OF RESEARCH ARE ALWAYS OPEN
WE BELIEVE that the doors of research are permanently open to all our religious problems and inquiries; and all the jurisprudents and scholars may deduce their commandments out of the four above mentioned sources, so as to convey it to those who are weak in comprehension even thou their newly extracted VIEWS be different to that of the previous ones.
WE BELIEVE that those who are not expert in the religious jurisprudence should refer to an alive expert who is also aware of the world affairs, and the problems of our age.
Those who know not should imitate those who know well. We do not admit primary imitation of those who are dead, and people have to imitate some religious experts who are alive.
65_ THERE IS NO VACANCY FOR LAW
WE BELIEVE that in Islam there is no vacancy for LAW. That is to say: `Until doomsday, all that might be needed, have been stated, sometimes especially and some times generally, therefore, an Islamic jurisprudent has no right to legislate. Their duty is to deduce and extract the necessary commandment from the Afore mentioned four sources and convey to the believers.
DOES not QURØN say through the last chapter that was revealed to the prophet: (MAAEDEH=S5):_
“To day I have perfected your religion for you, and completed my favour to you, and have chosen for you, Islam, as your religion.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S5: 3
How can Islam be called perfect if it has no adequate and proper law to satisfy all ages and times?
DID not our prophet say, in his speech that was made in his last PILGRIMAGE OF FARE WELL; that:_
“I have enjoined all that might approach you to the PARADISE, and I have forbidden you all the evils which might take you nearer to the HELL.”(Usul Kafi VOL.2 _ P.74)
“Imam Ali left nothing unwritten, of the commandments dictated by the prophet even the mulct (blood money) for a small scratch.”
With all that, there is no room for imaginations and opinions with no sufficient evidence.
66-PRECAUTIONS IN RELIGIOUS MATTERS (DISSEMBLANCE)
WE BELIEVE that when a man lives among a group of fanatic, stubborn, and obstinate people; and if he reveals his ideas, he may fell in danger of losing his life, such a man has to hide his faith, not to lose his life in vain. In our religious jurisprudence to this sort of precaution the term `TAQIYYAH has been given that can be translated to: (DISSEMBLANCE).
We extract this commandment from two verses in QURØN. One of them is about the believer in PHARAOH’S court who was hiding his faith to Moses. QURAN says:- has:_
“And a believer from among the PHARAOH’S people who was concealing his faith said, “Will you slay a man because he says” My LORD is Allah? When he has indeed come to you with clear signs:”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S40: 28
Here, the phrase:_ `CONCEALING HIS FAITH’ shows the believer’s DISSEMBLANCE. Was it right for him to reveal his faith and get killed for that, without doing anything useful?
So also some of the first believers in Islam who lived under the cruel pressure of the heretics, were permitted to hide their belief and be cautious.
“The believers do not take for friends or helpers, in preference to the faithful. He who does this, has nothing to hope from Allah, except by way of PRECAUTIONS, so that you may GUARD yourselves from them.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S3: 28
Therefore precautions such as concealing the belief is permitted, when a believer is in danger of losing his life or property for the sake of his belief. In such cases one should not endanger his life and power in vain. This is why we read in traditions that:_ “DISSEMBLANCE” is shield of a believer.” That is to say: `Such precautions are the defensive weapons of the faithful.
The story of AMMAR YASIR, a near companion of the prophet, who pretended to have renounced Islam, is of a wide fame among all groups of Muslims.
For a soldier, to hide arms and even himself in the battle fields is something customary, and similar to the religious DISSMBLANCE.
Such precautions are decreed by wisdom as well as by religion which is observed by all Muslims and has nothing to do with SHIITE in particular. Strange enough that some have taken it as a SHIITE instruction, using it as an objection to us, while it is a clear cut matter in QURAN and SONNAT.
67_ THE PROHIBITED DISSEMBLANCE
WE BELIEVE such suspicions arise by taking wrong information from our enemies, and what we explained above should be enough for sure. We of course deny not that there are incidents in which one should not hide his faith and opinion for any price, and dissemblance is prohibited there.
If the principles, OF Islam or QURAN fall in danger, those involved should not hide their faith and have to declare their views although they lose their life for it. An instance of this is what Imam Hussain did against the OMMAYIDS when he in an unequal battle lost his own life and that of his companions all, so as to save Islam.
