In the Name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful

 

INTRODUCTION

Praise be to Allah who has made the new moon an appointed time for (the benefit of) people and has raised great people out of the best sons of Adam (a.s).

The best of salutations be upon the one who was sent as a mercy to the whole universe; Muhammad (s.a.w) and his clean and pure family, and be upon the nearest angels (in proximity to God), and upon all prophets and messengers, especially His sole vicegerent on earth, His servant and the son of His servant (Imam Mahdi a.s).

It had been bothering me for a long time, the idea of making research about the birth of messiah, Isa (a.s), the son of Mary. Due to what I came across several times, in my readings and researches that, the birth of prophet Isa (a.s) was not in winter tide. In addition to what was mentioned about his birth with regard to lunar month. Until my attention was drawn by the inquiry of a Christian woman who asked some of our scholars about the birth of Messiah (a.s) and a short and brief answer that was given to her. All these, gave me an enormous help to put all my effort in order to give this topic its right, to the best of my abilities, if god willing. Mainly because this has pose a major problem for some group of Muslims since they have gone to the extent of celebrating the birth of Isa (on the same day) with the Christians.

However, the benefit of both historical and jurisprudential aspects of this study cannot be overlooked.

We ask Allah the Most High to give us success in doing justice to this topic. He is verily the Most Hearer and Answerer of all calls.

Muhammad Hussein Murtada

Holy city of Qum

THE YEAR OF HIS BIRTH (a.s)

Al-Kuleini narrated from some of our companions, from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid, from Al-Hasan ibn Mahbub, from Abi Hamzah Thabit ibn Rabi`e who said: We perform pilgrimage with Abu-Jafar (a.s) during the reign of Hisham ibn Malik, And Nafiu1 the servant of Umar ibn Khatab was with him, “Oh the leader of the faithful ones! Said Nafiu: who is that man to whom people are rushing?”

“He is the prophet of the people of Kufa, Malik answered. That is the Muhammad ibn Ali.”

He said; “I will surely go to him and ask him a question that none can answer except a prophet or the son of a prophet or one who is the successor of a prophet.”

He said (Malik); “Go to him and ask him. You may make him feel ashamed.”

Nafie made his way through the crowd, then he appeared before Abu-Jafar (a.s) and he said, “Oh Muhammad ibn Ali! I have read the Old Testament, the New Testament, the Book of Psalm and the Holy Quran. And I know its lawful and unlawful, I came to ask you a question that no body can answer except a prophet or one who is the successor of a prophet or the son of a prophet. Imam raised his head and said to him “ask whatever you like.” Nafie said, “Tell me how many years between prophet Isa (a.s) and Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w)?”

Imam said, “according to our belief or to yours?”

Nafie said “according to both.”
Imam said; “according to our belief it was 500 years and according to your belief it was 600 years.”[1]

Sheikh Saduq said; “Muhammad ibn Yahya Al-Atar narrated to us from Yakub ibn Yazid, from Muhammad ibn Umair, from Sa`d ibn Abi Khalf, from Yakub ibn Shuaib, from Abu-Abdullah (a.s) who said; the years between Isa (a.s) and Muhammad (s.a.w) is 500.” [2]

We can say that, the chains of these reports are sound and reliable.

Al-Allamah Al-majlisi has said; “this is what many authentic reports shown with regards to the period of years between Isa and Muhammad (s.a.w).[3]

We may also say that, in view of the fact that, Islamic history is the most authentic of the whole histories, because in the earlier days of Islam there was a very strong government for the Muslims, and they had records of taxes and events. They also had many books in history and they paid much attention to on-going affairs of their time, even up to this present time (this practice continue).

Then the birth of Isah (a.s) had passed approximately 1932 years (Sonar Calendar), 500 years plus 50 years, the age of Muhammad (s.a.w) up till the time of Hijra, if you add this to 1382 years from the time of Hijra up to this date, it will be 1932 years (Sonar calendar) while we are now in year 2004, according to the Christian claim.

