The Life of Muhammad (PBUH)

By: Allama Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi

Translation by: Abdullah al-Shahin

p. 357-370


In Mecca, the Prophet (a.s.) made speeches in which he invited the people of Quraysh to believe in and embrace Islam, and in Medina, too, he made speeches to declare the principles and values of Islam. Here, we mention some of those speeches that besides their religious values, they are excellent examples in the Arabic literature and eloquence.

1. His speech in Mecca

When the Revelation came down to the Prophet (a.s.) ordering him to warn his near relatives and announce to them his prophethood, he invited them to have a meal in his house, and after the meal, he made a speech before them saying, after thanking and praising Allah,

“A pioneer does never tell his family lies. By Allah, if I tell lies to all people, I will not tell you lies, and if I cheat all people, I will not cheat you. By Allah, Whom there is no god but Him, I am the messenger of Allah to you especially and to the whole people generally.

By Allah, you surely shall die as you sleep, shall be resurrected as you wake up, shall be called to account for what you do; shall be rewarded with good for good (doing) and with bad for bad (doing), and it shall be the Paradise forever or the Hell forever.”[1]

2. His speech in Medina

It was the first speech the Prophet (a.s.) made in Medina. After praising Allah the Almighty, he said,

“As then, O people, advance for yourselves (do good in your life)! You know, by Allah, that one of you shall be thunderstruck, and then he shall leave his sheep with no shepherd, and then his Lord will say to him, where there shall be no translator or a doorkeeper to prevent him from Him: has My messenger not come to you and informed you, and have I not given you wealth and bestowed on you My favors? So what have you advanced for yourself? He shall look right and left and he shall see nothing, and then he shall look before him, and he shall not see except the Hell. Whoever of you can save his face from Fire even if with a half of a date, let him do, and whoever cannot find, then with a good word (that he may say to others), for by which a good deed is rewarded with ten likes until seven hundred doubles. And peace and Allah’s mercy and blessings be on you and on the messenger of Allah.”[2]

3. The Friday Sermon in Medina

In the first Friday Prayer in Medina, the Prophet (a.s.) made this speech before Muslims saying,

“Praise be to Allah! I praise Him, seek His assistance, seek His forgiveness, seek His guidance, believe and do not disbelieve in Him, and show enmity to whoever disbelieves in Him.

I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone with no partner to Him, and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger whom He had sent with guidance, light, and admonition after a cessation of messengers, littleness of knowledge, deviation of people, shortage of time, approaching to the Hour (the Day of Judgment), and nearness to the term (death); so he, who obeys Allah and His messenger, shall be successful, and he, who disobeys them, shall go astray, lose, and deviate in far deviation. I recommend you of the fear of Allah, because it is the best of that which a Muslim may recommend a Muslim of; to advise him towards the afterlife and order him to fear Allah.

Beware of what Allah has warned you against Himself, and there is no advice better than this and no remembrance better than this. Surely the fear of Allah to him who acts with scare and fear from his Lord is true assistance to what you intends from the affairs of the afterlife. Whoever repairs what there is between him and Allah from his affairs in secrecy and openness intending nothing except the Face of Allah, it shall be a (good) mention to him in his life and a supply to him after death when man shall be in need of what he has advanced, and whatever else than that, he wishes that if there would be between him and it a very far distance, and Allah warns you against Himself and Allah is Kind to the servants. (I swear) by Him Who has proved His saying and fulfilled His promise, there shall be no changing to that, for Allah the Almighty says, (My word shall not be changed, nor am I in the least unjust to the servants).[3]

Fear Allah in the immediate and the delayed affairs (this life and the afterlife) of yours in secrecy and openness, because whoever fears Allah, Allah expiates his bad deeds and gives him a great reward, and whoever fears Allah shall win a great success. Surely, the fear of Allah keeps (one) safe from His detestation, safe from His punishment, and safe from His wrath. The fear of Allah honors faces, pleases the Lord, and elevates degrees. Do your best and not waste in your duty to Allah. Allah has taught you His book and clarified to you His way that He may know those who are truthful and know the liars; so do good as Allah has done good to you, show enmity to His enemies, and strive hard in the way of Allah, such a striving as is due to Him. He has chosen you and named you Muslims that he who would perish might perish by clear proof, and he who would live might live by clear proof, and there is no power save in Allah. Remember Allah too much and work for what is after today, for whoever repairs what is between him and Allah, Allah suffices him against what is between him and people that is because Allah judges on people and they do not judge on Him, and He has power on people and they do not have power on Him. Allah is great, and there is no power save in Allah the Great.”[4]

