History of the Caliphs

By: Rasūl Ja’farīan

Translation by: Ali Ebrahimi

p. 24-34
The main problem of Muslims was a move known as “Apostasy”. According to historians, after the Prophet’s passing, some people claimed prophethood, some became apostates and put on the royal crown while others refused to pay their tax alms.

We all know that the Bedouin Arabs converted to Islam one after another following the conquest of Mecca. It was mostly due to the ever-expanding power of Islam and they feared that Muslims would confront them any time. Therefore, they had no way but accepting the new path, even if temporarily while they did not know enough about Islam, nor could they give up their old ideas of the Dark Age.

Another serious problem for them was paying the tax alms. In fact, they considered it an act of extortion by Muslims, muslims to them were only the people of the Quraysh, Aws and Khazradj. These currents each had its own motive, but the system of caliphate viewed all of them as apostasy and confronted them from this aspect. However, apostates can be classified into several groups given what has been said so far,

The first group was those who claimed prophethood. Some others gave up Islam and returned to their previous faith during the Dark Age. The third group did not recognize the Medina government, but said they abided by Islam. These people did not believe in the Medina administration so refused to pay tax alms. Among this group, there were people who did not recognize Abū Bakr’s rule and did not believe in the Imamate of Prophet’s Household, so they did not pay tax alms. Here, we will first discuss the claimants of prophethood.

The news of apostasy has been brought up in several books. Tabarī has used Sayf Ibn ‘Umar’s book as his major source. His book was “al-Futūh al-Kabīr wa al-Radda”. Biographers have all rejected Sayf’s authenticity.[1] Another independent work is the book of al-Futūh by Ibn A‘tham Kūfī that fortunately remains to date. Wāqidī and Madā’inī had both books on apostasy. More recently, Wāqidī’s “al-Radda” was published. It has many commonalties with the al-Futūh of Ibn A‘tham. There are other sparse and scattered references to apostasy in other books.

As for the claimants of prophethood, there was a main motive. Some ambitious tribes or individuals thought that they could also rule others by claiming prophethood if others had done so. This move led to the emergence of many claimants of prophethood. Aswad ‘Ansā was the first of these who staged a rebellion in Yemen and wrote to the representatives of the Prophet, ““أمسكوا علينا ما أخذنا من أرضنا “Return to us whatever of our lands you have captured.”[2]

Hearing this, Prophet Muhammad (s) ordered him to be killed in “any way possible”. It took three months for Muslims to quell the Aswad mutiny and he was killed finally. It is said that the news of his death reached Medina a few days after the demise of the Prophet (s). An Iranian-born man named Fīrūz, belonging to the Yemenī tribe of Abnā’, had killed ‘Ansā.[32] There is also another reference to another Muslim named Dādhwayh who seems to be an Iranian.

Musaylima Ibn Habīb from the Banū Hanīfa tribe was another claimant of prophethood. He visited the Prophet of Islam in Medina along with the influential men of his tribe and said to have converted to Islam.

But, upon his return, he thought about claiming prophethood and said to the people of Banū Hanīfa, “I what to know how come the Quraysh is more deserving than you for caliphate and Imamate? I swear by God that their population is not more than yours. They are not braver than you. You have more lands and more properties.”[4]

Then, he claimed prophethood and wrote to the Prophet of Islam, “I have become your partner in prophethood. Half of the lands belong to us and the other half to the Quraysh, but the Quraysh are aggressive people.” The Prophet responded to him,

إِنَّ الْأَرْضَ لِلَّهِ يُورِثُهَا مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ.

“The earth belongs to Him, He gives it to whomever He wishes and the eternality is for the pious people.” [5]

This correspondence took place at the end of the 10th year from Hidjra. When the Messenger of Allāh passed away, Musaylima found an opportunity to gather some followers around himself. He used to compose rhythmic prose to imitate the Qur’ān and recited the prose for his followers.[6] Furthermore, he had told people he had exempted them from saying morning and evening prayers.[7] Also, Sadjāh, the daughter of Hārith Tamīmī[8], claimed prophethood but after meeting Musaylima, she married him. It is said that as Sadjāh’s marriage portion, he exempted the people from saying morning and evening prayers.