68_ THE ISAMIC WORSHIP
WE BELIEVE in performance of all the worships that are decreed by Islam, such as our five daily prayers for maintaining the relations between Man & God, Or the FASTING OF the month Ramazan which improves the faith and the piety.
Performance of the rites of pilgrimage (HAJJ), once in the life for those who can afford it, is a must, and has to be done. Paying the TITHS and the ONE FIFTH is an essential order and must be observed.
Although some partial and insignificant differences we do have with other Muslims in this field, yet it is of no importance, because the four main sects of the SUNNIES have the same difference among themselves.
69_ JOINING THE PRAYERS
If we perform our noon prayer simultaneously with the evening prayers, or we do the sunset prayer and the night prayers together and at once, we believe it to be with the permission of our prophet.
In the famous book: SAHIH TERMAZI _ VOL.1 _ P.354 it is written that the prophet himself was doing the same without being in danger, fear or rain! He used to do that because he didn’t want hardship for his followers. Now that our social life, particularly in the plants and factories have turned to be complex, if some one has bound himself to perform his prayers in proper time and separately, he may not be able to perform some of them at all. So to make use of the remissions will make one more steadfast in his prayer and worship.
70_ THE PROSTRATION UPON THE EARTH
WE BELIEVE that in our prayer the act of prostration should be reclining with face on the earth in humble adoration, or on things that grow out of the earth such as wood or leaf of trees, or stones. We don’t admit of prostrations upon a carpet or such. The soil is preferred for that purpose, and therefore to make that easy, we take some clean soil, form it in a small circle mould, and keep it with us for our prostration, and this is only because it is pure clean soil of the earth and nothing else.
Our reason for that is the prophet’s word who said,” The earth has been turned to a clean MASJID for me.”( .- SAHIH BUKHARI _ VOL.1 _ P.91;SAHIH NASAEE _ PART _ TAYAMMOM;MUSNAD AHMAD _ VOL.1 _ P.301)
We take MASJID here to mean prostration point, or place. One may say the Arabic word `MASJID’ also means a temple wherein Muslim worship. True; but the adjective “clean,” helps to take the second meaning of the word, i.e. Besides that; many other traditions we have received from our Imams, by which we understand that, here, the soil is meant and not the house of public religious worship.
71 _ VISITING THE TOMBS OF THE APOSTLES AND IMAMS (PILGRIMAGE)
WE BELIEVE that pilgrimages for visiting the tombs of the Apostles and Imams, as well as the scholars and the martyrs, is a definite religious precept which has to be observed, although not a must.
In many books of the SONNI Scholars, same as those written by SHIITES, many a tradition is narrated from the prophet that he has recommended the precept or pilgrimage. To collect all such traditions will make a voluminous book. Throughout the history of Islam, our great scholars, and all groups of Muslims have done that with much care, and books are written about the adventures of their pilgrimages.
It is evident that no one takes his visiting a tomb for worship, which belongs only to God. The purpose of visiting the tomb of a great man is to respect him and to pay regards, and meanwhile seeking their intercession.
It is also narrated that even the prophet himself often went to visit the CEMETERY OF BAGHEEA and saluted the dead in their graves. Therefore no one should doubt the lawfulness of such pilgrimages in Islam.
72_ THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE MOURNING CEREMONIES
WE BELIEVE that the mourning ceremonies, for the martyrs, especially the MARTYRS OF KARBALA will serve to maintain the monument of such dear ones, and keep us aware of their self sacrifices for the sake of God and Islam.
In some occasions, particularly the first ten days of Moharram, the period in which Imam Hussain and his faithful companions were cruelly martyred, we perform the mourning ceremonies. We explain their aims, and express our deep regards for them and by that infuse new blood in our veins.
In the year; H.61, Yazid a sinful man and a stranger with Islam, succeeded the throne of Islamic caliphate.