4. His speech in al-Khayf

The Prophet (a.s.) made a speech at al-Khayf in Mina saying,

“May Allah make bloom a servant who listens to my saying and understands it, then he takes it to one who is more aware than him. There are three things that are not affected in the heart of a faithful; the sincerity in acting for Allah the Almighty, the loyalty to the men of authority, and the keeping to congregation (of Muslims)…he, whose interest is the afterlife, Allah will reunite to him his affairs and make his richness in his heart, and the (bounties of) life will come to him unwillingly, and he, whose interest is this life , Allah will scatter his affairs and make his poverty between his eyes, and nothing from this life shall come to him except what has been predetermined for him.”[5]

5. His speech on warning against this life

The Prophet (a.s.) warned against the deceiving by this life and the following of desires. He said,

“Surely, this life is pleasurful and sweet, and Allah has entrusted it to you and He sees how you act (in it); so beware of this life and beware of women. Let the fear of people not prevent one from saying the truth if he knows it.”

The Prophet (a.s.) kept on making his speech until nothing remained from the sunlight except some redness on the fronds of palm-trees. Then, he said,

“It has not remained from this life as to what had elapsed, except like what has remained from this day as to what had elapsed (from it).”[6]

6. His speech in the Farwell Hajj

The Farwell Hajj was the last hajj that the Prophet (a.s.) had performed before his departure to his Lord. He made a very eloquent speech in the Kaaba in Mecca where he announced the bases that would keep his nation safe from deviation and from going astray. He said,

“Praise be to Allah; we praise Him, seek His assistance, seek His forgiveness, and turn to Him. We seek Allah’s protection from the evils of our souls and from our bad deeds. And whom Allah guides, there is none that can lead him astray, and whom Allah makes to go astray, there is none to guide him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone with no partner to Him and bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.

O servants of Allah, I recommend you of the fear of Allah, invite you to act due to His obedience, and I ask Allah to show me what is best.

As then O people, listen to me and I will clarify to you. I do not know; I may not meet you after this year in this situation. O people, your bloods and properties are inviolable to you until you meet your Lord, like the inviolability of this day in this (inviolable) country. Have I informed? O Allah, bear witness. Whoever has a trust, let him give it back to one who has entrusted him with. Every usury in the pre-Islamic era is invalidated, and the first usury that I begin with is the usury of al-Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, and every blood (that was shed) in the pre-Islamic era is void, and the first blood that I begin with is the blood of Rabee’ah bin al-Harith bin Abdul Muttalib. The habits of the pre-Islamic era are invalidated except the custodianship (of the Kaaba) and the giving of water (to the hajjis)…

O people, Satan has despaired of being worshipped in your land, but is pleased with being obeyed in other than that as to what you scorn of your deeds.

O people, (postponement (of the sacred month) is only an excess in disbelief whereby those who disbelieve are misled; they allow it one year and forbid it (another) year, that they may make up the number of the months which Allah hath hallowed…)[7] Time has turned as the day when Allah had created the heavens and the earth, and (surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred),[8] three successive and one single; Thul Qa’dah, Thul Hajjah, Muharram, and Rajab, between Jumada and Sha’ban. Have I informed? O Allah, bear witness.

O people, your women have rights on you and you have rights on them. Your rights on them are that they should not betray you with anyone in your beds, and not permit anyone into your houses except with your knowledge and permission, and not to commit sin. If they commit something of that, then Allah has permitted you that you prevent them from marrying, not to sleep with them, and that you beat them but not violently. If they abstain and obey you, then their sustenance and clothing must be on you (to be supplied to them by you). Women are as prisoners near you that they cannot help themselves, and you have taken them by the covenant of Allah and married them by the word of Allah, so fear Allah as to women and be kind to them. Have I informed? O Allah, bear witness.

O people, the believers are but brothers; it is not permissible to a man the property of his brother except by his satisfaction. Have I informed? O Allah, bear witness.

Do not return unbelievers that one kills another, for I have left among you that which if you follow, you shall not go astray; the Book of Allah and my progeny my family. Have I informed? O Allah, bear witness.

O people, your Lord is one (the same) and your father is one. All of you are from Adam and Adam is from earth; (the most honorable of you to Allah is the best of you in his duty to Allah). There is no any preference for an Arab to a foreigner except by piety. Have I informed?

The masses of Muslims cried out, “Yes, you have.” Then, the Prophet (a.s.) said,

“Let the present inform the absent. O people, Allah has divided for every heir his share in the inheritance, and no will should be permitted for an heir (by the bequeather) in more than a third (of the inheritance). A child is to the bed and the prostitute should be stoned.[9] Whoever claims other than his real father and whoever claims other than his own children, the curse of Allah, of the angels, and of the whole people shall be on him, and Allah will accept from him neither expiation nor ransom, and peace and mercy of Allah be on you.”[10]