In al-Futūh we read that when Sadjāh met Musaylima, she said, “I heard about your excellent traits and chose you. I have come to be your wife so that we can both be prophets, and together, make the world obey us and be our subordinate.”

Musaylima said, “For your marriage portion, I exempted your nation from saying prayers at dawn and dusk.”[9]

When Muslims went to Yamāma with an army led by Khālid Ibn Walīd, they came across some of Musaylima’s followers and asked them what faith they were in.

They said, “منا نبي ومنكم نبي” “We have our prophet and you have your prophet.”

It was then that a war broke out between them. The Yamāma battle was one of the bloodiest wars of Muslims with claimants of prophethood and apostates. In this war, the Muslim army lost a great number of its men, 58 of whom were from the Muhādjirūn and the Ansār and 13 men out of them, had fought in the Battle of Badr.[10] Ibn A‘tham has put the number of Muslim martyrs at 1200 people, 700 of whom had memorized the Qur’ān.[11] In a text attributed to Wāqidī, we read the details about the war and the many pre-battle bragging of the Prophet’s companions, including ‘Ammār Yāsir. Immediately after the battle ended, Khālid married Mudjā‘a Ibn Marāra’s daughter, who was one of the conspiring heads of Banū Hanīfa, and indulged in his own lust and pleasure. Observing this, Muslims wrote a letter to Abū Bakr and said,

وهذا عروس باليمامة خالد

أترضى بأنا لا تجف دماءنا

“Do you please with our blood in dryness and this man keeps on living in relief in Yamāma.”

The news reached Abū Bakr and ‘Umar said, “Khālid always does something which pains our heart.” Abū Bakr wrote a strong-worded letter to Khālid. When Khālid read the letter, he laughed and said he was sure it was ‘Umar’s work because he knew Abū Bakr was satisfied with him.[12]

 

Another claimant of prophethood was Tulayha Ibn Khuwaylad Asadī. He also gathered men from the tribes of Ghatafān and Banū Fazāra and tried to compose rhythmic prose to claim prophethood and stand against the Medina government.

In a battle between his men and the Muslim’s army, ‘Uyayna Ibn Hisn and his tribesmen from Banū Fazārah were defeated heavily and Tulayha fled to Damascus. Thus, another revolt was suppressed.[13] ‘Uyayna Ibn Hisn had repeatedly shown his enmity towards Islam during the life of the Prophet (s) but had finally embraced Islam. However, his presence in this current showed that he, like many others, had never believed in Islam truly. When he was brought as a captive to Medina, people taunted him and said, “O, enemy of God! Did you become an infidel after converting to Islam?” But he swore he had not believed in Islam even for a moment.[14] Abū Bakr pardoned the captives of this war. Tulayha, too, came to Medina at the time of ‘Umar and repented.

‘Umar told him, “How do you expect to save yourself from hell when you have killed Thābit Ibn Arqam Ansārī and ‘Ukkāsha Ibn Mihsan Asadī?”

Tulayha said, “God had wanted martyrdom for them and I did not kill them with my own hand, so there will be no hell for me.” ‘Umar liked his reasoning and pardoned him.

Apart from claimants of prophethood, some other tribes became apostates in the basics. There is no doubt that the situation was prepared for apostasy but it is not clear for sure who were the real apostates and who are those who did not accept the Medina government merely for political or religious reasons.[15] For example, one such group was Mālik Ibn Nuwayra’s clan who were accused and killed mercilessly undoubtedly just because of Khālid’s personal issues and his mean moral motives. This is a blot of shame for Khālid and those who defended him. They considered his crime in massacring a number of Muslims and his adultery with Mālik’s wife after her husband’s murder as a wrong interpretation of Idjtihād.[16] Hearing about this, ‘Umar was seriously incited against Khālid and asked Abū Bakr to oust him but the caliph called him the “sword of God” and refused to do so.[17]