When he asked Imam Hussain to take the oath of allegiance, Imam refused to swear fealty. Yazid insisted and Imam rejected and left Mecca for Iraq. In Karbala, Imam and his seventy two companions and household were surrounded by a great many troops of Yazid. Imam and his companions defended their attacks and fought their enemies boldly to their last breathe. All the men, (Imam Hussain and his companions) were martyred, and their women and children were taken captives. Soon after that the blood of Imam boiled and stirred strange excitements among his contemporary Muslims. Groups revolted in turn, aiming at vengeance for the blood shed. These frequent revolutions gave an end to the nasty life of the Omayid dynasty. All the revolting groups had but one slogan: “VENGEANCE FOR IMAM’S BLOODSHED.”
Today the rise and martyrdom of Imam Hussain is a pattern and a programme in our daily life to make us stand firmly against any oppression and cruelty.
Some of our slogans that were taken from Imam Hussain’s bloody History like:_ “FAR BE ABJECTIONS FROM US” or:_ “LIFE IS FAITH AND ENDEAVOUR” have been of immense use in our past and present, urging us not to undergo any unjustified demand or oppressions.
To brief our word here, paying regards to the reminiscence of the great martyrs of KARBALA, and else, will infuse new blood of valiance, bravery and self sacrifice into our veins and will teach us how to live an honourable and proud life, and this is why we try to revive the reminiscence of our martyrs by renewing the mourning ceremonies every year better than the past.
Strangers may not know what we do and what are we driving at, by doing that. They think it over as a mere historical incident that must have been forgotten and covered with the dust of age: but we do know its importance and effect in our past and present history.
It is written in all the famous Islamic histories that:_ “after the battle of OHOD the prophet passed near a house from which the sounds of mourning and wailing for the martyrs were heard.
The prophet said, “But no one mourns for HAMZIH.” (THE MASTER OF MARTYRS)
SAAD _ IBN _ MAAZ who was a near companion of the prophet from the group of HELPERS, heard that and ordered their women to go and mourn and lament for HAMZIH the faithful uncle of the prophet who was mutilated in the battle field of OHUD.
Evidently this lamentation was not some thing specialized to HAZRAT HAMZIH. It rather is a mean of infusing new blood into the veins of Muslims.
Now it is ASHOORA, 10th MOHARRAM 1417 H.(1976) A great emotion and enthusiasm is seen throughout the SHIITE WORLD. Children, teenagers, young and adult, man and woman have all worn black suits and attended the mourning ceremonies of the MARTYRS OF KARBALA. They are so strangely EXCITED and have changed minds that if they be invited to fight the enemies of Islam, they all will take arm and rush to the battlefield and do not avoid any thing of self sacrifices. It is just as if the blood of those martyrs flow in their veins, and that Imam and his companions have been slain just now. They sing epic songs and poems full of slogans against colonization, and oppression and in favour of proud and exalted death over an abject life.
We hold this incident as a great moral capital that we have to observe it and keep it safe.
73_ THE TEMPORARY MARRIAGE
WE BELIEVE that the temporary marriage is lawful; and in our religious jurisprudence, it is termed “MUTAH”. From this motive marriage is of two kinds:_ The permanent one which has not a limited time: and the temporary marriage which is for a limited period, which the couple will agree on that.
In many respects both of the wedlock’s are the same.
As for the dower; the freedom of the female spouse from any impediments; and rules and regulations for the children; both of the two marriages are similar.
There are also some differences between the two wedlock such that the male spouse has not to pay the alimony, or that the couple does not inherit each other (of course their children do inherit their parents).
However we have taken this order out of the HOLY QURAN:_
“…. All women other than those mentioned here are lawful for you provided you seek them in marriage with your wealth in a modest conduct (CHASTITY), and not by fornication.
Give them their dower for the enjoyment you have had with them, as your duty, but it shall be of no blame on you to make any agreement among yourselves; and Allah is All knowing All wise.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S4: 24
Many of the great commentators have explained that the above verse aims at the TEMPORARY MARRIAGE.
In TABARY’S COMMENTARY book it is written that this verse indicates the temporary marriage and that many of the prophets’s companions have testified that.
In many famous tradition books such as SAHIH BUKHARI, SAHIH MUSLIM and MUSNAD AHMAD, there are traditions about the temporary marriage declaring it a lawful religious act which used to be done in the life time of the prophet. There are also some narrations in these books that deny and reject it.
Some scholars believe that during the life time of the prophet it wes done, but after the prophet it was forbidden by OMAR the second KHALIFA.