7. His speech in the Ghadeer of Khum

When the Prophet (a.s.) performed his last hajj, he (with the Muslims) began his journey back to Medina. When he (and the Muslims) arrived in Ghadeer Khum, Gabriel came down to him carrying with him a very important message from the Heaven. It was to appoint Ameerul Mo’minin Ali bin Abi Talib a caliph over the Muslims (after the Prophet) and a general leader over the nation, and to announce that openly and with no moment of delay. The message of the Heaven was revealed in this verse, (O Messenger! deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people).[11]

The Prophet (a.s.) determined to fulfill the will of Allah. He stopped at the desert and ordered the caravans of the hajjis to do the same. It was a very hot summer day that men put the ends of their abas under their legs to guard against hot. When Muslims, who were about one hundred thousands or more as historians say, gathered together, the Prophet (a.s.) began making a speech before them. He said,

“Praise be to Allah; we seek His assistance, believe in Him, rely on Him, and seek Allah’s protection from the evils of our souls and from our bad deeds. Whom Allah guides, there is none that can lead him astray, and whom Allah makes to go astray, there is none to guide him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone with no partner to Him and bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger.

As then O people, kind, wise Gabriel has told me that no prophet lived except as the half of the life of the prophet that was before him, and I am about to be called and I will respond (to be made die). I am answerable and you are answerable too. What shall you say?”

They all cried out, “We bear witness that you have informed, been loyal in advising, and tried your best. May Allah reward you with good.”

The Prophet (a.s.) said, “Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, and that His Paradise is right, His Fire is right, death is right, the Hour (Day of Judgment) is coming with no doubt, and that Allah will resurrect those in graves…?”

They all cried out, “Yes, we bear witness of that.”

The Prophet (a.s.), looking at the heaven, said, “O Allah, bear witness…”

Then he added, “I will precede you to the pond (in Paradise), and you will come to me at the pond whose wide is as between Sana’a and Busra,[12] and it has silver cups as much as the number of stars. See how you will be loyal to me in dealing with the two weighty things!”

Someone asked, “O messenger of Allah, what are the two weighty things?”

The Prophet (a.s.) said, “The major weighty thing is the Book of Allah; one side (of it) is in the hand of Allah and the other side is in your hands, so keep to it and you shall not go astray, and the other minor (weighty) thing is my family. The kind, the wise (Gabriel) has told me that they (the Qur’an and my family) will not separate until they will come to me at the pond (in Paradise), and I have asked my Lord to grant that for them. Do not precede them lest you perish and do not lag behind them lest you perish …”

Then he took Imam Ali’s hand and said, “O people, who is the worthiest (of people) of the believers than themselves?…”

They said, “Allah and His messenger are more aware.”

The Prophet (a.s.) said, “Allah is my Guardian and I am the guardian of the believers, and I am worthier of the believers than themselves. So, whoever I am his guardian, Ali is to be his guardian.” He repeated that three times.

Then, he added, “O Allah, favor whoever follows him, be an enemy to whoever opposes him, love whoever loves him, hate whoever hates him, support whoever supports him, let down whoever betrays him, and turn the truth with him wherever he turns. Let the present inform the absent…”

8. His speech on receiving the month of Ramadan

On the last Friday of Sha’ban, the Prophet (a.s.) made this speech about receiving the month of Ramadan where he invited the Muslims to piety, benevolence, charity, and good deeds. Here is the speech as narrated by Imam Ali (a.s.),

“O people, the month of Allah is coming to you with blessing, mercy, and forgiveness; a month that is the best of months near Allah, its days are the best of days, its nights are the best of nights, and its hours are the best of hours. It is a month in which you are invited to the hospitality of Allah and in which you are made from the people of Allah’s generosity; your breaths in it are as glorifying (of Allah), your sleeping is as worship, your deeds are accepted, and your supplication is responded to; therefore, ask your Lord with true intentions and pure hearts so that Allah may help you to fast it (the month of Ramadan) and recite His Book, because a wretched one is he who is deprived of the forgiveness of Allah in this great month. Remember, by your hunger and thirst in it, the hunger and the thirst of the Day of Judgment, pay charity to your poor and needy people, revere your old ones and be merciful to your young ones, maintain kinship with your relatives, withhold your tongues, keep your sights away from what is not permissible for you to look at, and your hearings from what is not permissible for you to listen to, be kind to the orphans of people and your orphans shall be shown kindness, repent to Allah the Almighty of your sins, and raise your hands towards Him in supplication at the times of your prayers, because they are the best hours where Allah the Almighty looks during them with mercy at His servants; He answers them if they invoke Him, complies if they call on Him, and responds to them if they invite Him.

O people, your souls are bind by your deeds, so release them by your seeking of forgiveness, and your backs are burdened with your sins, so relieve them by your long prostration, and know that Allah the Almighty has sworn by His glory that He will not punish the praying and the prostrating ones, and will not call them to the fire on the day when people shall stand before the Lord of the worlds.