Among the tribes considered to be apostate, there were some people who did not believe in Abū Bakr’s caliphate and favored the government of the Prophet’s Household. They said Abū Bakr had no “allegiance” to them so there was no need to obey him. They believed that the Muhādjirūn and Ansār had prevented the Prophet’s Household from coming to power out of jealousy.[18] According to Wāqidī and Ibn A‘tham, a clan from Kinda in Hadramawt was all apostates. Ziyād Ibn Lubayd was responsible for collecting tax alms in the region. Some men of the tribe agreed with paying tax alms while others did not. Once Ziyād chose a camel belonging to Ziyād Ibn Mu‘āwiya as tax alms, he asked for help from one of the influential men of Kinda named Hāritha Ibn Surāqa and asked him to return his camel and take another one. Hāritha made the request from Ziyād but he did not accept. So, Hāritha himself went among the camels set aside as tax alms and brought back Zayd’s camel, saying, “We obeyed the Messenger of God as long as he was alive.” “لو قام رجل من أهل بيته لأطعناه” “Today, we will obey anyone from his Household who comes to power.” Abū Bakr has no right of rule and allegiance upon us.

It is said that Ziyād Ibn Lubayd fled from the region overnight and composed poems terming the tribe as apostate.

He said, “We will fight you to make you obey Abū Bakr until you give up infidelity and apostasy and say you shall never return to infidelity.”

Of course, not all tribesmen thought like Hāritha. What is important is that all of them refused to pay tax alms to the Medina government because they considered it humiliation for themselves. They believed in distributing tax alms among the poor in their tribe.

Some people of this tribe used to say, “We swear by God that we have come to be enslaved by the Quraysh. Once, they send Muhādjir Ibn Abī Umayya or Ziyād Ibn Lubayd to collect tax alms. Then, they threaten to fight against us.”[19]

Ash‘ath Ibn Qays, from this tribe, said, “I don’t think Arabs would accept the rule of the Banū Taym and leave the men of the Hāshimites.”

He said in his poems, “If the Quraysh are to leave the power into the hands of Banū Taym and distance themselves from Muhammad’s Household, of course, we are prior to it because we are the descendants of kings.”

Elsewhere in the above narration, we read that Ziyād sent the tax alms camels to Medina along with someone and he, himself, went to a tribe of Kinda named Banū Zuhal.

An influential man of Kinda named Hārith Ibn Mu‘āwiya said, “O, Ziyād! You ask us to obey someone who has no accord with us.”

Ziyād said, “You are right. He has signed no agreement with you, but we have selected him to rule.”

Hārith asked, “Why did you take the government away from the Prophet’s Household when they deserved it, because God has said,
“.وَأُوْلُوا الْأَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَى بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ” “Some relatives are given more priority over others.”

Ziyād answered, “The Muhādjirūn and the Ansār know the interests of their government better than you.”

Hārith stated, “I swear by God, it is not so. You did it out of your jealousy. I cannot accept that the Messenger of Allāh has passed away without assigning a successor for himself. Go away from here.”

‘Urfadja Ibn ‘Abd Allāh, another man of the tribe, said, “I swear by God, Hārith is right. Expel this man from this place. His master is not eligible to be the caliph and the Muhādjirūn and Ansār are not better than the Prophet (s) in knowing the expediency of the government.”

Ziyād went to Medina and said, “The people of Kinda have revolted and have become apostate.”[20]

Ibn A‘tham’s further explanations on the disputes among the people of Kinda and Abū Bakr reveal their problem was Abū Bakr’s caliphate. Making his mind to fight the Kinda tribes, Abū Bakr summoned ‘Umar and said, “I want to send ‘Alī Ibn Abī Tālib to fight them because, فانه عدل رضا عند اكثر الناس لفضله وشجاعته وقرابته وعلمه وفهمه ورفقه بما يحاول من الامور He is just and acceptable more to the public because of his excellence, valour, kinship and knowledge as well as his handling of affairs.

‘Umar said, “You are right. ‘Alī is as you say but I fear one thing. I fear he may refuse to fight them. If he does not go to war, no one else will do so unless with disgust.”[21]

This discussion and ‘Umar’s consultation with Abū Ayyūb show that there were some people among them who opposed fighting Muslims.

The caliph considered these things instances of apostasy, and historians have recorded these fights as the battles of Radda. These wars may be justified as necessary tactics for safeguarding the government but it is hard to prove the tribes’ apostasy. When Abū Bakr decided to fight these tribes, some of his men, including ‘Umar, objected to his decision. Later on, ‘Umar said he opposed Abū Bakr’s decision in the beginning but after some time, he learnt that caliph was right.