In the famous book THE SONAN OF BEIHAGHI vol.7 _ P.206_ it is written that OMAR the second khalifa said,
“TWO MUTAHS were decreed by the prophet of God:_ Temporary marriage and HAJ (special rites in pilgrimage) which I declare them both as unlawful!!”
So the Sunni scholars have different ideas about that; some admit and some reject, but the SHIITE SCHOLARS take it to be lawful with unanimous approval.
We believe that if temporary marriage be not misused, it will give an adequate answer to many questions of the young generation of our time, who cannot afford a permanent wed lock, or those in long journeys either for economical or educational purposes.
Those who work against the temporary marriage are PAVING the road to fornication and obscene acts particularly in our time in which the age of marriage is up and lustful means are abundant.
Closing the door of lawful marriages means to open the doors of fornication and evil sexual acts.
Let me repeat once again that we reject all sorts of misuse in this respect such a making a play toy out of it or turning a woman into a means for lusts and passions instead of a real wife. On the other hand, no one should leave a good and useful law unattended, because some may use it in a bad way.
74_ A BRIEF HISTORY OF SHIITE
WE BELIEVE that the SHIITE SECT was founded in the life_time of our prophet, and its name was taken out of HIS words and we have many clear reasons to prove that.
As many commentators of QURAN believe the following verse refers to Imam Ali and his sectarians. (SHIITE)
“Those who have faith and do righteous deeds, are the best of creatures.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S98: 7
Suyuti, the famous commentator has narrated in his Durr al-Mansur that Jabir Ibn Abdullah Ansari said,
“We were in presence of the prophet, when Imam Ali arrived there. As soon as the prophet saw him he said,
`UPON HIM, TO WHOSE HANDS LAYS MY LIFE, ALI AND HIS SHIITE (SECTARIANS) WILL HAVE SALVATION IN DOOMSDAY’
Then the prophet; `added the narrator, `recited the above mentioned verse. After that, whenever Imam Ali came to a gathering of prophet, we used to say: `The best of God’s creatures is come.”
The above tradition with a little difference is also narrated by: IBN _ ABBASS. ABU BARZEH. IBN _ MARDOOYED and also ATTIYEH _ UFI. Therefore the name SHIITE was given to the lovers and followers of Imam Ali by the prophet himself and not by the SAFAVID DYNASTY as some with very low knowledge have said’
We respect and esteem all the other Islamic sects, and stay in one line of prayer with them, and perform the rites of pilgrimage as they do, and cooperate with them in all common Islamic goals and fields. Yet as a SHIITE we do have some particularities which were noted by our prophet; and this is why we have chosen this school.
Some of our enemies insist to connect SHIITE, some how to ABDULLAH IBN SABA, as the founder of the sect.
IBN _ SABA is said to have been a Jew convert in the life of Imam Ali. This claim or suggestion seems very strange to us! If you study all the SHIITE’S BOOKS you find in them no least interest to have been shown to the said man; and rather in contrast, all have declared him a misled heretic, and in some traditions we read that Imam Ali himself has condemned the man to death! After all IBN SABA’S very existence is under question, and some of the scholars doubt if such a man did ever exist! Even if we don’t take him as a fictitious and imaginary man, he is of sure misled and astray in religion and far out of the path of truth.
75_ THE SHIITE’S GEOGRAPHY
Important to say that IRAN has not always been a central group of the SHIITE SECT. In the first century of Islam. they had different centers in KUFEH, YEMAN and even in Medina.
Contrary to the poisonous propagandas of the Ummayids and BANI ABBASS dynasties; SHIITE had several centers in Syria too, though not as extensive as that which was in IRAQ.
In Egypt too, there has always been a big group of SHIITE, and for a relatively long period, the FATEME SHIITE ruled the country. At present big groups of SHIITE live throughout the Islamic world. A great many of them live in eastern area of Saudi Arabia with nice harmony and good relations with the other Islamic groups.
Islam’s enemies have always agitated and tried to stir the good relations the groups have had, in order to turn their friendship and brotherhood into enmity and ill will, thus weakening both parties.
