By: Sayyid Ali Al-Shahristani

It has been uninterruptedly narrated that the Ahl al-Bayt allowed the recordation of the Had?th. Imam `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib recorded the seventy-cubit book of al-J?mi`ah, which included the dictations of the Holy Prophet and has been reported in the narrations of the Holy Imams.[1024] In a book entitled The Book of `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib as reported from the Messenger of Allah; A Muslim Jurisprudential Documentative Thesis, Dr. Rif`at Fawziy `Abd al-Muttalib has collected all the narrations of that al-J?mi`ah that are dispersed in the jurisprudential reference books.[1025]

This Sah?fah (i.e. book) was kept by the Imams—the descendants of Imam `Al?. They handed it over in heritage from one to another and preserved it to the greatest extent. In this respect, Imam al-Hasan ibn `Al? is reported to have said,“Verily, the (true) knowledge is with us, and we are its people. The entire knowledge is elaborately collected with us. Indeed, we have all the things that shall take place up to the Resurrection Day, including matters that are as minute as the retaliation of scratching, collected in a book dictated by the Messenger of Allah with the handwriting of `Al?.”[1026]

When he was asked about his father’s opinion about the right of option, Imam al-Hasan ordered a box to be brought to him. He then opened it and took out a yellowish book that comprised the opinions of Imam `Al? about that matter.[1027]

This book was kept by Imam al-Husayn, then Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn, then Imam Muhammad al-B?qir, then Imam Ja`far al-S?diq… etc.[1028]

It is thus obvious that the descendants of Imam `Al? cared about this book so incomparably that in spite of all the horrible circumstances that surrounded him, Imam al-Husayn was not distracted by anything from depositing that book to his elder daughter, F?timah, and ordering her to give it to his son, Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn. This is because this book has been one of the treasures of the Holy Prophet’s Household and his deposit with them. Moreover, this book was so precious in the view of Lady F?timah al-Zahr?’, the daughter of the Holy Prophet, that when she once missed it, she said to Fiddah her bondmaid, “Woe to you! Look for that book because it is as precious as al-Hasan and Husayn in my view.”[1029]

This great interest in the book was neither aimless nor originated from personal desire. In point of fact, to equalize this Sah?fah to al-Hasan and al-Husayn, the one and only delight of the Holy Prophet in this world, is a matter that requires thorough consideration. On the face of it, the knowledge that is comprised by that Sah?fah is equivalent to the knowledge carried by al-Hasan and al-Husayn from the Holy Prophet and, similarly, that Sah?fah can supply the Muslims with the same amount of knowledge that can be given to them by Imam al-Hasan and Imam al-Husayn.

On the other side, this ever-increasing attention to the books in general and to the Sah?fah of Imam `Al? in particular cannot be found with the adversary school of Ijtih?d and Opinionism. Ab?-Bakr is reported to have set fire to the books in which he had written down the instructions of the Holy Prophet; and `Umar ibn al-Khatt?b is reported to have set fire to the books in which the people had recorded the Had?th; and `Uthm?n ibn `Aff?n is reported to have set fire to the copies of the Holy Qur’?n; and Mu`?wiyah is reported to have ordered the publics not to narrate the heritage of the Holy Prophet except the Had?ths that were widespread during the reign of `Umar ibn al-Khatt?b. The same thing is applicable to the other rulers.

Nevertheless, the Ahl al-Bayt continued recording the heritage of the Holy Prophet and preserved these records since the beginning of the Islamic legislation and the divine revelation up to a recent time.

It has been narrated that the Holy Prophet ordered Imam `Al? to write down, saying, “Write down what I will dictate.” Imam `Al? asked, “Do you anticipate that I may forget?”

The Holy Prophet answered, “No, I do not. But I want you to write down so that your partners will benefit from it.” “Who are my partners?” asked Imam `Al?.

The Holy Prophet answered, “They are the Imams who will come after you.”[1030]

This narration confirms that the Holy Prophet wanted to preserve, with his Household and others, the divine legislation that he conveyed by means of writing down so that these records would be maintained as scientific heritage from which all the Muslim generations would benefit. Hence, as the Ahl al-Bayt used the Sah?fah of Imam `Al?, looked in it, and asked the others to witness its existence, they intended to give proof on the authenticity of their reportings from the Holy Prophet and on the fact that whatever they said had never been personal views or baseless suggestions; rather they had been originated by the Holy Prophet. It has been narrated on the authority of Imam Ja`far al-S?diq that whenever Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn studied the Sah?fah of `Al?, he would say, “Who can do all these?”[1031]
It has been also narrated on the authority of Imam Muhammad al-B?qir that his father, Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn, once asked him, “Get me these papers comprising the acts of worship of `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib.”

When he did so, his father read a few lines of these papers and then left them with tedium, saying, “Who can stand the worship of `Al?!”[1032]

These two narrations make us ask whether the Sah?fah of `Al? comprises explications of the religious laws and duties only or includes other fields of knowledge. According to the abovementioned texts, the book of Imam `Al? comprises the major and supererogatory acts of worship as it embraces all the fundaments and principles of Islam as a perfect, cognate unit in addition to all matters required by the Muslims. As Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-`?bid?n (the best of the worshippers) who is well-known of his unparalleled worship[1033] studied the recommended, supererogatory, and preferable acts of worship mentioned in the Sah?fah of `Al?, he said, “Who can do all these?”

While the Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt and their adherents continued ceaselessly recording the Holy Prophet’s heritage and worked for preserving these records, the other School of Opinionism and Ijtih?d set fire to and erased such records and prohibited the reporting and recordation of the Had?th. This great incongruity undoubtedly proves the most authenticity and most accuracy of the proofs of the Ahl al-Bayt and the trend of the thorough compliance with the sacred texts, unlike the other trend of Opinionism and Ijtih?d, which carries a confused heritage that is influenced by various factors and personal opinions beginning with the enactment of the personal opinions and interpretations disregarding the sacred texts, passing by the ratification of analogy and other innovative and invented principles, and ending up with endless personal opinions and trends.