The question is whether these tribes were apostate or fighting them was permissible or not? Abū Bakr believed in their apostasy, so he even took their women and children captive and brought them to Medina.[22] It seems that ‘Umar, like many Muslims, agreed with fighting them in principle but did not believe in their apostasy. According to Shahristānī, it was because of this belief that ‘Umar freed their captives[23] when he became the second caliph.

Another problem was that even if the tribes were apostate, many believed that it was illegitimate to take captives from apostates.[24]

There are numerous documents at hand indicating that some tribes were considered apostate because they refused to pay tax alms. For instance, a group of Yamāma people believed in the principle of paying tax alms but refused to pay tax alms to Abū Bakr.

They used to say, “We collect tax alms from the rich in our tribes and distribute it among the poor and needy among ourselves, but we will pay nothing to whom the Book and traditions have not recommended him.”[25] Ya‘qūbī, too, writes, “Some people only refused to pay tax alms to Abū Bakr.”[26]

As mentioned earlier, ‘Umar opposed the idea of apostasy of these tribes. According to Ibn A‘tham, when Abū Bakr wanted to kill the captives of the battles of Radda,[27] ‘Umar said, “These people believe in Islam and they swear about it. Imprison them for the time being to see what happens next.”

Abū Bakr jailed them in the house of Ramla, daughter of Hārith. After Abū Bakr’s death, ‘Umar told them, “You know what my opinion was about you. Now, you are all free without any ransom. Go wherever you want.”[28]

Qays on behalf of ‘Āsim Minqarī was commissioned by the Prophet (s) to collect tax alms from his tribe. After the Prophet’s demise, he collected the tax alms but instead of giving it to Abū Bakr, he distributed them among the poor in his tribe. This was considered as a criminal act. Even a proverb was made in this regard which said “More criminal than Qays be ‘Āsim.”[29]

Ibn Kathīr, too, has reiterated that many Muslims refused to pay their tax alms to Abū Bakr.[30] Mawbakhtī writes a group said they would not pay tax alms until it was known who was holding the government; therefore, they distributed the tax alms among the poor.[31]

Maqdisī, too, says, “A group of them refused to pay tax alms while others opposed rejected the principle of tax alms.”[31]

Besides not recognizing Abū Bakr’s rule, another problem of the tribes was that after hearing the news of the Prophet’s passing, they severed their relations with Medina. They only believed in having a religious connection with Medina, and when the Prophet of Islam passed away, they felt no need for accepting the rule of someone else. Therefore, as they refused to pay tax alms to Medina, they were labeled apostate.[33] These tribes believed there was no need to assign a single ruler for all Muslims and that if they obeyed Muhammad, it was because he was a prophet. But, after his demise, there would be no need to obey others. They said,

فيـــا لعباد الله ما لأبي بكر

أطعنـا رسول الله ما كان بيننا

وتلكم لعمر الله قاصمة الظهر[34]

إذا مات بكر قام بكر مكانـه

We obeyed the Messenger when he was alive but why shall we obey Abū Bakr?

When Abū Bakr died, a man like him came to power, that is – by God – backbreaking.

Thus, they did not deem it necessary to obey the rule of Medina and the rulers of Medina counted them among apostates.[35]

Muhammad Ibn Idrīs Shāfi‘ī writes, “This was because Arabs living in the outskirts of Mecca knew no rule and resented being ruled by others. The reason they accepted to obey the Messenger of God, was because they did not consider anyone else deserving obedience.”[36]

This reasoning has been brought in the poetry of Mālik Ibn Nuwayra. Addressing his tribe, he said,

ولا ناظـر فيما يجئ من الغد

وقلت خذوا أموالكم غير خائف

منعنا وقلنا: الدين دين محمد[37]

فـإن قام بالأمر المخوّف قائم

“I told you to take your money (tax alms) with no fear and no worries of what happens tomorrow, If someone assumes power, we will tell him, the only religion is the religion of Muhammad.”

Abū Bakr’s insistence on collecting tax alms from all tribes was to strengthen his government in Medina.

He said, “If they do not pay me the tax alms they used to pay to the Prophet (s) every year, I will fight them.”[38]

There is no doubt that the majority of the Prophet’s companions did not like Abū Bakr’s idea of war[39] but they obeyed him because he was the ruler.

