History of the Caliphs

By: Rasūl Ja’farīan

Translation by: Ali Ebrahimi

p. 67-86
The second caliph, more than any other personality, influenced the Sunnites thoughts and ideas. As his period of caliphate was a highly crucial juncture in the history of Islam, his thoughts and deeds, too, were of great significance for Sunnites Muslims. This is to the extent that he is considered as a role model who made no mistakes and every word or act of him can be trusted as a religious tradition. Therefore, it is necessary to talk about him here.

The high status of ‘Umar in Sunnites thinking, can not be compared to anyone else. In the narrations told about ‘Umar’s good traits, the ranking attributed to him is a little lower than prophethood! This status has been interpreted as “Muhaddath”. Muhaddath is said to be someone who receives “revelations”.

In a narration by Bukhārī, Muslim and others, Abū Hurayra has been quoted as saying Prophet Muhammad said, “There were people among the Israelian tribe who received revelations without being a prophet. If there is anyone in my Umma who is such, that person is certainly ‘Umar.” According to Qastalānī, the commentator of the book of Bukhārī, the “if” in the above-mentioned sentence, does not mean “hesitation” but means “emphasis”.

Besides such quotations, there is, on the whole, a certain idea about the caliph’s measures at the Prophet’s time, indicating that before God revealed something, ‘Umar had ordered that and then, God had sent down some verses in that regard. These instances are known as “‘Umar’s Muwāfiqāt”, ‘Umar’s agreement. It is interesting that in some cases, the viewpoint of the Prophet was in conflict with ‘Umar’s, but God has sent down verses agreeing with ‘Umar’s idea! ‘Abd Allāh Ibn ‘Umar has been quoted as saying that all the verses God sent down about something discussed by ‘Umar and others, were in accordance with ‘Umar’s idea. Some of such examples are saying prayers for Ibrāhīm, the verse of Hidjāb, the Badr captives, banning drinking, not saying prayers for hypocrites and so on. It is evident, then, why ‘Umar’s status was close to prophethood and later, his way of behavior was regarded superior even to that of the Prophet.

Here, we must note the point that ‘Umar was as strong in practice as he was weak in thought. He, himself, had admitted this several times and had sought help from others in solving his problems. ‘Allama Amīnī has allocated almost half of the sixth volume of the book of al-Ghadīr entitled, نوادر الاثر في علم عمر “Rare reports about knowledge of ‘Umar,” on these issues. It was due to this weakness in knowledge that ‘Umar did not like religious discussions and debates and once, when someone asked him the meaning of وَالذَّارِيَاتِ ذَرْوًا. “I Swear to pollinating winds,” ‘Umar beat him up.[1]

One of the main features of the second caliph’s thinking was that he saw himself entitled to vast authorities as a ruler. He considered a special right for himself, not only in political and executive affairs, but also in divine legislation and making laws. Relying on the same authorities during his caliphate, ‘Umar made innovations and changes and did not deem himself obliged to anything except having a general knowledge of the Qur’ān and the Sharī‘a. In cases where he found himself incompetent, he would hold consultations and deliberations with the Companions to get things done. Narrating an interesting story told by Tabarī is appropriate here to realize the caliph’s idea about his authorities, “‘Imrān Ibn Sawād says, “I said the morning prayers with ‘Umar and then, followed him.”

He asked, “You have a request?”

I said, “Yes, advice!”

He said, “Bravo! Go on!”

I said, “People find faults with you in several things.”

Holding his lash under his chin, ‘Umar said, “Well?”

I said, “You have forbidden the lesser pilgrimage (the ‘Umra Hadjdj) during the months of Hadjdj while Prophet Muhammad said it was permitted; neither did Abū Bakr act like you.”

‘Umar said, “This was to show people that they were not exempt from the main Hadjdj by doing the ‘Umra.”

I asked, “You have banned the temporary marriage of women while the Prophet had allowed it?”

‘Umar said, “I am equal to Muhammad; I make them full and do so and so for them. If I do not do so (harsh behavior), I’ll abandon the truth (this is ironical of his having right to do so).”[2]

There are two basic points in this quotation containing plenty of proof for approving its inclusion, One is that ‘Umar, in response to ‘Imrān, confirmed his disagreement with the Prophet (s) and also justified it. Second, his response to ‘Imrān’s last objection started with this sentence, (أنا زميل محمّد (ص “I am equal to the Prophet.” “Zamīl” commonly means “classmate” and its old usage is referred to two people who ride on camels each of whom takes seat on one side or two people ride on two camels separately.

In the above statement, there is an opposite sentence that says, وكان زامله في غزوة قرقرة الكدر “‘Umar has ‘Umar been equal to the Prophet in Qarqarat al-Kudr war.”

This sentence had no relation with ‘Umar’s response to the questions raised[3] but on the contrary, it was really misleading and was intentionally aimed at misleading the minds. ‘Umar says he is equal to the Prophet, meaning he could enjoin to or forbid from something or label things as lawful or unlawful just as the Prophet could. Thus, the caliph considered his authorities as vast as the Prophet and pretended to believe in nothing but the Qur’ān.

What has been said about the caliph’s ban on narrating hadith and writing it[4] exactly conforms to this idea of the caliph. It seems the caliph believed that only the Qur’ān could remain unchanged, but not hadith and the ruler can act at any time based on his expedience. In other words, what has been quoted from Prophet Muhammad, only refer to his authorities as a ruler and these are authorities ‘Umar, too, had as a ruler. It is unlikely to find any caliph other than ‘Umar and ‘Uthmān who considered their authorities to include divine legislation and interference in religious affairs. Nasr Allāh Munshī, in the preface to “Kelīlih wa Dimnih”, quotes ‘Umar as saying, “What the “state” bans people from is prior to what the “Qur’ān” prohibits.”[5] ‘Umar cut the share of المؤلفة قلوبهم “Those whose hearts are captured,” that God paid from the tax alms, saying, Islam has no fear of them any more.[6] He believed an unclean person who needs water should not say prayers if he cannot find water. When ‘Ammār Yāsir taught him the Prophet’s tradition in Tayammum (making ablution with earth or sand), اتق الله يا عمار “O ‘Ammār! Fear God!”

