بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

الر ۚ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْحَكِيمِ {1}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:1]

See the commentary of al Baqarah: 1 for Alif Lam Ra-huruf muqatta-at. For the “book of wisdom” see commentary of al kitab in al-Baqarah: 2; and Aqa Mahdi Puya’s essay “The genuineness of the holy Quran.”

أَكَانَ لِلنَّاسِ عَجَبًا أَنْ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ أَنْذِرِ النَّاسَ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنَّ لَهُمْ قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ۗ قَالَ الْكَافِرُونَ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسَاحِرٌ مُبِينٌ {2}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:2]

Rajul (man) refers to the Holy Prophet- neither a god-incarnate, nor a demi-god. The pagans of Arabia, like the pagans elsewhere, had no conception of prophethood and revelation at all. They would understand incarnation (God becoming man) or believe in any heavenly agency (angels), but it was beyond their comprehension that a human being like them could be the messenger of Allah. They misjudged the fact of messengership by attributing it to magic and sorcery.

“Those who believe” refers to Ali, Khadijah and Abu Talib who were the first and the foremost believers in Allah and in the divine mission of the Holy Prophet. Refer to the commentary of al Bara-at: 100 and 113. The Quran does not praise or condemn any individual by mentioning his or her name, but refers to the praiseworthy merits or condemnable evils so that any such verse may be applied to any person according to the degree of merit or evil described therein, in order that every one should try to own goodness and avoid evil.

Ibn Marduwayh reports on the authority of Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari that this verse was revealed as a special reference to Ali ibn abi Talib. Also refer to Tafsir Burhan vol. 2, p. 177 and Tafsir Qartabi vol. 5, p. 3145.

Qadama sidq (a firm footing), which also implies “great grace”, refers to the authority of intercession the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt possess, given to them by Allah, to obtain forgiveness from Allah for the believers. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 48.

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ ۖ مَا مِنْ شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ إِذْنِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ {3}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:3]

Refer to the commentary of al Araf: 54.

Again it is mentioned in this verse that with His permission intercession is allowed. Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 48. The duration of a day (yawm) can be a moment or fifty thousand years. See al Ma-arij: 4.

Thumma, used in all such verses where creation has been mentioned along with total omnipotent control, refers only to function, not to time.

إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ إِنَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَهُمْ شَرَابٌ مِنْ حَمِيمٍ وَعَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ {4}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:4]

Haqq-the promise of Allah is sure, certain, true, right, for just ends, in right proportions-all these ideas are implied. Allah’s creation is continuous, there are many stages, the most important of which is the hereafter.

The sun, the moon and all other heavenly bodies are created beings, created to serve man, therefore he should not bow to them as gods-they have been created to demonstrate the truth of the divine unity. The boiling fluid is a symbol of the grievous penalty that results from rebellion against Allah.

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ نُورًا وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ ۚ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ ذَٰلِكَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ {5}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:5] (see commentary for verse 4)

إِنَّ فِي اخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَّقُونَ {6}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:6]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 164 and An-am: 1.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا وَرَضُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَاطْمَأَنُّوا بِهَا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا غَافِلُونَ {7}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:7]

Liqa-ana (meeting with Us) does not mean seeing Allah; it refers to the ultimate return to Allah for the final accountability.

أُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ {8}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:8]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ يَهْدِيهِمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِإِيمَانِهِمْ ۖ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهِمُ الْأَنْهَارُ فِي جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ {9}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:9]

The joy of the believers in paradise is in the glory of Allah. The greetings they give and the greetings they receive are of peace and harmony, in a continuous state of bliss.

دَعْوَاهُمْ فِيهَا سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَتَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلَامٌ ۚ وَآخِرُ دَعْوَاهُمْ أَنِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {10}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:10]

وَلَوْ يُعَجِّلُ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ الشَّرَّ اسْتِعْجَالَهُمْ بِالْخَيْرِ لَقُضِيَ إِلَيْهِمْ أَجَلُهُمْ ۖ فَنَذَرُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ{11}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:11]

Refer to the commentary of verse 7 of this surah; also refer to the commentary of al Baqarah : 15 (8 to 20).