Maqdisī said the first dispute among Muslims was leadership while the second was fighting those who refused to pay tax alms. Muslims opposed Abū Bakr’s view of tax alms collection but after a while, the majority of them accepted his rule. The opposition remained and some Muslims believed fighting them was a mistake.[40]

We quoted ‘Umar as saying that ‘Alī (a) might avoid fighting the Kinda people. Elsewhere, we said Abū Bakr was ready to fight them himself, but Imām ‘Alī (a) asked him to stay in Medina[41] and send another one to fight them. Obviously, a group of those the caliph fought against were real apostates.

Another quotation from Madā’inī says after Imām ‘Alī (a) opposed Abū Bakr, ‘Uthmān told Imām, “Nobody will join the Muslim army to fight the apostates if you do not swear allegiance to Abū Bakr.” ‘Uthmān’s insistence made Imām ‘Alī swear allegiance to Abū Bakr.[42] On the other hand, there were some people in Medina who wished for the success of apostates to once again maintain their infidel beliefs of the Dark Age. One day, a man of the Umayya and another man from the Ansār were boasting for each other.

The former said, “When the Prophet of Islam passed away, the majority of his companions were from the the Umayya.”

The Ansārī man replied, “Yes.” [و لكنهم حالفوا أهل الردة على هدم الاسلام[43 “They allied with the atheists to destroy Islām.”

‘Āyisha, too, has said about wide-scale discord in Medina in the first days of his father’s caliphate.[44] Also, Mecca was about to return to absolute apostasy after the Prophet’s demise, but Suhayl Ibn ‘Amr’s remarks stabilized Mecca’s situation.

Ibn Athīr writes, “After the Prophet’s passing, Mecca was on the verge of apostasy and ‘Attāb Ibn Asīd sought a hiding.”

Suhayl Ibn ‘Amr stood up and addressed the people of Mecca, [لاتكونوا آخر من اسلم وأول من ارتد[45 “Do not be the last one to embrace Islam and the first one to become an apostate.”

At any rate, we must not ignore the fact that Medina’s resistance against apostasy helped the administration in the city to be stronger and bring other lands under its control after passing through this tortuous period. Khālīfa Ibn Khayyāt has listed the apostates as follows,

Tulayha Ibn Khuwaylad, Banū Sālim, Banū Tamīm, Banū Yamāma, Banū Bahrayn, Banū Ummān, Banū Nadjīr, Hadramawt and Banū Yemen, Banū Radda.[46]