Now that MAN is wearied of; and eludes the material civilization, and finds Islam to have come on the carpet as a great international moral and spiritual power, our enemies do their best to destroy our unity and brotherhood, they create controversies and diversities of opinions in order to make the Muslims busy with each other.
Such a danger should have a sobering effect upon us all so as to make us cautious enough to frustrate our enemy’s intentions and endeavours.
If is remarkable to note that the SHIITE like the SUNNIES are divided in different groups; but the main and majority consists of the sect of SHIITE who believe in 12 Imams.
Although not exact, the number of Shiite through out the world counts from two to three HUNDRED millions, making a quarter of the whole lot of Muslims.
76_ THE LEGACY OF THE PROPHET’S HOUSEHOLD
The followers of this school (SHIITE) have so many traditions from the prophet which are conveyed through Imam Ali or other Imams. These have all been collected and classified, and make the main source of SHIITE’S religious jurisprudence. The most important books among the collections are four, and are known as KUTUB ARBAEH (THE FOUR BOOKS). These are as follows:
1 _ KAFI.
2 _ MAN LA YAHZARAOL FAGHIH,
3 _ TAHZIB.
4 _ ESTEBSAR.
Not that, all the traditions found in these four books, or elsewhere are indisputably correct or acceptable.
Each tradition as we said it, has a series of documents and narrators that are to be checked out and confirmed. If all the documents and narrators prove to be right and trustworthy, then the tradition may be considered true and accepted. Such investigations about the traditions is the task of religious experts and scholars. Therefore the SHIITE’S collected works in the field of tradition differs with that of the Sunnies. The way Bukhari and other Sunni scholars such as Muslim took in their collected works differ from that of our authors. Their criterion of right and wrong is only the author’s distinction. So to understand the belief of a Sunni, it is enough to get access to their important tradition books, called SAHIH. Contrary to that, SHIITE has collected all the traditions that they could; narrated by the Imams just to be investigated, judged, approved, and then be accepted for action. And that is to be done by learned and trusted authorities and religious specialists.
77_ THE TWO IMPORTANT BOOKS
Among the important sources of Shiite, there are two very important books: The first one is known as NAHJUL BALAGHA, a collected work of SHARIFRAZI, a thousand years past, consisting of the speeches, the letters, and some quotations of Imam Ali.
The eloquence in the verses is so high, and the meanings so deep, that makes the work so strangely attractive to all sort of minds! We wish not only the Muslims, but the non-Muslims too, could be acquainted with this amazing book, in order to know what is to be known in the fields of Monotheism, Resurrection, Ethics, Social and Political affairs.
The second important book is called SAHIFEH SAJJADIEH A collection of the bests and the most beautiful verses on prayers having the deepest meaning. It may teach us how to pray to the Lord and to purify our soul by that prayer. The whole book is the collection of many fervent prayers in the form of hymns, and narrated by our fourth Imam, Ali IBN Hussain, who is famed as SAJJAD (ONE WHO OFTEN PROSTRATE)
Most of the SHIITE traditions are narrated by the fifth and the sixth Imam, and these traditions we have received through Ali IBN MOOSA, ALREZA the eighth Imam of the SHIITHE.
Those three Imams were under less pressure of the dynasties of Ommayids and Abbassids, and had a better opportunity of teaching the doctrine of the prophet as they had received it through their fathers. So they succeeded to convey to people a great deal of the knowledge they had obtained. This is why the sect of SHIITE is known also as the JAAFARI SECT of Islam. Imam JAAFAR SADIQ the sixth Imam, lived in a period of the history in which the Ommayids were getting weaker and weaker, and the ABBASSIDS were gaining power. The Imam is said to have trained more than four thousands of students in his school.
ABUHANIFEH the famous Sunni religious leader and scholar who was contemporary to Imam Sadiq has said, “I haven’t seen any one deeper in religious knowledge than Imam Sadiq. (JAAFAR IBN MOHAMMAD)( TAZKARATOL HEFAZ ZAHABI vol.1 _ p.166)
MALIK IBN ANAS, another leading man has said,
“I used to go to JAAFAR IBN MUHAMMAD for some times. I always found him in one of the three conditions: He was either in prayer, fasting or reciting QURAN. `I am of opinion, added ANAS, ‘that no one can excel him in knowledge or worship of God.'(ALTAHZIB VOL.2 _ P.104)
for brevity we leave aside the great many complements of the SUNNI’S leading Men about Imam Sadiq.