To have a deeper look at the narrations of the Sah?fah (book) that were held by Imam Muhammad ibn `Al? al-B?qir and Imam Ja`far ibn Muhammad al-S?diq opens our eyes on the fact that these holy Imams had increasingly concentrated on and cared for that Sah?fah. It has been narrated that `Adh?fir al-Sayrafiy said that he, accompanied by al-Hakam ibn `Utaybah, visited Ab?-Ja`far (i.e. Imam Muhammad al-B?qir) and asked him many questions. Although the Imam honored them considerably, they disagreed about a certain question. Settling the dispute, Ab?-Ja`far asked his son to bring him the Book of `Al?. Having been kept in a drawer, it was a handsome book through which Ab?-Ja`far began to skim until he reached at the question involved. Referring to the book, Ab?-Ja`far said, “This is the handwriting of (Imam) `Al? and the dictation of the Messenger of Allah.”

He then turned his face towards al-Hakam and said,“Wherever Salamah, Abu’l-Miqd?m, and you go, you shall never find any people carrying the most authentic knowledge other than the people to whom (Archangel) Gabriel used to ascend (from the heavens).”[1034] According to another narration, al-Hakam ibn `Utaybah, once, asked Imam Muhammad al-B?qir about the parts of the blood money for the teeth. Answering him, Imam al-B?qir said,“Thus have we found it (i.e. the question) in the Book of `Al?.”[1035]

It has been also narrated that Zur?rah ibn A`yun once asked Imam Muhammad al-B?qir about the share of grandfathers from inheritances… Zur?rah said that Imam al-B?qir then asked his son, Ja`far,[1036] to recite the Sah?fah of the shares of inheritances before me. He therefore brought out a book that was as huge as a camel’s thigh and threw its edge before me. As Zur?rah looked in it, it was obvious that it must have been written in an ancient age. The next morning, Imam al-B?qir asked Zur?rah whether he had read the chapter of the shares of inheritances in that book. He then added,

“By Allah I swear, what you have seen is verily the very truth. What you have seen was the dictation of the Messenger of Allah and the handwriting of `Al?. My father told me on the authority of his father that Am?r al-Mu’min?n told him of such.”[1037] It has been also narrated on the authority of Ab?-Ayy?b al-Khazz?z that Imam Ja`far al-S?diq said that it has been written down in the Book of `Al? that he who has relatives… etc.[1038]

It has been also narrated on the authority of Sulaym?n ibn Kh?lid that Imam Ja`far al-S?diq said that it has been written down in the Book of `Al? that one of the Prophets complained to Almighty Allah about… etc.[1039]

The Book Of `Ali Again

As has been previously said, the Book of Imam `Al? was so comprehensive that its contents cannot be dedicated to questions of the religious laws of inheritance and judicature since the Holy Imams have referred to this book during discussing all the life affairs as well as the various fields of the Muslim jurisprudence, such as the following questions:

Cats’ leftover;[1040] performing the ritual ablution as a part of the bathing of the major ritual impurity;[1041] the rulings of the funerals, the best time of offering the Dhuhr and `Asr Prayers, and the Tashahhud in the prayers;[1042] the ruling regarding what to do with a dead Muhrim;[1043] performing the prayer while putting a garb made of the hair of an animal the meet of which is forbidden to eat;[1044]the Tashahhud in the prayers;[1045] the fact that Almighty Allah rewards those who very much offer prayers and observe fasting;[1046] the decency of the im?m of congregational prayers;[1047]

the etiquettes of supplication (Du`?’);[1048] the forbiddance from defraying the Zak?t;[1049] some questions about Enjoining the Right (al-Amr bi’l-Ma`r?f), the outbreak of adultery, and rupture of family ties;[1050] the observance of fasting when the new moon is, personally, seen;[1051] the Muhrim’s putting on pallium;[1052] the Muhrim’s hunting;[1053] doubt in the times of the ritual Circumambulation (Taw?ff);[1054] granting security to those who voluntarily join the Muslim community;[1055] the properties of one’s son;[1056] the meaning of ‘thing’ in a will;[1057]

a number of questions appertained to matrimony;[1058] the oaths;[1059] eating the meat of falcons and hawks;[1060] some questions appertained to game and legal slaughtering of animals;[1061] the parts to be cut from the fat tails of sheep;[1062] the forbiddingness from eating the catfish, the eel, the fish that die inside the water and then float on its surface,[1063] the pipefish,[1064] the spleen, the wastes of the sea,[1065] the hagfish,[1066] and the meat of domestic donkeys;[1067] rulings appertained to the lands;[1068] laws and statutory shares of inheritance;[1069] judicature;[1070] doctrinal provisions (Hud?d);[1071] blood money (Diyah);[1072] rulings of adultery;[1073]

the major sins;[1074] devouring the wealth of orphans;[1075] the punishments for acts of disobedience (to Almighty Allah);[1076] painstakingness in acts of worship;[1077] divine tests for the faithful believers;[1078] the likeness of the worldly life;[1079] having a good opinion about Almighty Allah;[1080] respect for the neighbor;[1081] well-manneredness;[1082] the violators of the Sabbath;[1083] the encouragement on seeking knowledge;[1084] the blood money for the damaged teeth;[1085] and many other issues that are derived from the primary religious questions and fields of knowledge.

Although I have not been very accurate in the inventory of the narrations in the Im?miyyah Sh?`ite reference books of Had?th, the aforesaid topics have been no more than various examples on the subjects comprised by the Book of `Al?. My purpose beyond this has been only to demonstrate the difference between the two schools—Sunnite and Sh?`ite—in jurisprudence and to prove the fact that the Muslims, after they had disagreed about the political leadership, disagreed about jurisprudence. It is worth mentioning that the School of Thorough Compliance with the Sacred Texts adhered to the Book of `Al? in order to prove its genuineness and derivation from the Holy Prophet and the Divine Revelation. Consequently, those who issued the decision of prohibiting the reporting and recording of the Had?th blacked out this book and, as a result, some people received the rulings mentioned therein very astonishingly because they had never heard of them before.