[1] ‘Abd Allāh Ibn Saba’, in his book, deals with narrations of the same person by considering narrations of Sayf by ‘Allāma ‘Askarī.
[2] Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.II, p.229
[3] Tārīkh khalīfat Ibn khayyat, p.117
[4] al-Futūh, vol.I, p.23
[5] Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.II, p.149; al-Kharādj wa Sana‘a al-kitāba, p.282
[6] For example, لا اقسم بهذا البلد، ولا تبرح هذا البلد، حتى تكون ذا مال وولد، ووفر وصفد وخيل وعدد، الى آخر الابد، علي رغم من حسد Kitāb al-ridda, p.111; and another example in, al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.V, pp.161-162,164. These cases are morally ill.
[7] al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol.VI, p.326
[8] In some sources, she is called daughter of Aws Ibn Hurayz, Djamharat al-nasab, p.226
[9] al-Futūh (Persian translation), p.20-21; al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.V, p.165
[10] Tārīkh khalīfat Ibn khayyat, vol.I, pp.111-115
[11] al-Futūh, vol.I, p.40
[12] al-Futūh, vol.I, p.43-44; Kitāb al-ridda, pp.144-146
[13] al-Futūh, vol.I, pp.14-15; Tārīkh khalīfat Ibn khayyat, pp.102-103
[142] Al-Futūh,ol.I,p.17; Tārīkh al-ya‘qūbī, ol.II,p.129
[15] The Shi‘ite Muslims disagreed on saying that all people hae been atheist rebels. Kanz al-fawā’id, vol.II, p.346
[16] Tārīkh khalīfat Ibn khayyāt, p.105, Abū Bakr was told هل يزيد خالد على ان يكون تأول فأخطأ Does Khālid want to express and go wrong Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.II,p.278; Tabaqāt al-shu‘arā’,p.48
[17] Tārīkh al-tabarī,vol.II,p.279, al-Aghānī,vol.xv,p.302
[18] al-Futūh,vol.I,pp.58,60 and 61; al-Ridda,pp.171,176 and 177 والله مأ ا زلتموها عن أهلها الاّ حسداً منكم لهم By God you seized caliphate away from them just out of envy
[19] al-Ridda,pp.169-174
[20] al-Ridda,pp.173-179; al-Futūh,ol.I,pp.57-61
[21] al-Futūh,vol.I,p.71-72
[22] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq,vol.x, p.176; Abū Bakr once ordered his men to set atheists on fire and fall them down the mountain.
Al-Djassās, Ahkām al-qur’ān, vol.III, pp.67 and 81
[23] al-Milal wa l-nihal, vol.I, p.31; Djāmi‘ al-bayān al-‘ilm, vol. II, p.129
[24] Sharh nahdj al-balāgha, Ibn Abi l-Hadīd, vol.III, p.151
[25] al-Ifsāh, p.121
[26] Tārīkh al-ya‘qūbī, vol.II, p.128
[27] Maqdisī says, “Abū Bakr sent Khālid to sword-kill people of Ridda, set fire to them, hold their children and women captive and share their properties.
Al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.v, p.157
[28] al-Futūh, vol.I, p.75; Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.VII, PP.101-102
[29] al-durra al-fākhira, p.324; Madjma‘ al-amthāl, vol.II, p.65
[30] al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol.VI, p.311
[31] Firaq al-shī‘a, p.4
[32] al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.V, p.151
[33] Tārīkh al-‘arab wa l-islām, p.71
Hasan Ibrāhīm Hasan says, “The atheists were those who refused to pay Zakāt, tax alms, thinking that the Messenger(s) blackmails them. It is to be noted that they never challenged and loathed Islam…..they agreed on monotheism, foundation of Islam but they thought they had to pay tax alms only to the Prophet(s)”.
Tārīkh Siyāsī Islām, vol.I, p.216
‘Aqqād also says, “A group of others believed in mere tax alms but they never took faith in those who had to pay tax alms.”
‘Abqariyya al-siddīq, pp.124-125
[34]Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.II, p.246; Masā’il al-imāma, p.14; Kitāb al-ridda, pp.171-172; Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.III, p.409; al-Aghānī, vol.II, p.157; al-Djamal, p.181; al-Shi‘r wa l-shu‘arā’, p.65; al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.V, p.156; Tatawwur al-fikr al-siyāsī ‘Ind ahl al-Sunna, p.38, footnoteII,; Muqaddama fī tārīkh sadr al-islām, p.51
[35] Tārīkh al-‘arab wa l-islām, p.71; Tatawwur al-fikr al-siyāsī ‘Ind ahl al-Sunna, p.38
Nāshi’ Akbar says, “Some believed they were not atheist but they refused to pay poll tax, saying that the poor are superior to that, They would pay that to the agents of the Prophet(s) just for the sake of the Prophet and now that he has passed away, people would give it to any poor one they wished.
Masā’il al-imāma, p.14
[36] al-Risāla, p.80
[37] Tabaqat fuhūl al-shu‘arā’, vol.I,p.206; Tabaqat fuhūl al-shu‘arā’, 1400 H; word of religion in the subject poem means government as footnoted by the proofreader.
[38] al-Imāma wa l-siyāsa, vol.I, p.35
[39] Djāmi‘ al-bayān al-‘ilm, vol.II, pp.104 and 125
[40] al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.V, p.123
[41] al-Mi‘yār wa l-muwāzana, p.94
[42] Talkhīs al-shāfī, vol.III,p.77
[43] Rabī‘ al-abrār, vol.I, pp.708-709
They allied with the atheists to destroy Islam.
[44] Tārīkh khalīfat Ibn khayyāt, p.102; al-Musannaf, Ibn Abī Shayba, vol.VII, p.434
[45] Usd al-ghāba, vol.II, pp.371-372
[46] Tārīkh khalīfat Ibn khayyāt, pp.102-117
Source: maaref-foundation.com


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