وَإِذَا مَسَّ الْإِنْسَانَ الضُّرُّ دَعَانَا لِجَنْبِهِ أَوْ قَاعِدًا أَوْ قَائِمًا فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُ ضُرَّهُ مَرَّ كَأَنْ لَمْ يَدْعُنَا إِلَىٰ ضُرٍّ مَسَّهُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلْمُسْرِفِينَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {12}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:12]

وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَمَّا ظَلَمُوا ۙ وَجَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَمَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْقَوْمَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ {13}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:13]

ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ لِنَنْظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ {14}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:14]

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِنْ تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ {15}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:15]

For “meeting with Us” refer to the commentary of verse 7 of this surah.

Some notable idolworshippers like Abdullah bin Ubayy, Walid bin Mughirah, Amr bin Abdullah and As bin Amir asked the Holy Prophet to bring another Quran which did not so vehemently and uncompromisingly denounce the idols and idol worship, or to make some changes therein, by way of compromise, to suit their taste. The Holy Prophet never said anything of his own will. Whatever he said was revelation revealed. See An Najm: 3 and 4. So there was no possibility of accommodating the wild wishes of the idolaters. He could not, on his own authority, effect any change in the verses of the Quran. Prophet Isa had also mentioned this unique and exclusive quality of the Holy Prophet:

“When he comes who is the spirit of truth, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but will tell only what he hears.” (John 16: 13)

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

In many verses the Quran asserts that the Holy Prophet does not do anything or say any word on his own authority but he follows that which is revealed to him. All his sayings are also revelation, though not the part of the Quran, as made clear in verse 101 to 103 of al Nahl, but equally decisive and binding.

قُلْ لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا تَلَوْتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَا أَدْرَاكُمْ بِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ لَبِثْتُ فِيكُمْ عُمُرًا مِنْ قَبْلِهِ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ {16}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:16]

The Holy Prophet had lived his whole life of purity and virtue amongst his people, and they knew and acknowledged it before he declared his divine mission. His fair character and honourable bearing won the approbation of the fellow citizens; and he received the title, by common consent, of al-amin (the trusted) and al-sadiq (the truthful). The Holy Prophet’s truthfulness was a byword in Makka. Then under Allah’s command he preached the unity of Allah and denounced idolatry.

فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ {17}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:17]

وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَٰؤُلَاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۚ قُلْ أَتُنَبِّئُونَ اللَّهَ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ {18}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:18]

To pretend that there are other powers than Allah is to invent lies. The idolaters shut their eyes to the goodness and glory of Allah, and go after false gods, and say by way of excuse that their (false) gods will intercede for them and save them from eternal punishment on the day of judgment. Even the noblest cannot intercede as a right, but only with His permission. See commentary of al Baqarah: 48.

وَمَا كَانَ النَّاسُ إِلَّا أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَاخْتَلَفُوا ۚ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةٌ سَبَقَتْ مِنْ رَبِّكَ لَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ فِيمَا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ {19}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:19]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah; 213.

In His universal plan Allah has deferred the final judgment till the day of resurrection, otherwise the idolaters would have been punished at once.

وَيَقُولُونَ لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۖ فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا الْغَيْبُ لِلَّهِ فَانْتَظِرُوا إِنِّي مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الْمُنْتَظِرِينَ {20}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:20]

وَإِذَا أَذَقْنَا النَّاسَ رَحْمَةً مِنْ بَعْدِ ضَرَّاءَ مَسَّتْهُمْ إِذَا لَهُمْ مَكْرٌ فِي آيَاتِنَا ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ أَسْرَعُ مَكْرًا ۚ إِنَّ رُسُلَنَا يَكْتُبُونَ مَا تَمْكُرُونَ{21}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:21]

This verse is of a general application, but it also refers to a particular event. The unruly people of Makka were afflicted with a severe famine, but, no sooner were they relieved by the mercy of Allah on the petitioning of the Holy Prophet, they again began to charge him with imposture. Rusulana refers to the recording angels.

هُوَ الَّذِي يُسَيِّرُكُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا كُنْتُمْ فِي الْفُلْكِ وَجَرَيْنَ بِهِمْ بِرِيحٍ طَيِّبَةٍ وَفَرِحُوا بِهَا جَاءَتْهَا رِيحٌ عَاصِفٌ وَجَاءَهُمُ الْمَوْجُ مِنْ كُلِّ مَكَانٍ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ أُحِيطَ بِهِمْ ۙ دَعَوُا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ لَئِنْ أَنْجَيْتَنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ {22}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:22]

Refer to the commentary of al An-am: 63 and 64.