All these narrations prove that the “Book of `Al?” has been so comprehensive that it comprises all the worldly and religious sciences that the Holy Prophet conveyed from Almighty Allah. One of the abovementioned narrations has confirmed that the “Book of `Al?” comprises the recounting of the previous Prophets and the ancient nations that Imam `Al? took directly from the tongue of the Holy Prophet. Moreover, the narratives of the ancient beliefs and peoples have reached us from the Book of `Al?… etc.

Imam `Ali Ibn Abi-Talib

Besides the writing down of the famous Sah?fah from the Holy Prophet, Imam `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib, according to reference books of history, recorded other books the materials of which were derived from the knowledge of the Holy Prophet. Shar?f al-Murtad? (died in AH 436) has ascribed the book of al-Muhkam wa’l-Mutash?bah f?’l-Qur’?n (The Decisive and Allegorical Verses in the Qur’?n) to Imam `Al?.[1086] Al-Ash`ariy al-Qummiy (died in AH 301) has ascribed the book of N?sikh al-Qur’?n wa-Mans?khuh (The Repealing and the Repealed Verses of the Qur’?n) to Imam `Al?.[1087] al-H?fidh ibn `Uqdah al-K?fiy (died in AH 333) has confirmed that Imam `Al? wrote in about sixty items of the knowledge of the Holy Qur’?n.[1088]

Patterning the pioneer of the Islamic recording, Imam `Al?’s descendants and disciples wrote many books in all fields of religious knowledge. It has been narrated that al-H?rith al-A`war al-Hamad?niy[1089] and Ab?-R?f?`[1090] each reported from Imam `Al? an entire book. Rab?`ah ibn Sumay` has narrated the rulings of the Zak?t that Imam `Al? wrote down with his handwriting when he appointed him as the Zak?t collector.[1091] Muhammad ibn Qays al-Bujaliy has narrated the suits in which Imam `Al? issued judgments. He then presented these narrations before Imam Muhammad al-B?qir, who attested them.[1092] Maytham ibn Yahy? al-Tamm?r wrote down a famous book, which was circulating up to the seventh century (of Hijrah). Directly from this book, al-Tabariy quoted many paragraphs.[1093] Asbagh ibn Nub?tah al-Muj?shi`iy has reported from Imam `Al? the section of the suits in which he issued judgments. These reports have been published in a book entitled Aqdiyat al-Im?m `Al? (The Judgments of Imam `Al?) and `Aj?’ib Ahk?m Am?r al-Mu’min?n (The Amazing Verdicts of Am?r al-Mu’min?n). Sulaym ibn Qays has also written down a book from whom Ab?n ibn `Ayy?sh narrated.

In addition, many other Sah?bah and T?bi`?n wrote down many books whose materials were quoted or reported from Imam `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib. In this respect, al-Suy?tiy, in his book of al-Ashb?h wa’l-Nadh?’ir, has written down on the authority of Ibn `As?kir that some of the Grammarians used to refer to the thesis of Abu’l-Aswad al-Du’aliy that he had received from Imam `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib.[1094]

It has been also narrated that Imam `Al? wrote an epistle to M?lik al-Ashtar when he appointed him as the governor of Egypt. This epistle has been published with the famous book of Nahj al-Bal?ghah and in an independent book. Master scholars have written down many commentaries and explanations of this famous epistle that comprises the significant and unparalleled concepts of Imam `Al? in the fields of policy, management, unity, and rights of the leaders and the subjects.[1095]

It has been narrated on the authority of al-A`mash, on the authority of Ibr?h?m, that his father once said, “One day, (Imam) `Al? delivered a sermon in which he said,Verily, liar is he who claims that we (i.e. the Ahl al-Bayt) hold anything from which we read except the Book of Almighty Allah (i.e. the Holy Qur’?n) and this Sah?fah.

The Sah?fah was a book hanged to his sword comprising some laws of the blood money for breaking the teeth of camels as well as details of the blood money for some wounds.[1096]

It has been also narrated that Tar?q said that he once heard Imam `Al? saying from the minbar,“We have no book to recite before you except the Book of Almighty Allah and this Sah?fah.”[1097]

These two narrations and their likes reveal significant features about the Sah?fah of Imam `Al? and the recordation of the Had?th. Accordingly, a part of the Muslims found it strange that Imam `Al? kept a book, or a number of books, comprising the knowledge of Islam. Of course, such astonishment was the result of their accumulative ignorance with the recordation of the religious knowledge in general and in its benefits; with the reporting of the Had?th and with its good results; with the divine revelation; and with the true interpretations of the sacred texts… etc. Moreover, these Muslims accused Imam `Al? of having held a book “besides the Book of Almighty Allah” or another “Qur’?n.” Unfortunately, some of the modern Muslim scholars and writers who lack any knowledge with the minute details of the recording and the records that were present in the first age of Islam have falsely claimed that Imam `Al? held a book of the Holy Qur’?n different from the existent one.

Through the aforementioned texts, Imam `Al? wanted to explain the matter for the Muslims; he had nothing other than the Holy Qur’?n and a book (Sah?fah) in which he had written down the dictations of the Holy Prophet. This Sah?fah is a comprehensive exegesis and interpretation of the Holy Qur’?n and the divine revelations with all of their dimensions and purports. Thus, the Sah?fah comprises nothing further than these two basic sources of the Islamic legislation.

Once again, Imam `Al?’s words in the aforesaid narrations stood for refuting a spurious argument or a false accusation of the existence of a book matching or opposing the Holy Qur’?n; therefore, the narrator has mentioned in particular the laws of the blood money for breaking the teeth of camels as well as details of the blood money for some wounds, because these laws had been known for them since the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. The Sah?fah had not comprised materials that they had never heard of; rather it comprised the details of such materials. Furthermore, the narrations have mentioned the Sah?fah in particular; and this does not mean that Imam `Al? did not write down or hold other books; rather it has been proven that the Ahl al-Bayt kept other books. Later on in this book, details in this respect will be presented.

To put it briefly, by his saying, “and this Sah?fah” Imam `Al? intended to declare that all his sayings are originated from the Holy Prophet.