‘Ammār answered, “If you please so, I will not tell you the hadith of the Prophet!”[7]

It is interesting that ‘Umar hated Tayammum even during the Prophet’s life. Once during a trip, someone from ‘Umar’s companions got impure at dawn and had to make Tayammum. ‘Umar objected to him.

When they got to Medina, ‘Umar complained about him to the Prophet, but the Prophet said, “I would have done the same if I were in his conditions.”[8] Of course, if nothing occurred to his mind, ‘Umar would follow the Prophet’s Sunna.[9]

Ibn ‘Abbās says, “During the time of the Prophet and Abū Bakr and in two years of ‘Umar’s caliphate, if someone divorced his wife three times, it would be considered once. But, ‘Umar considered it three divorces.[10] Mālik Ibn Anas, Imām of Mālikiyya, narrates, “‘Umar was afraid that a non-Arab would receive inheritance from an Arab unless he was born among Arabs!”[11]

These were the caliph’s personal Idjtihāds which were mostly based on his favored “interests”. Temporary marriage during Hadjdj and temporary marriage of women are among the main religious affairs allowed by Prophet Muhammad, but banned by the caliph.[12] As we mentioned, ‘Umar believed these affairs were permissible at the time of the Prophet due to certain necessity. Another example is dropping the line “Hayya ‘Alā Khayr al-‘Amal” (Rush to the best deed) from the Adhān[13] whereas people such as ‘Abd Allāh Ibn ‘Umar and Imām Sadjdjād always said this line in the call to prayers.[14] Word has it that ‘Umar was the first person to initiate the rising of Ramadān. He did it in the 14th year of Hidjra and ordered all towns and cities to do so.[15] This is the same nightly prayers of Ramadān still common among Sunnis. Because ‘Umar saw himself entitled to such authorities, he issued contradictory rulings in some cases. Such instances can be found in the issue of inheritance.[16]

Such freedom of action in religious affairs could entail more claim of authority in non-religious domains. The caliph did not avoid innovation. The Amīr al-Mu’minīn, too, had innovations in solving the mentioned issues but his faithfulness to the wording came first. The sudden expansion of Islamic countries at the time of ‘Umar brought him face to face with numerous problems, so he often tried to find a solution to his problems even if through consultation with the Companions. The collection of such solutions which were first based on the Prophet’s heritage, second on consultations with the Companions and third, on the caliph’s innovations, led to the enlargement of the state authority.

Comparing the successful policy of ‘Umar and Mu‘āwiya with that of Imām ‘Alī, Ahmad Amīn says the former two considered themselves free in interpreting religious texts while ‘Alī believed in them.[17] Also, Suhayl Zakkār has referred to the point that ‘Umar saw himself entitled to interpret new issues.[18] His instructions to Shurayh are also considerable for following the rules.[19]

As mentioned earlier, one principle of the caliph’s thoughts was that he tried to only rely on the Qur’ān as proof, so he ignored hadiths. His remark which said, [20]حسبنا كتاب الله “We relied on the Book of Allāh.”

This has been cited in many historical and hadith sources and implies nothing other than there is no need for hadith. Of course, this has no contradiction with ‘Umar’s use of the Prophet’s quotations if he could not think of a certain solution. However, in return, he would do something if it were to his interest even if Prophet Muhammad had a special belief in that regard.

One such clear example was a wording about the Imamate of Imām ‘Alī that was said by the Prophet. Not only ‘Umar, but other people from the companions, too, set aside the words due to some expediency they claimed.

Ibn Abi l-Hadīd says, “I asked my master about texts on the Imamate of ‘Alī and said, “Is it really possible that they have set aside the Prophet’s words?” He answered, “Those people do not consider caliphate among religious decrees such as daily prayers and fasting, but consider it a worldly affair and an issue like running the land, planning the war and ruling the subjects. In these cases, too, if they saw it to their benefit, they would oppose the word of the Prophet. For example, the Prophet ordered Abū Bakr and ‘Umar to join the army of Usāma, but they refused to do so as they did not see it agreeable to the state interests. These happened during Prophet Muhammad’s lifetime, he saw them and did not deny them!… The companions, collectively and individually, neglected many words of Prophet Muhammad and this was due to the interests they saw in doing so such as the shares of ذوي القربى والمؤلفة قلوبهم “Relatives and those whose hearts are captured.”

They acted according to their own will in many issues not mentioned by the Qur’ān and the Sunna such as the limit of drinking wine,…. They preferred their interests to the Prophet’s words, saying, “If you find it right, do it…”

As for the Prophet’s words about ‘Alī, they (in fact, Abū Bakr and ‘Umar) said that Arabs would not accept his rule due to several reasons. Therefore, they agreed not to give him the power because they saw that Arabs would not obey him. So, they interpreted the Prophet’s words; however, they did not deny the word. They just said someone present can see something which the absent person cannot. The Ansār’s act, too, helped them. So, they made allegiance with Abū Bakr to eliminate the Ansār’s conspiracy. And later, in the face of ‘Alī’s protests, they said that he was too young, Arabs would not accept him, …and that Abū Bakr was an old man, he was experienced, Arabs love him, etc. They said if they had chosen ‘Alī, Arabs would have turned apostate and …Which way was to their interests? Following the Prophet’s words and getting ready for Arabs’ apostasy and the return of the Dark Age or deviating from the Prophet’s words and safeguarding Islam…People, too, remained silent…

Ibn Abi l-Hadīd says, “My master, Abū Dja‘far Naqīb, did not believe in Imām and did not obey them. Neither did he accept the words of Shi‘ites fanatics. Yet, he had such an analysis.[21]

At any rate, this point must be taken into consideration that when ‘Umar took the reins of caliphate, it was necessary to expand the administrative organization of the new government. Further conquests and enlargement of the lands under his rule as well as wars and peace deals forced him to forge some laws in order to run his affairs. These measures are listed by Kattānī in the book of “al-Tarātīb al-Idāriyya “ (Administrative Arrangements). Many of his measures took on a jurisprudent aura and in later texts of Sunnis, were used as the basis of Sunnites jurisprudence. Most of his edicts have been collected in the book of “al-Musannaf” by ‘Abd al-Razzāq Sanānī. Ibn Kathīr, too, has gathered these edicts in a book entitled “Musnad ‘Umar” (‘Umar’s Throne).