O people, whoever of you gives food (at the meal of Iftar) to a fasting believer in this month, he shall have near Allah the Almighty for that (a reward) as (the reward of) a setting free of a slave, and forgiveness to his afore committed sins.”

He added, “Keep yourselves safe from the Fire even if by a half of a date (to be given to a needy fasting one), keep yourselves safe from the Fire even if by a drink of water. O people, whoever of you betters his morals in this month it shall be to him a permit to pass across the Sirat[13] on the day when feet shall slip, and whoever sets free in this month from what his hand possesses (of slaves) Allah will make light his judgment (on the Day of Judgment), and whoever withholds his evil in it (this month) Allah will withhold His wrath from him on the day when he shall meet Him, and whoever is generous to an orphan in it Allah will be generous to him on the day when he shall meet Him, and whoever cuts his relationship with his kin in it Allah will cut from him His mercy on the day when he shall meet Him, and whoever offers willingly a prayer in it Allah will record to him an acquittance from the Fire, and whoever performs an obligation in it, shall have the reward of seventy obligations performed in other (months) than it, and whoever much prays Allah to send blessings on me his scales shall be heavy on the day when scales shall be light, and whoever recites in it a verse from the Qur’an shall have the reward of the reciting of the whole Qur’an in other months.

O people, the doors of the Paradise are open in this month; therefore, ask your Lord not to close them before you, and the doors of the Fire are closed, so ask your Lord not to open them before you, and the devils are tied, so ask your Lord not to release them against you.”

Imam Ali (a.s.) asked him, “O messenger of Allah, what are the best deeds in this month?”

The Prophet (a.s.) said, “O Abul Hasan, the best of deeds in this months is the abstaining from what Allah has prohibited.”

Then the Prophet (a.s.) began weeping, and when Imam Ali (a.s.) asked him why, he said, “O Ali, I weep for what shall afflict you in this month. As if I see that, while you shall be offering prayer for your Lord, the most wretched one of the first, the brother of the killer of Thamud’s she-camel, shall strike you on your head that shall blood your beard…”

Imam Ali (a.s.) asked faithfully and confidently, “Shall that be while I am on my sound faith?”

The Prophet (a.s.) said, “Yes, on your sound faith. O Ali, whoever kills you kills me, whoever hates you hates me, and whoever reviles you reviles me, because you are to me like my self; your soul is from my soul and your clay (of creation) is from my clay. Allah the Blessed, the High, has created me and you and chosen me and you; he has chosen me for prophethood, and chosen you for imamate, and whoever denies your imamate denies my prophethood.

O Ali, you are my guardian, the father of my two sons, the husband of my daughter, and my successor over my nation in my life and after my death; your commandment is my commandment and your prohibition is my prohibition. I swear by Him Who has sent me with the prophethood and made me the best of people, you are the authority of Allah over His people, His trustee with His secrets, and His deputy over His servants.”[14]

9. His speech in his last illness

At his last illness, the Prophet (a.s.) made a speech before his companions who had come to visit him. Here is a short passage from that speech:

The Prophet (a.s.) said, “O people, I am about to be made die soon and be taken away. I have spoken to you to be excused before you; I leave among you the Book of Allah and my progeny, my household…”

Then, he took Imam Ali’s hand and said, “This is Ali. He is with the Qur’an, and the Qur’an is with Ali; they will not separate until they will come to me at the pond (in the Paradise).”[15]

[1] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 1 p. 272, al-Kamil fee at-Tareekh, vol. 2 p. 27.
[2] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Hisham, vol. 1 p. 300, Jamharat Khutab al-Arab, vol. 1 p. 55.
[3] Qur’an, 50:29.
[4] Tareekh at-Tabari, vol. 2 p. 115.
[5] I’jaz al-Qur’an, vol. 5 p. 255.
[6]I’jaz al-Qur’an, vol. 5, p. 113.
[7] Qur’an, 9:37.
[8] Qur’an, 9:36.
[9] An illegitimate child should be ascribed to the husband on whose bed adultery was committed (with his wife) and the adulteress (wife) should be stoned.
[10] Al-Bayan wet-Tabyeen, vol. 2 p. 15, Tareekh at-Tabari, vol. 3 p. 168, al-Kamil fee at-Tareekh, vol. 2 p. 146.
[11] Qur’an, 5:67. Al-Wahidi in Asbab an-Nuzool, p. 10, ar-Razi in his Tafsir, vol. 3 p. 636, and other historians mention that this verse has been revealed on the occasion of al-Ghadeer.
[12] Sana’a is the capital of Yemen and Busra is a town in Syria.
[13] As-Sirat is the bridge that dominates the Hell.
[14] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 93 p. 218-219, Uyoon al-Akhbar, vol. 1 p. 295-297, Amali as-Saduq, p. 57-58.
[15] The Life of the Principal of Women Fatima az-Zahra’, p. 284, quoted from as-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah.

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