If truth be told, the Sah?fah of Imam `Al? was the head of all items of knowledge and the loftiest book in the view of the Ahl al-Bayt; therefore, Imam `Al? and his descendants concentrated on it so confirmatively that Ibn S?r?n wished had he seen or obtained that book, saying,“Had I obtained that Book (i.e. the Sah?fah), I would have certainly obtained the knowledge entirely.”[1098]

Imam `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib was the foremost caller to the recordation of the religious knowledge in general and the heritage of the Holy Prophet in particular. He immeasurably confirmed and supported this process. In this regard, it has been narrated on the authority of al-H?rith that Imam `Al? once declared, “Who will purchase knowledge from me with one dirham!” I thus went to him and bought some papers with one dirham.[1099]

In addition, too many are the narrations that demonstrated Imam `Al?’s having encouraged and declared the legality of recording the religious knowledge. For instance, he is reported to have said,“Write down the knowledge, Write down the knowledge!”[1100] “Handwriting is a signal; therefore, the clearer the better.”[1101]

To his clerk `Ubaydull?h ibn Ab?-R?fi`, Imam `Al? once said,“Prepare your ink-pot, extend the edges of your pen, expand the distance between the lines, and reduce the distance between the letters (of one word).”[1102]He is also reported to have said, “Lengthen and fatten up the tip of your pen, sharpen it, make me hear the drone of the ‘n’, roll the ‘h’, stuff the ‘s’, crisscross the ‘`’, rend the ‘k’, intensify the ‘f’, well-arrange the ‘l’, lighten the ‘b’, ‘t’, and ‘th’, stand up the ‘z’ and raise its tail, and always put your pen behind your ear so as to remember it.”[1103]

These excellent instructions in the Arabic calligraphy are considered among the important pillars of the process of recording. Up to the present time, these instructions have been applied by the calligraphists in order to show their skillfulness in bettering the Arabic handwriting.

The Ahl al-Bayt cared for the recordation of the religious knowledge very much; they therefore guided their disciples in particular and the clerks in general to the minutest details of writing. Additionally, the above-mentioned narrations prove false all the claims that Imam `Al? warned against the compilation of books on religious knowledge and the keeping of such records. They also confirm our discussions about the role of the ruling authorities in the fabrication and forgery against the Holy Prophet and the Ahl al-Bayt.

For more clarification, let us cite the following narration that was reported by Ibr?h?m ibn Muhammad al-Thaqafiy (died in AH 283) in the book of al-Gh?r?t:

Having quoted Imam `Al?’s epistle to Muhammad ibn Ab?-Bakr and the people of Egypt -regarding religious affairs-, the writer narrated on the authority of `Abdull?h ibn Muhammad ibn `Uthm?n on the authority of `Al? ibn Muhammad ibn Ab?-Sayf on the authority of the companions of Muhammad ibn Ab?-Bakr that when the epistle of Imam `Al? reached him, he used to read it carefully, learn from it, and apply it to his affairs and judgments. When Muhammad ibn Ab?-Bakr was attacked and murdered, `Amr ibn al-`?s seized all of the epistles and books that he had kept and sent them to Mu`?wiyah ibn Ab?-Sufy?n. As he read this very epistle of Imam `Al?, he liked it very much. Al-Wal?d ibn `Aqabah, who accompanied Mu`?wiyah, suggested to him to set all these books and epistles to fire.

“Shut up, son of Ab?-Ma`?t! Your opinions are always worthless!” shouted Mu`?wiyah.

Al-Wal?d answered, “It is you who lacks good opinion! Is it reasonable that all the people know that you keep the words of Ab?-Tur?b (i.e. Imam `Al?), learn from them, and judge according to them? If such, why do you then fight against him?” Mu`?wiyah said, “Woe to you! Do you want me to burn such knowledge? By Allah I swear that I have never heard of or seen any item of knowledge more comprehensive, more sagacious, and clearer than this one.”

Al-Wal?d asked, “If you do admire his knowledge in such a wonderful manner, what for then are you fighting against him?” Mu`?wiyah answered, “Unless Ab?-Tur?b killed `Uthm?n, we would accept and adopt his judgments.”

Mu`?wiyah then paused for a while, gazed at the attendants, and said, “We will not say that these epistles were from `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib; rather we will declare that these were Ab?-Bakr’s epistles that he had sent to his son Muhammad. We thus can accept and adopt them.”[1104]

Ab?-Ish?q (i.e. Ibr?h?m ibn Muhammad al-Thaqafiy, the author of al-Gh?r?t, narrated on the authority of Bakr ibn Bakr on the authority of Qays ibn al-Rab?` on the authority of Maysarah ibn Hab?b on the authority of `Amr ibn Murrah on the authority of `Abdull?h ibn Salamah that Imam `Al?, having led a congregational prayer, expressed great sorrow -in a form of a poetic verse- and when he was asked about the reason, he said, “When I appointed Muhammad ibn Ab?-Bakr as the governor of Egypt, he told me about his lack of knowledge concerning the religious laws. I therefore wrote to him an epistle comprising these laws, but he was then killed and that book was taken.”[1105]

This narration demonstrates the scope of Imam `Al?’s anticipation that Mu`?wiyah ibn Ab?-Sufy?n would distort the Holy Sunnah.