But according to lunar Calendar as we are now in 1424 A.H (After hijra), the birth of Isa (a.s) had passed 1990 years [514 years plus 52 years, the age of Muhammad (s.a.w) up till the time of Hijra, added to 1424 years, will be 1990 years (Lunar Calendar)]

If Imam (a.s) meant 500 years that based on lunar calendar, then Isa was born 1918 years ago [sonar calendar] (486 years, the gap between Isah and Muhammad (peace be upon them), plus 50 years, plus 1382 years = 1918 years) which is about 1924 years [based on lunar calendar] that is (500 years, plus 52 years, plus 1424 years = 1976 years in lunar calendar). Based on these, the differences between what is known before the Christians and what may be the truth and the reality, ranges between 72 years (2004 years minus 1932 =72) and 86 years (2004 C.C[4] minus 1918 years = 86 years).

 

THE BIRTH OF ISAH (a.s)IN ROMAN MONTH

It was known before the Christians that, the birth of messiah (a.s) was in December. But some of them have said that it was at the end of December while others said that, it was at the beginning of January. Whereas the Christian calendar did not come into being as a result of the birth of Isa (a.s), because the Christian were subjected to persecution and hardship for many centuries.[5] The recording of events and history as well as the ruling government were in the hand of infidels and idol worshipers. Their calendar was Skander Calendar, Al-Majesty,[6] the one that was termed as the most precise book that has remained to this present time, from 200 years after the birth of Isa (a.s). The Christian calendar was not mentioned at all in this book even though it relied on this Skandar Calendar, Bukhtu Nassar[7] and Egyptian months. There was no much attention attached in recording the Christians Calendar. And as far as this calendar is concerned, there was no real link, whatsoever, between this our present time and the birth of Isa (a.s).[8] For that, is not possible to believe in what they have said concerning the birth of Isa (a.s) in winter-tide. It’s only a claim without proof.

Some scholars have said that, the Christian Calendar started as far back as 10 centuries, and it was not in existence before then.

In Europe the calendar was not used for many centuries. It is necessary to know why is it that after tens of centuries the churches decided to create calendar that based on Jesus birth, and why after that time the created Calendar was not accepted by the Christian countries for a long time? [9]

In any case, there have been narrations that were reported from authentic sources, from the spring of infallibility and viturneness that contradict that claim.

Our master, Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Shabah Al-Halabi [who lived in 4th century (A.H)] had narrated that; “it was said to the sixth Imam, Jafar As-Sadiq (a.s) that, the Christians where saying that the eve of the birth of Isa (a.s) was in 24th December and He (Imam) said; (a.s) they were lying, it was in the middle of June.”[10]

In regard to this, we can say that, the book of the narrator of this hadith is among our original and well-known authentic sources, which people rely upon. In the view of many scholars, its standard is just like that of Manla-yahdurhul Faqih. So, no matter how it is, the hadith did not contradict the Quran. It is possible, then, to rely upon it and act accordingly. There will be a Quranic discussion about this, by the will of God.

 

THE BIRTH OF ISAH (a.s)IN THE LUNAR MONTHS

 

Sheikh Saduq (who died 381 A.H) had said, in Faqih, that, “it was narrated from Al-Hasan ibn Ali Al-Washa who had said, I was with my father, when I was young, and we had our dinner with Imam Ar- Rida (a.s) in the night of 25th Zilqedah, and Imam said, it was in the night of 25th of Zilqedah, Ibrahim and Isah the son Maryam (peace be upon them) were born. And it was in this night the earth was spread, from under the Kabba. Whoever fast in this day his rewards will be like that of the person who fast for 60 days.[11]