It was during his period that for the first time, the title of “Amīr al-Mu’minīn” or “Commander of the Faithful” became a common term to refer to the caliph. Before that, he was called “Khālīfa Rasūl Allāh” or the “Caliph of the Prophet”. But, according to quotations, he got the title of Amīr al-Mu‘minīn in the year 17 A.H. from either Mughīra Ibn Shu‘ba, Abū Mūsā Ash‘arī or ‘Adī Ibn Hātim.[22]

One the caliph’s measures which had an important role in organizing the ruling system and establishing the government was the formation of “Dīwāns” in the year 20 A.H.[23] Prophet Muhammad was a pioneer in registering the names of Muslims, especially fighters.[24] ‘Umar ordered the registration of the Companions and classified them based on tribal origins and religious records.[25] Then, he divided the huge booties gained during conquests. ‘Umar began with the Hāshimites and among them, with ‘Abd al-Muttalib.[26] The policy of the Prophet and Abū Bakr differed with ‘Umar’s policy[27] in that they divided the riches equally while ‘Umar’s division was based on different tribes and the people’s record in Islam. It is said that ‘Umar objected to Abū Bakr for observing equality.[28] This act of the caliph led to the reinforcement of tribal strata among Arabs based on which, some tribes claimed superiority over others. This remark of Maqdisī who has quoted ‘Umar as saying that he had learnt justice from Chosroe[29] gives strength to the probability that he had been somehow influenced by the Iranian system of social classification, though there is no other evidence to prove this claim. Word has said that towards the end of his life, ‘Umar doubted the rightfulness of this method and said if he lived more, he would act equally towards all people.[30]

Also, an accurate date that was necessary for administrative affair was set in ‘Umar’s time. We mentioned elsewhere that during consultations with the companions, he acted according to the opinion of Imām ‘Alī based on choosing the date of the Prophet’s Hidjra as the beginning date of Muslims’ history. This was a significant step towards creating administrative discipline.

About the sources of the second caliph’s religious and political thoughts, we must note another point. Besides what he had gained from Islamic teachings, ‘Umar tried to enrich his thoughts from other sources, too. One of these sources was the knowledge of the people of the book and Jews had plenty of such knowledge in Hidjāz. First of all, we must admit that among different Islamic sects, there is a common accusation about ‘Umar’s use of Jewish knowledge, mostly due to the reason that Jews were greatly despised by the Qur’ān and naturally, by Muslims. We should know that the people of the book in general and Jews, in particular, have left some traces in the historical texts and hadiths of Muslims. This influence is more or less seen among almost all sects. Any way, there are some texts available that indicate the people of the book tried to grab a position for themselves in the new society by relying on the knowledge they already possessed and the cultural influence they had inherited from the era of ignorance. Their religious texts had many things in common with Islam and it was on this basis that they claimed to have some knowledge about the interpretation of the Qur’ān. Moreover, they said that in the earlier texts, the Prophet’s ordainment had been announced. They went on as far as claiming that in divine books, there had a lot of information about the trend of developments in the Islamic society, the story of caliphs, events and wars. Muslims’ belief in this issue made it much easier for the people of the book. We had better set aside our general discussion in this regard, which has also been reiterated by Ibn Khadlūn[31] and return to our main topic.

When the Muslim Muhādjir s came to Medina and Islam spread in the city, the ground was prepared for a cultural relation between Islam and Judaism due to their common origins.

A quotation says, كانت اليهود يحدثون اصحاب رسول الله “The Jews spoke with the companions of the Prophet (s).” When Prophet Muhammad heard of that, he said, “Do not confirm or deny them.”[32] But, it seems that gradually, things got more serious until the Prophet banned the companions from listening to Jews or copying their works.

When he came to Medina, the second caliph decided to use the people of the book to increase his religious and historical knowledge.

He says, “I copied one of the works of the people of the book so as to add to my knowledge.” The Prophet was really angered to the extent that the Ansār shouted, “al-Silāh! al-Silāh!”, meaning “Weapon! Weapon!”

Then, the Prophet said, “I have brought everything for you.”[33] Elsewhere, ‘Umar has been quoted as telling Prophet Muhammad, “I came across a “brother from Quray¨a” who copied the Torah for me. Shall I offer it to you?” This question angered the Prophet.[34]

Zuhrī says, “Hafsa, ‘Umar’s daughter and the Prophet’s wife, brought to the Prophet a book of stories about Joseph and read out the book. At the same moment, the Prophet’s face turned red with anger and he said, “I swear by God that if Joseph and I were among you and you followed him and abandoned me, you would be mistaken.”[35] The fact that ‘Umar and his daughter tried at the time of the Prophet to read the texts of other religions could not have been a mere incidence. This issue is clarified with the point told by Ibn Shahāb Zuhrī about ‘Umar’s naming as Fārūq, the distinguisher.

He says, “The first people to call ‘Umar as Fārūq were the people of the book while no news has reached us to indicate that the Prophet called him so.”[36]

When ‘Umar came to power, he pondered in this regard with more peace of mind and right at the time when he encountered a Muslim-turned Jew from Yemen, he could benefit from him more. This person was Ka‘b Ibn Māti‘ Himyarī known as Ka‘b al-Ahbār.[37] He converted to Islam after the Prophet’s demise at the time of Abū Bakr or ‘Umar and then came to Medina. Later, he took permission from the caliph and headed to Damascus. It seems that his departure to Damascus and at the time of the second caliph, to Bayt al-Muqaddas, was to sign a peace deal with Christians and Ka‘b accompanied him. Ka‘b al-Ahbār died during ‘Uthmān’s caliphate in the year 32 or 33 A.H in the town of Hims.[38] This is while a tomb with a high dome was built for him in Egypt. Ka‘b al-Ahbār was a trusted and reliable source for centuries and his quotations have filled books of history and interpretation.[39] But currently, given the new researches carried out, the image of Ka‘b al-Ahbār has been shrouded in mystery and has made decision-making difficult for Sunnites scholars and religious men.