F?timah Al-Zahr?’; Daughter Of The Holy Prophet Both Sunnite and Sh?`ite narrators have confirmed that Lady F?timah al-Zahr?’ had a book that she had received from her father. As for the Sunnite reference books of Had?th, al-Khar?’itiy has recorded on the authority of Muj?hid that when Ubayy ibn Ka`b visited F?timah, the daughter of Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family), she showed him a kurbah (a part of the trunk of date-palm trees) on which it was written that one who has believed in Almighty Allah and in the Hereafter must be kind to his neighbor.[1106]

It has been narrated on the authority of al-Q?sim ibn al-Fudayl that Muhammad ibn `Al? narrated that `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Az?z, the Umayyad ruler, once sent him a missive in which he ordered him to copy the will of (Lady) F?timah. One of the paragraphs of that will was the claim that she put a curtain before her, and when the Messenger of Allah saw that curtain, he returned while he had intended to visit her… etc.[1107]

As for the Sh?`ite reference books of Had?th, Ibn B?bawayh al-Qummiy has recorded that Imam Ja`far al-S?diq said, “As I was reading in the Book of F?timah, I found that all the kings (i.e. rulers) that would rule on this earth are written in that book by their fathers’ and their names.”[1108]

It has been also recorded in al-K?f? that Imam Ja`far al-S?diq answered a question depending upon the contents of the Book of F?timah.[1109]

Because the Book of F?timah has been well-known as al-Mushaf,[1110] the enemies have used this point to malign the disciples of the Ahl al-Bayt School although the word Mushaf was used in the first age of Islam to denote any book and it has been never dedicated to referring to the Holy Qur’?n alone. To support this fact, Shaykh T?hir al-Jaz?’iriy has written down that as soon as the Holy Prophet departed life, the Sah?bah hurried to compile all that which he had written in his will in one book that they named al-Mushaf.[1111]

Imam Al-Hasan Ibn `Ali? Al-Mujtaba

Imam al-Hasan kept his father’s Sah?fah from which he learnt the knowledge of the Holy Prophet. It has been narrated that `Abd al-Rahm?n ibn Ab?-Layl? asked Imam al-Hasan about Imam `Al?’s verdict about the right of option. Imam al-Hasan ordered a box to be brought to him. He then opened it and took out a yellowish book that comprised the opinions of Imam `Al? about that matter.[1112] This narration reveals two facts the first of which is that the Sah?bah had disagreed about the ruling of the right of option; therefore, `Abd al-Rahm?n ibn Ab?-Layl? asked Imam al-Hasan about Imam `Al?’s opinion in the question. Secondly, it was commonly known that Imam `Al?’s religious rulings (i.e. jurisprudence) was the most genuine; therefore, `Abd al-Rahm?n ibn Ab?-Layl? asked for these rulings from Imam al-Hasan since he believed that the Book of `Al? had been with him.

More than once, Imam al-Hasan ibn `Al? concentrated on the significance of spreading the genuine knowledge and the necessity of the responsibility that the Ahl al-Bayt and their descendants should undertake in preserving the genuine Islamic legislation by means of reporting and recording the Had?th. In this regard, it has been narrated on the authority of Shurahb?l ibn Sa`d that Imam al-Hasan, once, summoned his sons and nephews and said to them,

“My sons and nephews: As you are now the infants among this people, you will soon be the adults of others. You should thus learn the (religious) knowledge. Any of you who cannot report it must write it down and keep it in his house.”[1113]

Thus, Imam al-Hasan instructed his sons and nephews to learn the religious knowledge since infancy so that they will benefit by it and teach it to others. Of course, this instruction was resulted from the fact that the genuine knowledge was on the edge of loss and in the danger of falling in abyss. One can now imagine what the fate of the Islamic legislation be if these records would not be preserved for the next generations. Although records and reference books are existent and easily obtainable in the present time, disagreements and waste of the actual religious rulings are in full swing; what would be our manner if recordation of the religious knowledge was not practiced at all?

It has been narrated on the authority of Ab?-`Amr ibn al-`Al?’ that Imam al-Hasan answered those who asked him his opinion about an eighty year old man who was still writing down the Had?th, “This man is making good living.”[1114]

Imam Al-Husayn Ibn `Ali The Martyr

The Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt and their adherents believe indisputably that the Book of Imam `Al? moved to Imam al-Husayn after the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan. According to the book of Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t, when Imam al-Husayn had to encounter the enemy, he summoned his elder daughter, F?timah, and gave her a folded book.[1115] According to another narration, when Imam `Al? advanced to Iraq (for fighting), he trusted the books that he had kept to Ummu-Salamah, the Holy Prophet’s widow. These books were kept by Imam al-Hasan after the demise of Imam `Al?. After the demise of Imam al-Hasan, these books were kept by Imam al-Husayn and then by Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn… etc.[1116]These books were different from the book that the Holy Prophet had trusted to Ummu-Salamah and asked her not to hand it over to his successor provided that the successor himself would ask her for it. Ummu-Salamah maintained that book, and when the publics elected and swore allegiance to Imam `Al? as their leader, he came and asked her about the book, and she gave it to him.[1117]

It has also been narrated on the authority of Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Imam `Al?’s son, came to Imam al-Husayn and asked him something from their father’s heritage.

“Your father left nothing more than seven hundred dirhams that remained from his gifts. However, the people came to me asking, and I have to answer them,” answered Imam al-Husayn.

Muhammad then said, “Well, give me from the knowledge of my father.”

Hence, Imam al-Husayn brought a book that is four fingers longer or shorter than one span (of the hand). That book was filled up with knowledge.[1118]

To sum it up, the book that the Holy Prophet had trusted with Ummu-Salamah was different from the one that he had dictated to Imam `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib. The earlier one comprised materials needed by the ruler for managing the governmental affairs, while the latter comprised the religious laws, the history of the ancient nations, and so on.

Owing to the incomparable significance of that book, Imam al-Husayn, having encountered the worst circumstances, exerted all efforts for conveying the knowledge of that book to his successor. It is thus undeniable that Ummu-Salamah was one of the foremost Muslim women who preserved the recordation of the religious knowledge and realized the menace of preventing it. For that reason, this righteous lady was highly respected by the Holy Imams of the Ahl a-Bayt who trusted with her the records of the genuine legislation of the Holy Prophet.