Sheikh Saduq had mentioned in his mashikha that; “Whatever available in it (al-faqih) that was from Aliyul al-washa, he had narrated it from Muhammad ibn Hassan (a.s), from Muhammad ibn Hassan As-safar, from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa, and Ibrahim ibn Hisham and all of them had narrated it from Hassan ibn Aliyul al-Washa who was known as the son of the daughter of Elias.[12] For that, the chain to him (Aliyu al-Washaa) is authentic and genuine. However, the statement of the book with regard to this hadith is like this; “It was narrated from Hassan ibn Aliyul al-Washa (without mention of the narrator). He didn’t say; from Hassan ibn Ali Al- Washa.” This is what usually causes the weakness of the chain of hadith. But if we really think over what our scholars have said we will observe that, Sheikh Saduq narrated this hadith with the chain joined to Hassan ibn Ali Al-washa. That is why Al-Hurru Al-Aamuli (may Allah bless him) have said, in his wasa-il, that Muhammad ibn Aliyu ibn Al-Hassan by his chain from Al-Hassan ibn Aliyul al-Washa.[13]

Sheikh Hasan, the author of Al-Maalim, narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Hasan, from Muhammad ibn al-Hasan As-Safaar, from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa and Ibrahim ibn Hisham, all of them narrated from Aliyu ibn al-Washa.[14]

In Mashariqu ash-shumus, he said, “Muhammad ibn Aliy ibn Al-Hussein by his chain from al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Al-Washs.[15] And he had said in Al-Madarik: “And what ibn Babawaihi had narrated in sahih from Hassan ibn Aliyu Al-washa….”[16]

Sayyed ibn Tawus (who died 664 A.H) is like those people (scholars), where he said, “we narrated that by our chain to Abu Jafar ibn Babawaihi from the book of Manla yah-durhul faqih and from the book of thawabul Aamal, then he said; “Al-Hassan ibn al-Washa narrated.[17] Sheikh Saduq has narrated this hadith again in the book of thawabul Aamal from his father (may God bless him) saying that; “Ahmad ibn Idris had narrated it to us, he said Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hassan narrated from Abi Tahir ibn Hamzah, from Hassan ibn Aliy ibn al-Washa.[18] And there is no doubt that, the chain of hadith to Hasan Al-Washa is authentic and sound, as it was said previously.

On the other hand, Sheikh Tusi (who died 460) had narrated from Aliyu ibn al-Hasan, from Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Zurarah, from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasir, from Aban ibn Usman Al-Ahmar, from Kaseer Nawab, from Abi Jafar (a.s) who said; “the ark of Noah (a.s) halted at ‘Judi’ in the day of Ashura and Noah commanded those with him, among jinns and men, to fast on that day. And Abu Jafar (a.s) said; do you know what that day was? It was on that day, that Allah the Most Great forgave Adam and Hawa (a.s). It was on that day, that Allah cleaved sea for the people of Israel and sank pharaoh and those with him. It was on that day that Musa had victory over Pharaoh. It was on that day that Ibrahim was born. It was on that day that, Allah forgave the nation of Yunus. It was on that day that, prophet Isa the son of Maryam (a.s) was born. And the rising of the Al-Qa`em (Imam Mahdi) will be on this day.[19]

Sayyed ibn Tawuus narrated this hadith again by his chain from Ali ibn Faddal, by his chain from Abu Jafar (a.s).[20] This hadith still has problem in both chain and source. Its problem in chain is that it is mursal (i.e incomplete chain) from the side of Sayyed ibn Tawus. But from the side of sheikh Tusi it had been weaken by katheer Nawwa, because, it was reported that he was Butriyan[21] a layman and a commoner. Imam As-Sadiq had renounced him because he had strayed many people (from the right path).[22]