Ka‘b al-Ahbār, on the one hand, received the second caliph’s attention and on the other, is an important source for texts known as Israelite in the Islamic culture. These are quotations about the Torah and other Jewish scriptures that have a determining presence in Muslims’ books of history, interpretation, Gnosticism and literature. Ka‘b al-Ahbār and Wahb Ibn Munabba are two main sources of the spread of Israelite in the Islamic culture. Since the anti-Israelite current gained force among Sunnis, the task of deciding about Ka‘b has been made difficult.[40] We should not forget here that twice as much what Ka‘b has quoted from earlier books, has been falsely attributed to him by others and he has been exaggerated.

Dhahabī says about him, “He had knowledge of Jewish books and had a special talent in recognizing false and true texts.”[41] Here, the second caliph’s trust in him, despite sufficient evidence, has not been trusted by those who did not believe the Israelites in general and Ka‘b, in particular. Ibn Kathīr says Ka‘b al-Ahbār was the best of them (Muslim-turned Jews) who are quoted. He embraced Islam at the time of ‘Umar and quoted the people of the book. ‘Umar approved some of his quotations because they were truthful.[42] Moreover, ‘Umar tried to absorb him. Afterwards, the people quoted many things from him in so far as there were exaggerations and he, too, quoted much falsehood while some of his words were true. Ibn Kathīr has implicitly admitted that ‘Umar helped Ka‘b find a place among the people who turned to him. Due to the cultural power of the people of the book, as soon as Ka‘b arrived in Medina, people gathered around him and asked him to read them some news about the future events from the books of the predecessors.[43] What made people trust him was that he claimed his words were all based on “the Revealed Book of God”. Here, book means the Torah about which Ka‘b had told Qays Ibn Kharasha, “The Torah says there is no inch of land other than what happens on it until the Day of Judgment.”[44]

Ka‘b spread his words among the people by underlining that he was quoting from the “Book of God”. Above all, the second caliph benefited from him and his knowledge. There are several instances to prove this. Hishām Kalbī says, “There was famine at the time of ‘Umar. Ka‘b al-Ahbār told him, “When the same situation occurred for the Israelian tribe, they resorted to their prophet’s Household and said the prayer for rain.

This advice led ‘Umar to ask ‘Abbās to say this prayer.”[45] Another quotation says ‘Umar asked Ka‘b to talk about “death” for him. While Ka‘b was elaborating on death, tears rolled down the caliph’s cheeks.[46] In another case, ‘Umar asked him, which of Adam’s sons had offspring and he talked in this regard in detail.[47]

When ‘Umar wanted to travel to Iraq, Ka‘b told him, “Do not go to Iraq because the genies are there, as are their men and nine-tenth of sorcery, too.”[48]

The quotation of Sayf Ibn ‘Umar says that during the outbreak of plague, ‘Umar called on his courtiers to guide him about different cities. Ka‘b said the following about Iraq in response to ‘Umar’s seeking consultation.[49]

According to ‘Abd Allāh Ibn Mas‘ūd who met ‘Umar with Ka‘b, Ka‘b said, “Allow me to tell you the sweetest thing which I have read in “The Books of Prophets”. With ‘Umar’s approval, Ka‘b al-Ahbār quoted parts of the book which is more than a page.[50] ‘Umar asked Ka‘b to tell him about Ka‘ba and he said, “God sent down to earth a hollow sapphire[51] and …” In another occasion, Ka‘b was sitting in the mosque when ‘Umar entered and asked him to intimidate him and others.

He said, “O Ka‘b! Frighten us!”[52]

‘Umar said, “Prophet Muhammad told me, “My greatest fear for my Umma is from the side of misleading Imām.”

Ka‘b said, “I swear by God that fear for the Umma is from no one other than them.”[53] Another quotation says once at the time of ‘Umar, Ka‘b stood up and asked, “What was the last word of your Prophet?”

‘Umar said, “Ask ‘Alī.”

And ‘Alī answered, “While his blessed head was resting on my shoulder, he said, “Prayers, prayers.”

Ka‘b said, “This is the last oath of all prophets to which they have been obliged and ordained.”[54]

Ka‘b wanted to show himself well-versed in all books of prophets and in other cases, to make people accept what he said. Apparently later, some people noticed the problem that they could not rely on the distorted Torah. Therefore, how could they accept the words of Ka‘b? To solve this issue, it was made up that Ka‘b used a Torah which had not been distorted. In the final hours of his life, Ka‘b ordered someone to throw that book of Torah into the sea. His justification was that he was afraid some people would use that book as a base for their reasoning. After narrating this story, Dhahabī says, “Now, this Torah is not in our hands and after that, we cannot rely on the existing book of Torah.”[55] However at the same time, Ibn ‘Abbās rejected the Torah as distorted and cautioned people against asking questions from the people of the book.[56]

Another narration says ‘Umar had ordered someone to be lashed as punishment. When he was being lashed, he said, “Subhān Allāh” or “Praise be to God”. ‘Umar told the executioner to stop the lashing. Ka‘b al-Ahbār burst into laughter.

‘Umar said, “Why do you laugh?”

Ka‘b answered, “I swear by God that Subhān Allāh is a mitigation of divine punishment.”[57] In another case, ‘Umar and Ka‘b were standing.

Hutay’a, the poet, recited a poem which said, “Someone who does a good deed, his reward will never be wasted because “the good deed” is ever lasting between God and his people.”

Ka‘b said, “By God that it says the same thing in the Torah.”[58]

Once, ‘Umar asked Ka‘b al-Ahbār about different cities.

He said, “When God created the word and what is in it, Wisdom said, “I shall go to Iraq.” Knowledge said, “I shall be with you.” Wealth said, “I go to Damascus.” Trouble said, “I am with you.”[59]

In another occasion, Ka‘b al-Ahbār entered the court of ‘Umar and sat down at some distance from him. ‘Umar asked him why he had done so. Ka‘b pointed to the wisdom of Luqmān and said, “One should not sit close to a person of power because someone else may enter the assembly who is more endeared; then, you will have to sit back a little. This way, you will be belittled.”[60]

‘Umar asked Ka‘b, “How does knowledge leave the mind of someone who has learnt it?”