Having been one of the supporters and heralds of the necessity of reporting and recording the Had?th, Imam al-Husayn said in a sermon that he had delivered at Min?,

“You have seen, realized, and witnessed what this tyrant is doing to us and to our adherents. I therefore want to carry out a matter; and if you believe it as true, then you should carry it out. Listen to my words and write down my sayings; and when you go back to your districts and tribes, call those whom you trust and believe to our right that you know, for I fear lest this matter will be wiped out and thus the right would vanish.”[1119]

It has been also narrated on the authority of `Abdull?h ibn Sin?n that he once asked Imam Ja`far al-S?diq what should be done to a Muhrim (entering into Ihr?m: putting the pilgrimage uniform) who departs life. The Imam answered that when `Abd al-Rahm?n ibn `Al? died at al-Abw?’ (while having been Muhrim), Imam al-Husayn who was accompanied by `Abdull?h ibn `Abb?s and `Abdull?h ibn Ja`far did the same procedures that are done to the other dead people and then covered his face without letting any scent touch his body. He then commented, “I found this way written down in the Book of `Al?.”[1120]

It has been also narrated that Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah wrote down a reference book of Had?th.[1121]This indicates that all the sons of Imam `Al? wrote books on the religious knowledge and concerned themselves with the recording out of their care for preserving the Holy Sunnah and documenting all that which they reported from the Holy Prophet.

Notes:

[1024] Sayyid Muhsin al-Am?n: A`y?n al-Sh?`ah 1:330.
[1025] This book (Sah?fat `Al? ibn Ab?-T?lib `An Ras?lill?h; Dir?satun Tawth?qiyyatun Fiqhiyyah) was published in AH 1406 in Aleppo, D?r al-Sal?m Publications.
[1026] Al-Tabrisiy: al-Ihtij?j 155; al-Majlisiy: Bih?r al-Anw?r 44:100.
[1027] Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-`Ilal 1: 104 (Ankara University Press).
[1028] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 165/12.
[1029] Al-Tabar?niy: al-Mu`jam al-Kab?r 413 H. 22; al-T?siy: al-Ghaybah 118.
[1030] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 167.
[1031] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Rawdat al-K?f? 8:136 H. 172.
[1032] Shaykh al-Muf?d: al-Irsh?d 2:142; Ibn Shahr?sh?b: Man?qib ?li Ab?-T?lib 4:149; Shaykh al-Tabrisiy: I`l?m al-War? bi-A`l?m al-Hud? 245; al-Majlisiy: Bih?r al-Anw?r 46:74 H. 65.
[1033] Imam `Al? ibn al-Husayn is also called ‘Dhu’l-Thafan?t’, because his knees were callous due to his very frequent and long prostrations for Almighty Allah. He is also called ‘al-Sajj?d’, which means the one who very frequently prostrates himself for Almighty Allah.
[1034] Al-Naj?shiy: al-Rij?l 360 No. 966.
[1035] Al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:329 H. 1.
[1036] Al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:77 H. 1.
[1037] Al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:94 H. 3.
[1038] Al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:77 H. 1.
[1039] Al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:414 H. 3 and 4.
[1040] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 1:227 H. 665/38, 9:86 H. 364/9; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 3:9 H. 4.
[1041] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 1:339 H. 398.
[1042] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 2:23 H. 64/15; Shaykh al-T?siy: al-Istibs?r 1:261 H. 27; `All?mah al-Hilliy: Muntah? al-Matlab 1:207; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 4:144 H. 4754/14, 147 H. 4766/26.
[1043] About this topic, there are four narrations; the first is reported on the authority of `Abdull?h ibn Sin?n (see Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 5: 383 H. 13337/250), the second is reported on the authority of Ibn Maryam (see Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Fur?` (Secondary Subjects) al-K?f? 4:368 H. 3), the third and the fourth are reported on the authority of `Abd al-Rahm?n ibn Ab?-`Abdull?h (Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 1:329 H. 963/136; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Fur?` al-K?f? 3:175 H. 6; and Shaykh al-Tusjiy: al-Istibs?r 1:472 H. 1826/7).
[1044] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Fur?` al-K?f? 3:397 H. 1; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 2:209 H. 818/26; al-Istibs?r 1:383 H. 1; Ibn Ab?-Jumh?r al-Ihs?’iy, in `Aw?li al-La’?li 3:74 H. 34.
[1045] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 165 H. 14.
[1046] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 185 H. 11; al-Hurr al-‘?miliy: Was?i’l al-Sh?’ah 4:103 H. 4630/4, 10:407 H. 13714/42.
[1047] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 3:28 H. 96/8.
[1048] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 2:484 H. 2, 485 H. 7; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 7:80 H. 8784/3.
[1049] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Fur?` al-K?f? 3:505 H. 17; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 7:80 H. 11431/12.
[1050] Shaykh al-Sad?q: `Ilal al-Shar?’i` 2:584 H. 26; Shaykh al-T?siy: al-Am?liy 1:131.
[1051] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 4:158 H. 441/13; al-Istibs?r 2:64 H. 208/10; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 10:255 H. 13349/11.
[1052] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Fur?` al-K?f? 4:340 H. 7; Shaykh al-Sad?q: Man-l?-Yahduruhul-Faq?h 2:217 H. 21; Shaykh al-Sad?q: `Ilal al-Shar?’i` 2:408 H. 1.
[1053] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 5:344 H. 1190/103, 1191/104, 355 H. 1233/146; al-Istibs?r 2:203 H. 3; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Fur?` al-K?f? 4:389 H. 5, 4:390 H. 9; Ibn Ab?-Jumh?r al-Ihs?’iy, in `Aw?li al-La’?li 3:173 H. 86, 88. [1054] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 5:152 H. 502/27; al-Istibs?r 2:240 H. 835/5; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 13:366 H. 17966/10, 367 H. 17972/16.
[1055] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Fur?` al-K?f? 5:31 H.5.
[1056] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 6:343 H. 961/82.
[1057] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:40 H. 1; Shaykh al-Sad?q: Man-l?-Yahduruhul-Faq?h 4:151 H. 1; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:211 H. 836/3; Shaykh al-Sad?q: Ma`?n? al-Akhb?r 217 H. 1.
[1058] Shaykh al-Sad?q: Man-l?-Yahduruhul-Faq?h 3:263 H. 37, 286 H.6; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 5:135 H. 5, 452 H. 1; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 7:432 H. 1723/34, 481 H. 1932/140; al-Istibs?r 3:48 H. 158/1.
[1059] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 2:347 H. 4; Fur?` al-K?f? 7:436 H. 9; Shaykh al-Sad?q: al-Khis?l 1:124 H. 119; Thaw?b al-A`m?l 270 H. 8.
[1060] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 6:202 H. 1, 207 H. 1; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:22 H. 88/88; al-`Ayy?shiy: Tafs?r 1:294 H. 28, 295 H. 30.
[1061] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 6:232 H. 1, 3; Shaykh al-Sad?q: Man-l?-Yahduruhul-Faq?h 3:210 H. 61; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:57 H. 237/237; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 24:23 H. 29891/6, H. 29892/7, 65 H. 30010/44, 136 H. 30175/21. [1062] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 6:254 H. 1; Shaykh al-Sad?q: Man-l?-Yahduruhul-Faq?h 3:209 H. 57.
[1063] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:5 H. 12/12; al-Istibs?r 4:590 H. 5; Ibn Ab?-Jumh?r al-Ihs?’iy: `Aw?li al-La’?li 3:464 H. 9.
[1064] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 6:219 H. 1; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:2 H. 1/1.
[1065] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9: 9 H. 18/18; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 24: 134 H. 30170/16.
[1066] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:4 H. 9/9, 10/10; al-Istibs?r 4:58 H. 201/2, 59 H. 3.
[1067] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:40 H. 169/169.
[1068] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 1:407 H. 1; Fur?` al-K?f? 5:279 H. 5; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 7:152 H. 674/23; al-Istibs?r 3:108 H. 383/5; al-`Ayy?shiy: Tafs?r 2:25 H. 66; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 25:414 H. 32246/2; al-M?rz? al-N?riy: Mustadrak al-Was?’il wa-Mustanbat al-Mas?’il 17:112 H. 1.
[1069] See, for instance, the narration of Ab?-Ayy?b al-Khazz?z recorded by Shaykh al-Kulayniy in al-K?f? 7:77 H. 1, Shaykh al-T?siy in Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:269 H. 976/3; the narration of Abu’l-Rab?` recorded in Shaykh al-Sad?q’s Man-l?-Yahduruhu’l-Faq?h 4:306 H. 13; the narration of al-Q?sim ibn Sulaym?n recorded in Shaykh al-T?siy’s Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 9:308 H. 1103/24; the narration of `Abd al-Rahm?n ibn al-Hajj?j recorded in Shaykh al-Kulayniy’s Fur?` al-K?f? 7:136 H. 1 and Shaykh al-Sad?q’s Man-l?-Yahduruhu’l-Faq?h 4:225 H. All these narrations were reported from Imam Ja`far al-S?diq. Ibn Ab?-Jumh?r al-Ihs?’iy, in `Aw?li al-La’?li 2:152 H. 424; and al-Q?d? al-Nu`m?n al-Maghribiy, in Da`?’im al-Isl?m 2:381 H. 1361; and Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r, in Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 185—all these have reported that Imam Muhammad al-B?qir ordered the Book of `Al? to be brought to him, and thus Ja`far (i.e. Imam al-S?diq) brought it.