And its problem in the source, is that, some of our scholars believed that the hadith came as ‘taqiyah’ (deliberate concealment of truth from the enemy to avoid death or danger) because it agreed with the view of Sunni. Like Al-Allamah Al-Majlisi,[23] Faid Al-Kashani,[24] and others.[25] For that, what sheikh Saduq narrated in his Amali in which he said; “he narrated it to me sheikh Faqih Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hussein ibn Musa ibn Babawaih Al-Qumi who said he narrated it to us, Hussein ibn Ahmad ibn Idris who said; “my father reported it to us from Muhammad ibn Husein ibn Abi Khatab, from Nasir ibn Mazahim from Umar ibn Sa`d, from Irtaat ibn Habib, from Fudail Ar-Rasan, from Jublatul Makiyah who said that “I heard Maitham al-Tamar saying that; by Allah this nation will certainly kill the son of its prophet in the 10th day of the month of Muharam, and the enemy of Allah will take that as a blessed day. That will surely happen. It has been in Allah’s knowledge. I knew that from the will and legacy entrusted to me by the leader of the faithful ones Ali (peace be upon him). He (a.s) told me that, every thing will cry for him (Hussein a.s) even the wild animals that live in deserts, and the fishes that live in seas, and the birds in the sky. The sun, the moon, the stars, the heaven, the earth, the believers among people and jinns and all the heavenly angels, Ridwan, Malik and the holder of Al-Arsh, would all weep (with grief) for his death. The heaven will rain blood and ashes. Then he said; the course of Allah had certainly been on those who kill Hussein (a.s) as it was on those who associate partners with Allah and as it was on the Jews, the Christian and the Magi.”

Jablah (the narrator) said; “then I said to him, Oh Maitham! How can people take the day, Imam Hussein ibn Ali was killed, as a blessed day? Maitham cried bitterly and said, “They are going to make a claim with the hadith they forged, that, it was on that day Allah forgave Adam (a.s), while Allah forgave him in the month of Zilhijah. They would claim that, it was on that day Allah accepted the forgiveness of Daud (a.s), while Allah accepted his forgiveness in the month of Zilhijah, they would make a claim that it was on that day Allah brought out Yunus (a.s) from the stomach of wale, while Allah brought him out in the month of Zilqedah. They would make a claim that it was on that day the Noah’s ark rested on “the Judy”, while the ark rested on it on 12th day of Zilhijah. And they would make a claim that Allah open red sea for the people of Isra`il while Allah open it for them in the month Rabiulawal.” Then Maitham said; “Oh Jalbah! You should know that Husein ibn Ali (a.s) is the master of all martyrs in the Day of Judgment and his companions have higher ranks than other martyrs. Oh Jablah! If you look at the red sun and you found it looked like a tick blood, and then you should know that, your master Husein has been killed.” Jablah said; “I came out one day and I saw the ray of the sun on the wall as if it was a scarlet blanket and I cried saying verily, by Allah, our master Hussein ibn Ali (a.s) had been killed”.[26]

Under this hadith, Muhadith Al-Bahraini (May his soul rest in peace) (who died 1186 A.H) said that, “Maitham at-Tamaar (may God be pleased with him) was one of the special and sincere companions of the master of the faithful ones Ali (a.s), just as it had appeared in the reports and the saying of our pious scholars. Then this statement of Maitham at-Tamaar was extracted from the statements of the commander of the faithful (a.s).”[27]

We can say that, Muhadith al-Bahraini had done well in what he said about Maitham at-Tamaar. Then, based on this and that, the first hadith is going to be considered more than other one; we can then reach conclusion that, the birth of prophet Isa (a.s) was on 25th of Zilqidah.