Ka‘b responded, “Through greed and stretching one’s hand out to the people.”[61]

Once again, Ka‘b told ‘Umar, “Woe unto the “Sultan of the Earth” from the “Sultan of the Heaven”?”

‘Umar said, “Unless for someone who checks himself.”

Ka‘b said, “I swear by God that this has been mentioned in the Torah exactly.”[62] In another occasion, ‘Umar asked Ka‘b al-Ahbār to tell him about virtue.[63] Once ‘Umar told Ka‘b who was seeking permission to go to Damascus, “Do not leave Medina which is the place of the Prophet’s Hidjra and his city of burial.” Ka‘b said he had read in the Revealed Book of Allāh that Damascus was God’s treasure upon the earth.[64] In another case, a verse was discussed, [65].كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا “Whatsoever their skin is fried, it is replaced with a new one to taste the pain.”

Ka‘b said, “I have an interpretation about this verse which dates back to the period before the advent of Islam.”

‘Umar said, “Say it, but we will confirm your words only when they conform to those of the Prophet (s).”

Ka‘b said, “It means I will change their skin a hundred times each hour.”

‘Umar said, “I heard the same thing from the Prophet (s)!”[66]

In Bayt al-Muqaddas, ‘Umar asked Ka‘b about the location of the “Sakhra” and he talked in this regard in detail.[67]

Despite these examples, only Abū Zur‘a Dimashqī has quoted ‘Umar as telling Ka‘b, “Quit the narration of “Hadīth al-Uwal” )the first hadith( or I shall banish you to the land of apes!”[68] In another case, in continuation of a report from a follower of another religion talking about the traits of the caliphs in the Torah, ‘Umar has been quoted as having cautioned people against quoting the people of the book.[69] Also, once ‘Umar heard that someone in Kūfa had the book of Daniel. ‘Umar called him to Medina and afterwards, that person agreed to burn whatever he had.[70] Such a position, even if existed, was not so firm towards Ka‘b and the instances mentioned earlier, are proofs to our opinion. Once Ka‘b came to ‘Umar and asked permission to read the Torah. ‘Umar answered, “If you know that this is the same Torah sent down by God upon Moses in Mount Sinai, then read it day and night.”[71]

During these consultations, once ‘Umar noticed that Ka‘b had not given up his Jewish thoughts yet. In the year that ‘Umar went to Bayt al-Muqaddas, Ka‘b accompanied him. On this journey when there were talks with others including a monk,[72] ‘Umar asked Ka‘b to determine the place of the mosque of Bayt al-Muqaddas. So, he asked Ka‘b, “In your opinion, in which direction should we place the altar?”

Ka‘b said, “Towards the Sakhra (Jewish Qibla).”

‘Umar said, “You speak in favor of Jews! I also saw that upon entering the mosque, you took off your shoes.”[73] However, even after that, Ka‘b’s position remained the same to the caliph.

One interesting point here is the claim of Ka‘b al-Ahbār and the people of the book about finding the name and characteristics of the second caliph in previous divine books. ‘Abd Allāh Ibn Mas‘ūd has been quoted as saying, “‘Umar was riding a horse when it suddenly threw him off. At that moment, ‘Umar’s thigh was revealed. The people of Nadjrān who saw a black mole on his thigh said, “This is the same person who, our books say, drives us out of our homeland.”[74] Later, Wahb Ibn Munabba claimed that ‘Umar’s description had been mentioned in the Torah.[75] Aqra‘ who was ‘Umar’s Mu’adhdhin, says, “The caliph sent me to fetch the bishop. I brought him so that he sat under the same shade with ‘Umar.

‘Umar asked the bishop, “Have you seen my name in your books?”

The bishop replied, “Yes.”

‘Umar inquired, “How?”

The bishop answered, “Like a horn!”

‘Umar lifted his lash and said, “What is on my horn?”

The bishop said, “An iron horn, reliable and strong.”

‘Umar asked, “Who succeeds to caliphate after me?”

The bishop answered, “A righteous caliph who sacrifices his life for his relatives.”

‘Umar asked, “Who is next after him?”

The bishop said, “A righteous caliph who has drawn out his sword has shed blood!”[76] Although this narration is unknown, first of all, it is likely that its beginning part is correct and the bishop said these things only about ‘Umar. Second, even despite being an entire fabrication, those people have been mentioned by other bishops and those familiar with the pre-Islamic books.

Ibn Shubba say s, “During ‘Umar’s journey to Damascus, an old man approached the army on the way and complained about heavy taxes. He asked to talk to the caliph.

Talha asked him, “Have you found the news of the caliph’s descent in your books?”

He said, “Yes, we know the descriptions of your chief and the one before him as well as your prophet.” Then, he mentioned those traits one by one![77] Amālī Muhammad Ibn Habīb has been quoted as saying that Ibn ‘Abbās said, “Towards the end of his caliphate, ‘Umar wished death for himself.

One day when I was with him, he asked Ka‘b al-Ahbār, “I see my death close. First, what is your opinion about ‘Alī Ibn Abī Tālib and second, what do you find in this regard in your books, because you believe that our affairs have been written in your books?”

Ka‘b said, “In my opinion, ‘Alī is not suitable for his job because he is a strictly religious man. He does not overlook any mistake, does not act to his Idjtihād and this way, he cannot control his subjects. But, what we find in our books is that the government does not fall to him or his sons.”

‘Umar said, “Then, who gets the rule?”

Ka‘b al-Ahbār said, “We find it so that after the believer in Sharī‘a and two of his companions, the government will reach those people with whom the Prophet (s) has fought over the principle of religion,[78] that is the Umayya.” Also in another occasion, someone from the people of the book came to ‘Umar and said, “ Oh, King of Arab, greetings upon you.”

‘Umar asked, “Has such a thing been mentioned in your books? Has it not been said that the “Prophet” comes, then the “caliph” and then “Amīr al-Mu’minīn”?”

He said, “Yes.”[79] This quotation is evidently a mere lie. At the time of ‘Uthmān, Ka‘b al-Ahbār responded to someone who had said in a poem that after ‘Uthmān, ‘Alī would come to power.