[1070] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:414 H. 3, 415 H. 7; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 6:228 H. 550/1, 551/2 on the authority of Ab?-Bas?r and Muhammad ibn Muslim and Zur?rah. See also Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 163 H. 7. [1071] Shaykh al-Sad?q: Man-l?-Yahduruhul-Faq?h 4:53 H. 14; Al-Barqiy: al-Mah?sin 1:273 H. 377; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 10:146 H. 579/10; Ibn Ab?-Jumh?r al-Ihs?’iy: `Aw?li al-La’?li 3:549; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:200 H. 12, 214 H. 4, 216 H. 11; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 10:55 H. 203, 90 H. 348/5, 345/2, 108 H. 421/38.
[1072] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:316 H. 1, 329 H. 1; Us?l al-K?f? 1:238 H. 1; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 10:251 H. 996/29, 70 H. 21063/8, 277 H.9, 254 H. 1005/38; al-Istibs?r 4:266 H. 1004/8, H. 72, 630 H. 55; Shaykh al-Sad?q: al-Khis?l 2:539 H. 9; Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 171 H. 3.
[1073] Al-Barqiy: al-Mah?sin 1: 107 H. 93; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 5:541 H. 4.
[1074] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 2:278 H. 8; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 15:321 H. 20631/4.
[1075] Shaykh al-Sad?q: Thaw?b al-A`m?l 277 H. 1; al-`Ayy?shiy: Tafs?r 1:223 H. 39; al-M?rz? al-N?riy: Mustadrak al-Was?’il wa-Mustanbat al-Mas?’il 13:190 H. 3; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 1: 91 H. 215/18.
[1076] Shaykh al-Sad?q: Thaw?b al-A`m?l 298 H. 2; al-Am?liy 253 H. 2.
[1077] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-Rawdah Min al-K?f? 8:129 H. 100, 163 H. 172; Ibn Shahr?sh?b, in Man?qib ?li Ab?-T?lib 2:125; al-Hurr al-`?miliy: Was?’il al-Sh?`ah 1:91 H. 215/18.
[1078] Muhammad ibn Hammam al-Isk?fiy: Kit?b al-Tamh?s 44 H. 55; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 2:259 H. 29; Shaykh al-Sad?q: `Ilal al-Shar?’i` 1:44 H. 1.
[1079] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 2:136 H. 22; Warr?m ibn Ab?-Fir?s: Tanb?h al-Khaw?tir wa-Nuzhat al-Naw?dhir 2:194.
[1080] Shaykh al-Muf?d: al-Ikhtis?s 227; Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 2:71 H. 2.
[1081] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: Us?l al-K?f? 2:666 H. 2.
[1082] Al-Qummiy: Tafs?r 1:36; al-`Ayy?shiy: Tafs?r 1:26 H. 2; al-Majlisiy: Bih?r al-Anw?r 11:103 H. 10.
[1083] Al-Qummiy: Tafs?r 1:244; al-`Ayy?shiy: Tafs?r 2:33 H. 93; al-Majlisiy: Bih?r al-Anw?r 14:52 H. 5.
[1084] Shaykh al-Kulyniy: Us?l al-K?f? 1:41 H. 1; Al-Himyariy al-Qummiy: Qurb al-Isn?d 44; al-Majlisiy: Bih?r al-Anw?r 1:106 H. 2, 2:76 H. 14, 227 H. 5; al-Arbaliy: Kashf al-Ghummah 2:346.
[1085] The Holy Imam has explained this question to al-Hakam ibn `Uyaynah. See Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 7:329 H. 1; Shaykh al-Sad?q: Man-l?-Yahduruhul-Faq?h 4:104 H. 12; Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 10:254 H. 1005/38; al-Istibs?r 4:288 H. 1089/1; Shaykh al-Muf?d: al-Ikhtis?s 254.
[1086] Shar?f al-Murtad?: al-Dhar?`ah 2:154-155.
[1087] Al-Naj?shiy: al-Rij?l 177 No. 467; Shar?f al-Murtad?: al-Dhar?`ah 4:276, 8:24; al-Majlisiy: Bih?r al-Anw?r 1:15, 32, 84: 382, 92: 40, 66.
[1088] Sayyid Muhsin al-Am?n: A`y?n al-Sh?`ah 1:321; al-Majlisiy: Bih?r al-Anw?r 3:93.
[1089] Al-Naj?shiy: al-Rij?l 7 No. 2; Shaykh al-T?siy: al-Fihrist 62 No. 119.
[1090] Al-Naj?shiy: al-Rij?l 6 No. 1; Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr: Ta’s?s al-Sh?’ah li-‘Ul?m al-Isl?m 280; al-Khat?b al-Baghd?diy: T?r?kh Baghdad 8:449.
[1091] Al-Naj?shiy: al-Rij?l 7&8 No. 3; al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? (Kit?b al-Zak?t).
[1092] Al-Naj?shiy: al-Rij?l 333 No. 881; Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr: Ta’s?s al-Sh?’ah li-‘Ul?m al-Isl?m 284.
[1093] Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr: Ta’s?s al-Sh?’ah li-‘Ul?m al-Isl?m 283.
[1094] Al-Suy?tiy: al-Ashb?h wa’l-Nadh?’ir 1:12-14; al-Qaftiy: Anb?’ al-Ruw?t 1:39; al-Dhahbiy: Siyar A’l?m al-Nubal?’ 4:84. [1095] This epistle has been published by Ansariyan Publications under the title of ‘The Epistle; Imam `Al?’s Famous Epistle to M?lik al-Ashtar’.
[1096] Al-Khat?b al-Baghd?diy: Taqy?d al-`Ilm 88; Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: J?mi`u Bay?n al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 1:71; Ibn Sa`d: al-Tabaq?t al-Kubr? 6:168; Sah?h al-Bukh?riy 1:40.
[1097] Al-Khat?b al-Baghd?diy: Taqy?d al-`Ilm 89.
[1098] `Abd al-Hal?m al-Jundiy: al-Im?m Ja`far al-S?diq 199.
[1099] Al-Khat?b al-Baghd?diy: Taqy?d al-`Ilm 90, T?r?kh Baghd?d 8:357.
[1100] Al-Khat?b al-Baghd?diy: Taqy?d al-`Ilm 89-90.
[1101] Al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Umm?l 10:312 H. 29562.
[1102] Al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Umm?l 10:312 H. 29563. A similar narration is recorded in Ibn Abi’l-Had?d’s Sharh Nahj al-Bal?ghah.
[1103] Al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Umm?l 10:313 H. 29564. Of course, this narration demonstrates the best way of handwriting the Arabic letters mentioned therein.
[1104] This narration is also recorded in Sharh Nahj al-Bal?ghah and Bih?r al-Anw?r with a little difference in expressions. [1105] Muhammad ibn Ibr?h?m al-Thaqafiy: al-Gh?r?t 1:251-254.
[1106] Al-Khar?’itiy: Mak?rim al-Akhl?q 43 No. 317.
[1107] Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 6:283; al-Tabar?niy: al-Mu`jam al-Kab?r 5:127; al-Khar?’itiy: Mak?rim al-Akhl?q 37.
[1108] Ibn B?bawayh al-Qummiy: al-Im?mah wa’l-Tabsirah min’al-Hayrah 180 H. 34.
[1109] Shaykh al-Kulayniy: al-K?f? 3:507 H. 2.
[1110] In the present time, the word ‘Mushaf’ is mainly used to refer to the Holy Qur’?n.
[1111] Shaykh T?hir al-Jaz?’iriy: Ma`rifat al-Naskh 31, 145; Tawj?h al-Nadhar 6.
[1112] Mustaf? al-A`dhamiy: Dir?s?tun fi’l-Had?th al-Nubawiy 107 as reported from Ab?-H?tam: al-Ilal 1:104.
[1113] Ibn Sa`d: al-Tabaq?t al-Kubra 64 :98 (Biography of Imam al-Hasan); Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: J?mi`u Bay?n al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 1:82; al-Ya`q?biy: al-T?r?kh 2:227; al-Khat?b al-Baghd?diy: al-Kif?yah f? `Ilm al-Dir?yah; al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-`Umm?l 5:229; Ibn ‘As?kir: T?r?kh Mad?nat Dimashq (Biography of Imam al-Hasan).
[1114] Ab?-Bakr al-Khat?b: Sharaf Ash?b al-Had?th 69 No. 146.
[1115] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 148/9, 163/3, 164/6.
[1116] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 162/1, 167/21.
[1117] Ibn Shahr?sh?b: Man?qib ?li Ab?-T?lib 2:37; Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 163/4, 168/23. [1118] Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Saff?r: Bas?’ir al-Daraj?t 160/29.
[1119] Kit?b Sulaym ibn Qays 165.
[1120] Shaykh al-T?siy: Tahdh?b al-Ahk?m 5:383 (Kit?b al-Hajj)
[1121] Asad Haydar: al-Im?m al-S?diq wa’l-Madh?hib al-Arba`ah 1:550 as quoted from Mustaf? `Abd al-Razz?q: Tamh?d(un) Li-T?r?kh al-Falsafah al-Isl?miyyah.

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