HIS BIRTH (a.s) WITH REGARDS TO THE DAYS OF WEEK

Al-kulaini narrated from Ahmad ibn Mihran and Ali ibn Ibrahim both of them narrated from Muhammad ibn Ali, from Al-Hasan ibn Rasheed, from Yakub ibn Jafar ibn Ibrahim who said; “I was with Abu Hasan, Imam Musa al-Kazim (a.s) when a Christian man came to him— in a long discussion Imam (a.s) said lastly to him, let me give you news that no body knows it except some of those who read books; tell me, what was the name of Maryam`s mother, and in which day the life was breathed into (the womb of) Maryam, and when did Maryam gave birth to Isah (a.s) and at which time of the day? The Christian man said; “I don’t know”. The father of Ibrahim said (a.s) the name of Maryam’s mother is Martha (meaning Wahibah in Arabic language). The day Maryam conceived was on the midday of Friday; it was the day that Ruhul Amin decent (to Maryam) and the Muslims have no better day than Friday. Allah the Most High and Muhammad (s.a.w) honoured this day. He commanded that this day should be celebrated as a festival day. That is Friday. The day in which Maryam delivered was on Thursday, around four and half hours after midday (4:30pm).

“Do you know the sea by which Maryam delivered?” Imam asked the man. The man answered, “I don’t know”. Imam said it was the sea of Furat, by it there were palm trees and grapevines, and there was nothing else near to the Furat apart from these two kinds of trees.”[28]

There are many reports[29] concerning the birth of prophet Isa (a.s) that it had been in Kufa near the sea of Furat. Contrary to what is popularly known in Christianity relating to his birth (a.s) in Jerusalem, palestine. This cannot be ruled out, because as it is easy for Allah the Most High to make Maryam have a son without having contact with any man it would even be easier for Him to take her to Kufa to deliver her baby (by the side of the river “Furat”). In this regard, we have a Quranic support; Allah the Most High says:

So she conceived him; then withdrew herself with him to a remote place. [30]

Meaning that, she had moved away, wile in state of pregnancy, to a place very far from her people.

 

QUESTION & ANSWER

An Armenian woman asked one of the Muslims scholars about the birth of Messiah (a.s). She said; “I’m Armenian and there are differences in views about the date of the birth of Messiah (a.s). Some Christians said: he was born on 25th of December, while others said; it was on 6th or 7th of January. What is your view in this issue?”
The cleric answered that, “the issue is not when he was born with regards to the time, but what can be apparently viewed in the Holy Quran is that, the Messiah (a.s) was born in summer-tide or towards the end of it. Because, the time the palm tree bear fruits and the dates become ripe does not, usually, extend to December or January. Concerning this Allah says:

And shake towards you the trunk of the palm tree, it will drop on you fresh ripe dates:[31]

Some people said; it was a miracle, though it might not necessary to be a miracle, so far, there is no proof for that. The Quran had said; there was a palm tree which had ripe dates without any indication of how it was obtained or came into being. For that, it is not necessary to know when he was born, but we have to know the personality of Messiah. This is important since it was known among some Christians that; our lord is Jesus Chris or (some make supplication by saying) with the name of the father, the son and the Holy Spirit. Thus, it is very important to know the identity of Messiah. Did Allah incarnated in him? In spite of the fact that, Messiah (a.s) is the word of God delivered to Maryam (a.s).

He it is who gives life and brings death, so when He decrees an affair, He only says to it: Be, and it is.[32]

This is what the Muslims believed in, may be the Holy verses of Quran from the saying of Messiah also portray that:

And I am a servant of Allah; He has given me the book and made me a prophet; And He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and He has enjoined on me prayer and poor-rate so long I live; And dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me insolent, unblessed; And peace on me on the day I was born, and on the day I die, and on the day I am raised to life. Such is Isa, son of Maryam; (this is) the saying of truth about which they dispute.[33]*[34]

What the cleric deducted from the Quran is close to what have been mentioned previously in Tuhafil Uqul, from Imam Baqir (a.s). It is really, a nice deduction. (How many things the past generations left for the present one).