He said, “You are lying. The caliphate will go to Mu‘āwiya.”[80]

According to historians, Ka‘b deviated from Imām ‘Alī (a) and Imām, too, introduced him as a “Liar.”[81] Ka‘b said he had read the news of the cities’ conquests in the Torah and that these conquests would take place at the hands of a righteous man.[82]

‘Umar’s familiarity with the people of the book, especially his friendship with Ka‘b, caused him to sometimes say something or take an action by relying on what the people of the book said.

One of the companions says, “Prophet Muhammad (s) had said the afternoon prayers. After that, a man stood up to say prayers. ‘Umar grasped him by his clothes and said, “Sit down.” The people of the book were lost because there was no rest between their prayers.”[83] Also, the caliph’s important decision in preventing the Prophet’s hadiths from being written down was made under the influence of the people of the book.[84]

Zuhrī quotes ‘Urwa Ibn Zubayr as saying, “‘Umar decided to write down the hadiths and Sunna of the Prophet (s). He consulted the companions in this regard. They all agreed. ‘Umar thought about the decision for a month and then said, “I have thought about it. I saw that before you, the people of the book had written books on the book of God and relied on them. As a result, they abandoned the book of God. But, I will not cover the book of God with anything else.”[85]

Another quotation says ‘Umar gathered what others had written and set them all on fire and said,أمنية كأمنية أهل الكتاب He aspires as people of the Book do.[86] And in another quotation, مثناة كمثناة أهل الكتاب his deviation resembles that of people’s of the Book. [87]

At any rate, despite the Prophet’s clear ban on reading the works of the people of the book – obvious example of which was addressed to ‘Umar, himself[88] – unfortunately some people freely spread these ideas. It is interesting that besides spreading these thoughts, the writing and narration of the hadiths was prevented.[89] In order to complete this plan one side of which was the permission for spreading Jewish thoughts and the other one was blocking the narration of the hadith, a hadith was narrated, or in better words, was fabricated which quoted Prophet Muhammad as saying, “Do not write any of my words and instead, narrate anything you want from the people of Israel.”[90] This is while people such as Ibn ‘Abbās and Ibn Mas‘ūd openly voiced concern over the accessibility of the works of the people of the book for Muslims and rejected them.[91]

One of the phenomena which was created in this period and whose origin should be considered as a consequence of the spread of the Israelite, was story telling. Certain people known as “Qās”, the story- tellers quoted the historical-religious stories of Jews and used them as the interpretation of the historical verses of the Qur’ān. Their main source for these stories was the Torah and the verbal quotations common among Jewish and Christian scribes. These people made speeches for the people before and after the public prayers. This phenomenon did not exist at the time of the Prophet (s) and Abū Bakr, but became common at the time of the second caliph, with his permission and continued later on. The phenomenon of story-telling raised positive and negative reactions among the companions (Sahāba) and the followers (Tābi‘īn) which we have elaborated on in a special book.[92] What is concerned here is that for the first time, Tamīm al-Dārī began story- telling with the permission of the second caliph.[93] ‘Umar allowed him to preach through story-telling before the Friday prayers sermons. Later, ‘Uthmān allowed him to do so twice a week.[94] Tamīm al-Dārī was a Christian-turned-Muslim and many stories have been narrated about his virtue. This became the basis of a kind of Christian-style piety later greatly spread in the Islamic society.

Examples of these pious people who constantly quoted news from Jews and Christian monks, are abundant in the book of “Hilīyat al-Awlīya” by Abū Na‘īm Isfahānī. It has been said that Tamīm al-Dārī had learnt his stories in the synagogues of Damascus and from the preachers of that land.[95] Also, another person named ‘Ubayd Ibn ‘Umayr was permitted to tell stories at the time of ‘Umar.[96] We will see later that Imām ‘Alī (a) was seriously opposed to story-telling.