78_ THE ROLE OF SHIITE IN ISLAMIC KNOWLEDGE
WE BELIEVE that SHIITE has played a vital role in the Islamic knowledge, and some scholars are of opinion that Islamic knowledge is founded by SHIITE.
This idea can easily be proved by the so many important books that Shiite scholars have written, in various subjects; such as jurisprudence, commentaries on QURAN, tenets, and commandments, all of which are references of our studies today. These books can be found in all the important libraries and book sellers through out the world.
One of the famous SHIITE scholars has indexed the names of the books made in 26 big volumes. This book is named, AL-DHARIEH and the author’s name is SHEIKH AGHA BUZURG TEHRANI.
This book contains the names of the books that are written more than half a century past, and since then thousands of more books have been published which are not in the collection.
79_ WE BELIEVE that honesty and truth are among the most important Islamic principles:_
“Allah will say: `This is the day which the truthful will profit from their truth. They shall forever live in Gardens with streams flowing beneath. Allah is pleased with them and they with Allah that is the greatest salvation.
THE HOLY QURAN _ S5: 122
Some of the verses in QURAN show that in Doomsday Men will get the reward for his honesty and truth.
“….. That Allah may reward man of truth for their truth and punish the hypocrites if he wills, or turn to them in mercy for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.|”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S33: 24
And as we have already mentioned, Muslims are ordered to be always with those who are innocent and truthful.
“O, Believers! Fear Allah and be with those who are truthful (in words and deeds)
THE HOLY QURAN _ S9: 119
The commandment is so important that God orders his prophet to pray God for that:_
“Say: O, Lord! Let me enter the Gate of truth and let my exit be from the gate of truth.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S17: 80
All the prophets have enjoined honesty and truthfulness. We read in a tradition:_ “No prophet was ever sent by God unless he was ordered to be truthful and to give back the trusts to its owners.”( BIHAR AL ANWAR Vol.68 P.2)
So did we, in this concise, our best, not to leave the least amount of truth, and we hope that we have done so with the speed of God.
80_ THE LAST WORD
Whatever we wrote in this collection is a summary of the opinion and belief of the followers of our prophet’s household; i.e. the SHIITE SECT OF ISLAM. This is without any change or deviation, confirmed by QURØN and to a less extent by traditions.
We aimed to write the subjects in brief and this, we did. It may be concluded here that this work:_
1_ Is a trustworthy reference that clearly presents the SHIITE belief and ideas. Here by all the other Muslims and non Muslims many have access to first hand information about the SHIITE.
2_ This work can be reasoning for God, to those who judge us with inadequate information, or take their information about us, from doubtful persons or our enemies; or from books of no importance.
3_ To study this work will show the reader that the difference between SHIITE and other Islamic sects is not that much to prevent us a peaceful living together, and having cooperation in important fields and affairs. Common aspects of our belief are many; our common enemies are many too.
4_ We believe that some mysterious hands are working hard to separate us, and to create disputes and hatred among Muslims, to kindle the fire of enmities!
These mysterious hands do not want, Islam to play his vital role after the smash of Communism, and to fill the vacancies of materialism.
Muslims should not leave their enemies unattended and to have success in their goals.
There now exists a good opportunity for us to present Islam to the world, as it really is.
5_ WE BELIEVE that if all the scholars and the leading men of all sects sit round a table to discuss the problems sincerely, with pure heart, and far from fanaticism, and obstinacy; they would of surety solve all the problems they have, and the differences would be reduced if not entirely erased.
Such a meeting was recently held in Zahedan. Shiites and Sunnies sat round a table. They had several sincere meeting and as a result gave an end to most of their differences. To end, I pray to our Lord and say:_
“OUR LORD! FORGIVE US AND OUR BROTHERS WHO EMBRACED THE FAITH BEFORE US, AND LEAVE NOT IN OUR HEARTS ANY MALICE (HATRED) TOWARDS THE FAITHFUL. YOU ARE COMPASSIONATE AND MERCIFUL.”
THE HOLY QURAN _ S59: 10
Source: al-shia.org


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