Then the statement of that cleric, “some people said that, it was a miracle, but it might not necessary to be a miracle so far there is no proof for that”. It’s an indication to the claim of some people that, the palm tree was dried for long time, and Maryam pointed at it and it suddenly, have fresh leaves and a ripe date fell down on her, and she ate it.[35]

The leader of our Masters (May Allah bestows His blessing on him) had said: “it can be understood from the word trunk that, the palm tree was dried, not fresh.”[36]

We can say, what some scholars said (about the dryness of the palm tree) is baseless. It was not reported, based on our knowledge, from the house of infallibles in a sound way that could be relied upon. And what the leader of our masters sensed from the word trunk, is also not correct. Because the literal meaning of trunk is stem and the way of shaking palm tree is by shaking the stem. May be he thought that if the palm tree was fresh and beard fruits, Allah could have say; shake the palm tree, without mentioning the trunk. However, it’s possible to say that, the mention of trunk (in this verse) showed how huge and big the tree was. Had it been He the All Mighty said: shake the palm tree we could have thought that the palm tree was very small. In any case, the holiness of Maryam (a.s) is maintained.

And what that scholar said about the miracle of the event, is not precise. It made no difference whether it was his personal view or he reported it from others. This is because miracle, usually, goes with challenge: (i.e. the need for miracle arises when there is challenge) while Karamah is a kind of divine wonder or an honour manifested by Allah in the hand of his true servant and usually, it contradicts the natural laws. And no one was challenged in this issue so that it can be a miracle.

 

CONCLUSION

We concluded from all what we have said that, the birth of prophet Isa (peace be upon him) was on Tuesday in the middle of June before 1918 years or 1932 years (sonar calendar) corresponding to the claimed year 2004 A.D. And also corresponded with 25th Zilqidah, before 1990 years or 1976 years (lunar calendar). Allah is the knower of the reality of issues, and Praise to Him the Lord of the whole universe.

I finished the compilation of this work on 22nd night of Zilhijah in the year 1423 A.H/ 2004 A.D

I’m Muhammad Hussein Murtada a poor servant who is highly in need of the blessing of Lord the Honourable. Who is residing in vicinity of holy tomb of Fatima Al-Masuma “Karimatu Aalul Bait” (the generous one of Ahlul Bait A.S) a descendant of the pure blood of the House Hold of the prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) in the Holy city of Qum, Iran.

 

THE REFERENCES

1. The Holy Quran.

2. Al-Iqbal Bil-Aamal of sayyed ibn Tawus.

3. Al-Aamali of Saduq.

4. Al-Usul from Kafi of Kuleini.

5. Al-Burhan fi Tafsiril Quran of Sayyed Hashim Al-Bahrani.

6. Tafsir Noor Thaqaline of Muhadis Al-Huwaizi.

7. Tafsirul Mizan of Allamah Attabatabai.

8. Tafsirul Qummi of Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Qummi.

9. Tahqiq Dar Bareh Awal Arba-in Hazarat Sayyed Shuhadaa of Sayyedi shaheed Ali Al-Qadi Attabatabai.

10. Tuhaful Uqul li-ibn Shua-bah Al-Harrani.

11. Attazeeb of Seikh Tusi.

12. Thawabul Aamal of Sheikh Tusi

13. Jawahirul Kalam of Sheikh Muhammad Hassan Annajafi.

14. Al-Hada-iqun nadirah of Sheikh Yusuf Al-Baharani.

15. Raudatul Kafi of Kuleini.

16. Sharhi Usulul Kahfi of Maula Al-Mazadarani with Taliq Maula Al-mirza Abi Hassan Asha-Rani.

17. Sahifat fiqr Wasaqafa- 7th year—4th Zulqidah 1423 A.H

18. Aqlul Yahud Al-Aseer of Muhammad Hussein Murtada.

19. Qamusu Rijal of Allamah Tustari.

20. Kamalu Deen of Sheikh As-Saduq.

21. Mir-aatul Uqool of Allamah Al-Majlisi.

22. Malazul Akhbar of Allamah Al-Majlisi.

23. Manlayahduruhul Faqeeh of Sheikh Saduq.

24. Muntaqaal Jamaal of Sheikh Hssan Al-Aamuli.

25. Madariqul Ahkam of Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Al Aamuli.

26. Mashariqul Shumus of Muhaqiq Al-Khunsari.

27. Wasa-ilul Shia of Hurrul Aamuli.

28. Al-Wafi of Faidil Qashani the library of Imam Amirul muminin isfahan.

 

 

Footnotes :

[1] He is Nafiu ibn Sarjish. He was a dilami. The sunnis narrated a lot of hadiths from him and he was one of those who against Ahlul Bait (a.s). Mir-atul Uqul Vol.25 page 285.