[1] al-Ibāna ‘An sharī‘a al-firqa al-nādjiya, vol.I, p.415; ‘Aqīda al-salaf Ashāb al-hadīth, Abū ‘Uthmān Ismā‘īl Ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmān al-Sābūnī, pp.67-68
[2] Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.IV, p.225; Ibn Abi l-Hadīd, Sharh nahdj al-balāgha, vol.XII, pp.121-122; al-Fā’iq fī gharīb al-hadīth, vol.I, pp.433-434(above translation in brief)
[3] Ibn Abi l-Hadīd presents a worse justification, vol.XII, p.124
[4] Muqaddamihyī bar tārīkh tadwīn hadīth (An Introduction to History of Compiling Hadith) by the author of the same context
[5] Mīnawī, Translation of Kilīlih wa Dimnih, p.4
[6] al-Tarātīb al-idāriyya, vol.I, p.228; al-Īdāh, p.97
[7] al-Ghadīr, vol.VI, pp.83-85 from, Sunan Abū Dāwūd, vol.I, p.53; Sunan Ibn Mādja, vol.I, p.200; Musnad Ahmad, vol.IV, p.265; Sunan Nasā’ī, vol.I, pp.59 and 61; Sunan Biyhaqī, voil.I, p.209 and other sources
[8] Futūh Misr wa Akhbāruhā, p.249
[9] Musnad Ahmad, vol.I, pp.190 and 195
[10] al-Ghadīr, vol.VIU, pp.178-180 from, Musnad Ahmad, vol.I, p.314; Sahīh Mulsim, vol.I, p.574; Sunan Biyhaqī, ol.VII, P.336; Mustadrak Hākim, vol.II, p.196; Tafsīr Qurubī, vol.III, p.130; Irshād al-sārī, vol.VIII, p.127; Durr al-manthūr, vol.I, p.279 and other sources
[11] al-Muwatta’, ol.II, p.12
[12] See the sources in works of the Sunnites in, al-Ghadīr, vol.VI, pp.198-213 and more, Tārīkh al-madīnat al-munawwara, vol.I, pp.716-720
[13] Imām Sadjdjād(a) said,, “Due to people remaining strong in Djihād, ‘Umar removed the sentence, حي علي خيرالعمل “Haste for good deed” From Azān; Kitāb al-‘ulūm, vol.I, p.92
[14] al-Sīrat al-halabiyya, vol.II, p.110
[15] Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.III, p.281
[16] Ibn Abi l-Hadīd, Sharh nahdj al-balāgha, vol.I, p.181
[17] ²ahr al-islām,vol.IV, p.38
[18] Tārīkh al-‘arab wa l-islām, p.88
[19] Djāmi‘ al-bayān al-‘ilm wa Fadla, vol.II, pp.79-72
[20] ‘Umar said this on Yawm al-khamīs event when the Prophet asked for pen and paper to write something to prevent people from going astray after he is dead.
About the sources, ‘Alī-Bukhārī, Kitāb al-‘Ulūm, Bāb Kitāb al-‘Ulūm; Kitāb al-Djihād, Bāb Hal yastashfa‘ Ilā ahl al-dhamma wa bāb Ikhrādj al-yahūd min djazīra al-‘arab; Kitāb hglaghāzī; Bāb marad al-Nabī; Kitāb al-mardā, Bāb qawl al-marīd: Qūmū ‘Annī, kitāb hg-I‘tisām, Bāb kirāhiyya al-khalāf, al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.V, p.438 and 439; Musnad Ahmad, vol.I, p.336; Dalā’il al-nubuwwa, vol.VII,p.183; Djāmi‘ al-bayān al-‘ilm, vol.I, p.77; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, vol.X,p.292, hadith, 29475; for more sources, Tadwīn al-sunna al-sharīfa, Fihrist Mustalahāt, under, Hasbunā kitāb Allāh
[21] Sharh nahdj al-balāgha, Ibn Abi l-Hadīd, vol.XII, pp.82-90
[22] Tārīkh al-ya‘qūbī, vol.II, p.150; Murūdj al-dhahab, vol.II, p.305; al-Futūh, vol.I, p.157
[23] Tārīkh al-ya‘qūbī, vol.II, p.153
[24] Tarātīb al-idāriyya, vol.I, p.227. Some believe the Prophet has initiated preparing administrative tribunal. Ibid. p.228. Some others consider ‘Umar’s policy in preparing it affected by monarchy system
Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.IV, p.209. Some people regard it to be influenced by the Sassanid government; al-Fakhrī, p.38
[25] Kattānī writes in defining administrative tribunal, دفتر يكتب فيه أسماء اهل العطاء والعساكر على القبائل والبطون He had an account book in which he registered names of those who deserve to be gifted according to tribes. Tarātīb al-idāriyya, vol.I, p.225
[26] Tārīkh al-ya‘qūbī, vol.II, p.153
[27] Tarātīb al-idāriyya, vol. I, p.226
[28] Hayāt al-sahāba, vol.II, p.222
[29] Ahsan al-taqāsīm, p.18
[30] Tārīkh al-ya‘qūbī, vol.II, p.154
[31] al-Muqaddama, Chapter of the ‘Ilm al-tafsīr
[32] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.VI, p.111
[33] Ibid. vol.XI, p.111; Lisān al-mīzān, vol.II, p.408; Nathr al-durr, vol.I, p.207; Gharīb al-hadīth, vol.IV, pp.48-49; Sunan al-Dārimī, vol.I, p.116; al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.VI, pp.112-113; Madjma‘ al-zawā’id, vol.I, pp.172-173; Taqyīd al-‘ilm, p.52(in the footnote), Djāmi‘ al-bayān al-‘ilm, vol.II, p.42; Usd al-ghāba, vol.IU, p.235; vol.III, p.126; Zamm al-Kalām, p.64
[34] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.VI, p.113
[35] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.VI, p.114; vol.XI, p.110
[36] Tārīkh al-madīnat al-munawwara, vol.I, p.66; al-Muntakhab Min Dhiyl al-mudhayyal, p.504, It is quoted from Ka‘b al-Ahbār sayting to Mu‘āwiya, “‘Umar al-Fārūq ” is titled in Torah.
Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.XXI, P.186
[37] ِAbout his life, Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.VII, pp.446-447; Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol.XXIV, p.193; Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.VI, p.45; Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.XXI, pp.181-182; Siyar ’A‘lām al-nubalā’, vol.III, p.489
[38] Adwā’ ‘ala l-sunna al-muhammadiyya, p.148, footnoteIII
[39] More than others, Abū Na‘īm Isfahānī has quoted one hundred pages from him under his biography section in Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.V and VI
[40] In recent times, Mahmūd Abūriyya more than any other researcher has talked about negative role of Ka‘b al-Ahbār and the like on outbreak of the Israelites. Adwā’ ‘ala l-sunna al-muhammadiyya, pp.145-194
[41] Siyar ’A‘lām al-nubalā’, vol.II, p.490
[42] al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol.II, p.123
[43] al-Futūh, vol.IV, pp.326-328; Bihār al-anwār, vol.XXXXV, p.315
[44] Adwā’ ‘ala l-sunna al-muhammadiyya, p.148; quoted from Tārīkh al-tabarī, Biyhaqī as well as al-Istī‘āb, vol.II, p.533; al-islām wa l-Hidāra al-‘arabiyya, p.164
[45] Ansāb al-ashrāf, al-djuz’ al-thālith, p.7
[46] Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.VI, p.44 vol.V, p.365
[47] al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.III, p.26
[48] Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.VI, p.23; al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.XI, p.251
[49] Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.IV, pp.59-60
[50] Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.V, p.391
[51] Tārīkh makka, vol.I, p.40
[52] Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.V, pp.391, 381 and 371; Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.XXI, p.185
[53] Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.XXI, p.181; Ma‘rifat al-sahāba, vol.I, p.233
[54] Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.II, p.262
[55] Siyar ’A‘lām al-nubalā’, vol.III, pp.393-394 quoted from Tārīkh Ibn Abi l-Khaythama
[56] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.VI, pp.110 and 112
[57] Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.V, p.390
[58] Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.I, p.44; Al_Mahāsin wa l-masāwī, vol.,I, p.123
[59] Mu‘djam al-buldān, vol.,I, p.48; al-Munta¨am, vol.VIII, P.70
[60] Bahdjat al-madjālis, vol.I, p.48; Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.XXI, p.185; al-Djawhar al-nafīs fī siyāsa al-ri’īs, p.114
[61] Bahdjat al-madjālis, vol.I, p.159
[62] Bahdjat al-madjālis, ol.I, p.368; Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.V, p.389; Tārīkh al-khulafā’, p.125
Ka‘b’s policy was that when ‘Umar or Abū Hurayra or others spoke against his taste, he said, “The very word is cited in the Torah. He said about Abū Hurayra, “I have never seen anyone like Abū Hurayra who has not read the Torah but his words accord with it this much.
´Adwā’ ‘ala l-sunna al-muhammadiyya, p.207 from Tadkira al-huffā¨
[63] Maqāmāt al-‘Ulamā’ bayn yaday al-khulafā’ wa l-’Umarā’, p.163
[64] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.XI, p.251
Ka‘b praised Damascus very much in front of Medina and Mecca. This is somewhat religiously and Jewishly rooted and is of a political motive to some extent for strengthening Mu‘āwiya. They may have been later fabricated by the Umayya.
[65] Nisā’, p.56
[66] Hilyat al-awliyā’, vol.V, p.375
[67] al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol.VII, p.59
[68] al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya vol.VIII, p.110, Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.XXI, p.187
Abūriyya has said accordingly, “‘Umar initially paid attention to his speech but later he found his weakness. ‘Adwā’, p.152-153. As mentioned in the context, there are plenty of examples showing ‘Umar’s giving him freedom of speech.
[69] Tārīkh al-madīnat al-munawwara, vol.,III, p.1081
[70] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.,VI, p.114
[71] Gharīb al-hadīth, vol.IV, p.262; al-Fā’iq fī Gharīb al-hadīth, vol.I, p.651, إن كنت تعلم أن فيه التوراة الّتي أنزلها الله على موسى عليه السلام بطور سيناء فاقرأها آناء الليل والنهار
[72] Hilyat al-awliyā’, vol.VI, p.7
[73] Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.III, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol.VII, pp.57 and 650, al-Manār al-munīf, pp.89-90; ‘Adwā’, pp.166-167. Once Ibn ‘Abbās hearing Ka‘b speak, اما تركت اليهودية؟ Al-Kāf al-shāf, p.139 quoted from, ‘Adwā’, p.165
[74] Ma‘rifat al-sahāba, vol.I, p.205(in its footnote); al-Mu‘djam al-kabīr, vol.I, p.20; Madjma‘ al-zawā’id, vol.IX, p.61; Tabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.III, p.336
[75] Ma‘rifat al-sahāba, vol.I, p.213
[76] Tārīkh al-madīnat al-munawwara, vol.III, p.1078-1079; Tārīkh al-khulafā’, p.121
Someone who forged the news had a moderate belief towards ‘Uthmān and ‘Alī (a). In a similar quotation we read, ‘Umar sent for Ka‘b al-Ahbār and he was asked, “How do find my attributes in Torah?”
Hilyat al-awlīyā’, vol.VI, pp.25-26
[77] Tārīkh al-madīnat al-munawwara, vol.III, pp.1079-1080
[78] Sharh nahdj al-balāgha, Ibn Abi l-Hadīd, vol.XII, pp.80-81; elsewhere it is quoted that the Jews came to ‘Umar and said, “A verse has been called to you, if it were called to us, we would celebrate the day of call. The verse reads, اليَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ… I complemented your religion.
‘Umar said, “Yes, I do remember that thr verse was sent on the day of “‘Arafa”(9th of Dhī Hadjdja) to the Prophet!!
al-Qand fī tārikh Samarqand, pp.434-435
[79] al-Musannaf, Ibn Abī Shayba, vol.VII, p.529
[80] Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.XXV, pp.24-25; Tārīkh al-tabarī, vol.IV., p.434; al-Nizā‘ wa l-takhāsum, p.78; Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.IV, p.495, No.1278; al-Bad’ wa l-tārīkh, vol.V, p.208; al-Kāmil wa l-tārīkh, vol.III, p.123
[81] Sharh nahdj al-balāgha, Ibn Abi l-Hadīd, vol.I, p.77
[82] al-Futūh, vol.I, p.228
[83] Usd al-ghāba, vcol.V, p.199
[84] Buhūth ma‘a ahl al-sunna wa l-salafiyya, p.97; al-Sahīh Min Sīra al-Nabī ’A‘¨am (s), vol.I, p.27
[85] Taqyīd al-‘ilm, p.50(in its footnote); Djāmi‘ al-bayān al-‘ilm, vol.I, p.64; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, vol.V, p.239; Dham al-kalām, p.63; in another manner in, Taqyīd al-‘ilm, p.51; Tadkira al-huffā¨, vol.I, p.5; Kanz al-‘Ummāl, vol.I, p.174
[86] Taqyīd al-‘ilm, p.52
[87] Harawī says, “ One of the people of the book was asked about the meaning of “Mathnāt”. He said, “The Jewish scribes made up a book, after Moses, and called it “Mathnāt”.
Gharīb al-hadīth, vol.IV, p.282
[88] Gharīb al-hadīth, vol.IV, pp.48-49; vol.III, pp.28-29
[89] Abū Hurayra says, “As long as ‘Umar lived, we never dared say, قال رسول الله The Prophet(s) said, al-Bidāya wa’l-nihāya, vol.VIII, p.110
[90] Taqyīd al-‘ilm, p.31 لا تكتبوا عني شيئاً الا القرآن… وحدثوا عن بني اسرائيل ولا حرج Quote me just about Quran and unworriedly speak about Banū Isrā‘īl
[91] Gharīb al-hadīth, vol.IV, p.48; ‘Abd al-Razzāq, al-Musannaf, vol.VI, pp.110,112
[92] Pazhūhishī darbāriyi naqshih dīnī wa Idjtimā‘ī qissI khānān dar tārīkh Islam, Qum, 1991
[93] Musnad Ahmad, vol.III, p.449; al-Qussās wa l-mudhakkirīn, p.22; Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.V, p.321; Tārīkh al-madīnat al-munawwara, vol.I, p.186
[94] al-Musannaf, ‘Abd al-Razzāq, vol.III, p.219; Tārīkh al-madīnat al-munawwara, vol.I, p.11; al-Khitat al-maqrīziyya, vol.II, p.253; Mukhtasar Tārīkh Dimashq, vol.V, p.321
[95] al-Mufassal fī tārīkh al-‘arab qabl al-islām, vol.VIII, p.378
[96] al-Qussās wa l-mudhakkirīn, p.22

 

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