[1] Raudatul Kafi Vol.93 page 103 & 104.

[2] Kamalu-din Chapter 8 hadith 20 page 161.

[3] Mir-aatul Uqul Vol.25 page 286.

[4] Claimed calendar

[5] Aqlul yahudi al-asir

[6] Al-majesty: it is an oldest book, in astronomy, that reached our hand. Batlis was the one who compiled it. The majesty means “The Great”. It was named the majesty because of its important. Hunaine ibn Ishaq was the one who translated it from Greek to Arabic.

[7] It is the name of one of the old kings in Iran.

[8] Sharhul usulul kafi Vol.2 page 286 & Vol.4 page 351.

[9] Tahqiq dar bareh-e-arba-en hadharat Sayyis shuhada (a.s) page 239-240. In the introduction of this there is a short note about Skandar wadara. Page 23-45. Printed in Iran by subhi emruz in 1974 A.D

[10] Tuhaful Uqul page 375

[11] Man-la yahduruhul Faqih Vol.2 chapter 113 under voluntary fast and its rewards in different days-Vol.15 page 89.

[12] Ibid Vol.4 page 483.

[13] Wasa-il ash-shia Vol.7 chapter 16 from the chapter of voluntary fast Vol.1

[14] Muntaqal Jimal Vol.2 page 539.

[15] Mashariqu al-shumus Vol.2 page 451.

[16] Madariqul Ahkam Vol.2 page 365.

[17] Al-Iqbal bil-Aamal Vol.2 chapter 12, Section 10, under the benefits of month of Zilqidah page 24.

[18] Thawabul Aamal page 170.

[19] At-tahzib kitab saum babu wujuhu siyam Vol.14

[20] Al-Iqbal bil Aamal Vol.3 under the chapter ‘in what we are going say about the fast of the day of Ashura.

[21] Al-butriyyah: they were the followers of Nawwa (who died 169 A.H) and Al-Hasan ibn Salih ibn Hayy (who died 168 A.H), Salim ibn Abi Hafsah, Al-Hakam ibn Utbah, Salma ibn Kuhail and Abul-miqdad Thabitul Haddad, they were the ones who called for the Imamate of Ali but they believed in imamate of Abu Bakar and Umar also. Qamus Rijal Vol.8 chapter Kaf, Kathir al-Nawwa page 568. Jama-atul Mudarrisin publication

[22] Al-wafi Vol.7 page 77.

[23] Malazul Akhbar Vol.7 page 161 &117.

[24] Al-wafi Vol.7 page 76.

[25] Jawahirul Kalam Vol.17 page 105-109.

[26] Amali of Sheikh Saduq Leason 27 page 77

[27] Al-Hada-iq An0nadir Vol.13 page 374

[28] Usul Al-Kafi Maulud Abi Hasan Musa ibn Jafar (a.s) Vol.4 page 476 & 480.

[29] Al-burhan fi tafsiril Qur`an, in suratu Maryam (a.s) verse 22 and Tafsir Nur thaqalain under the same verse

[30] Suratu Maryam verse 22

[31] Suratu Maryam verse 25

[32] Suratul Gafit verse 68

[33] Suratu Maryam verse 30-34

[34] Sahifatu Faqr wathaqah, Seventh Edition (year) on 4th Zulqidah 1424 A.H

[35] Tafsir Qummi Vol.2 page 48.

[36] Tafsirul Mizan Vol.16 page 42.
Source: al-shia.org


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