Allah has freely given intelligence, power of observation and contemplation to man, out of His grace, on which the disbelievers pride themselves and remain petty and boastful, as is illustrated by the parable from the sea. In their insolence and pride they do not see how small and ephemeral is that which is mortal. By their pretensions they only hurt themselves. Verse 25 says that in contrast with the mortal life of this world, there is a higher life to which Allah is always calling. There is no fear, nor disappointment, nor sorrow there. All are called but only those will be chosen who have sought, not material advantages, but the good pleasure of Allah.

Salam (peace) is from the same root as Islam, the religion of unity, harmony and bliss. Salam is also one of the holy names Allah is addressed with. To become a Muslim means to live in peace with the Creator-Lord by submitting to His will and to be in peace with His creation, particularly mankind. The peace of this world leads to the peace or bliss of the hereafter. Refer to the commentary of al Fatihah: 6 and 7 for the “right path.”

فَلَمَّا أَنْجَاهُمْ إِذَا هُمْ يَبْغُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ۗ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا بَغْيُكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِكُمْ ۖ مَتَاعَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَنُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ {23}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:23] (see commentary for verse 22)

إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ مِمَّا يَأْكُلُ النَّاسُ وَالْأَنْعَامُ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَخَذَتِ الْأَرْضُ زُخْرُفَهَا وَازَّيَّنَتْ وَظَنَّ أَهْلُهَا أَنَّهُمْ قَادِرُونَ عَلَيْهَا أَتَاهَا أَمْرُنَا لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهَارًا فَجَعَلْنَاهَا حَصِيدًا كَأَنْ لَمْ تَغْنَ بِالْأَمْسِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ {24}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:24] (see commentary for verse 22)

وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَىٰ دَارِ السَّلَامِ وَيَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ {25}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:25] (see commentary for verse 22)

لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ ۖ وَلَا يَرْهَقُ وُجُوهَهُمْ قَتَرٌ وَلَا ذِلَّةٌ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ {26}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:26]

The reward of the righteous will be far more than in proportion to their merits. While the blessed will be rewarded beyond their merits, the condemned, who earn evil (bring it on themselves by the deliberate choice of evil), will receive their punishment only with exact justice.

Night is the negation of light (bliss).

Refer to the commentary of al An-am: 22 to 24.

وَالَّذِينَ كَسَبُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ جَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ بِمِثْلِهَا وَتَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ ۖ مَا لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ عَاصِمٍ ۖ كَأَنَّمَا أُغْشِيَتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ قِطَعًا مِنَ اللَّيْلِ مُظْلِمًا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ {27}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:27] (see commentary for verse 26)

وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا مَكَانَكُمْ أَنْتُمْ وَشُرَكَاؤُكُمْ ۚ فَزَيَّلْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ وَقَالَ شُرَكَاؤُهُمْ مَا كُنْتُمْ إِيَّانَا تَعْبُدُونَ {28}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:28] (see commentary for verse 26)

فَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ إِنْ كُنَّا عَنْ عِبَادَتِكُمْ لَغَافِلِينَ {29}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:29] (see commentary for verse 26)

هُنَالِكَ تَبْلُو كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا أَسْلَفَتْ ۚ وَرُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ {30}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:30] (see commentary for verse 26)

قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ ۚ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللَّهُ ۚ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ {31}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:31]

Refer to the commentary of Ali Imran: 27; An-am: 96 for “bringing forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living.” It also implies that Allah brings whomsoever He wills out of the darkness (ignorance) into the light (wisdom) and takes whomsoever He wills out of the light into the darkness-see commentary of al Baqarah: 257.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

The Quran draws the attention of mankind to the following:

(1) The co-ordination of the forces of the heavens and the earth in the production of provisions for sustenance of life on the earth.

(2) Matter is subservient to mind. It is the mind which controls and employs the matter. The possessor of a finite mind cannot be universal and infinite.

(3) Neither life nor death is a necessary property of matter because it is an effect, not a cause, though it is controlled by life and death. The cause of life is life; and absence of life is death.

(4) The order found in the operation of the universe cannot be an outcome of disorder. It is the wisdom which regulates it. Therefore the answer to every question is Allah.

فَذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُصْرَفُونَ {32}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:32]

The wisdom of Allah demonstrated in the working of the universe is the real truth as against the false worship and false gods that the disbelieving men and women set up.

كَذَٰلِكَ حَقَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ فَسَقُوا أَنَّهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {33}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:33]

قُلْ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ {34}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:34]

The false gods can neither create out of nothing nor sustain the creative energy which maintains the universe.

قُلْ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ يَهْدِي لِلْحَقِّ ۗ أَفَمَنْ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُتَّبَعَ أَمَّنْ لَا يَهِدِّي إِلَّا أَنْ يُهْدَىٰ ۖ فَمَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ {35}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:35]

The questions asked in this verse contain the following answers:

Only those, guided by the divine guidance bestowed on them, and are not therefore in need of any guidance whatsoever from any agency other than Allah, are the true guides who should be followed. As stated in Aqa Mahdi Puya’s note in the commentary, of al Baqarah: 78 the Holy Prophet is the perfect example of such a guide. In view of the Holy Prophet’s saying: “I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate”, Ali enjoys the same status. The source of his unique wisdom (glimpses of which are found in the Nahj al Balagha) was either the divine endowment or his constant companionship with the Holy Prophet. Likewise every one of the holy Imams from among the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet was a guide for mankind. Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir said that the guides referred to in this verse are the twelve holy Imams from among the Ahl ul Bayt of the Holy Prophet, whom Allah has thoroughly purified (Ahzab: 33). All other claimants are impostors.

Allah has made available to mankind the guidance and the guides. There is no compulsion in the matter of faith as has been made clear in verse 3 of Ad Dahr:

“Verily we have shown him the (right) path that he may either be grateful (accept it) or ungrateful (reject it).”

If guided by this verse, the Muslims can never accept the immah or wilayah of any other than Ali ibn abi Talib, as the true successor of the Holy Prophet.

Jalal al Din al Suyuti, in Tarikh al Khulafa, says:

(1) Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: “There has not come down to us regarding the merits of anyone of the companions of the Holy Prophet what has been transmitted concerning Ali.”

(2) Ibn Asakir from Ibn Abbas says: “There has not been revealed in the book of Allah, the Quran, regarding any one what has been revealed concerning Ali and that 300 verses have been revealed concerning Ali.”

(3) Tabarani and Ibn Abi Hatim relate from Ibn Abbas that he said: “Allah never revealed the words ‘O True believers’ but Ali was understood to be the lord and chief of them, and verily Allah has reproved the various people but has never mentioned Ali save with approval.”

(4) Tirmidhi, Nisa-i and Ibn Maja relate from Habshi Bin Junada that the Holy Prophet said: “Ali is part of me and I am part of Ali.”

(5) Tabarani relates in Awsat that Ummi Salmah narrated: ‘I heard the Holy Prophet say: “Ali is with Quran and Quran is with Ali, they shall not be separated until they arrive at the fountain of Kawthar in paradise.”

(6) Tabarani relates in Awsat from Jabir bin Abdullah that the Holy Prophet said, “The people are of various stocks but I and Ali are of one stock.”

(7) Ibn Sad records on the authority of Ali that he said: “By Allah a verse of the Quran was never revealed but I know for what it was revealed, where it was revealed, and for whom it was revealed, because my Lord has given unto me a wise heart and an eloquent tongue.”

(8) Ibn Sad and others relate on the authority of Abu Tufayl that Ali said: “Ask me regarding the book of Allah, for verily there is not a verse but I know whether it was revealed by night or by day, in the plains or on the mountains.”

(9) Tirmidhi and Al-Hakim relate from Ali that the Holy Prophet said: “I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.”

(10) Tabarani relates from Ummi Salmah that the Holy Prophet said: “He who loves Ali verily loves me, and he who hates Ali verily hates me, and he who hates me, verily hates Allah.”

(11) Abu Yula and Al-Bazzaz relate from Sad bin Abi Waqqas that the Holy Prophet said: “He who grieves Ali, grieves me.”

(12) Ahmad relates and Al-Hakim confirms it on the authority of Ummi Salmah, who narrated: “I heard the Holy Prophet say: ‘verily he who reviles Ali, reviles me.’

(13) Sad Ibn Al-Musayyib says that Umar bin Khattab used to pray to Allah to save him from a perplexing case for which Abul Hasan (Ali) was not present to decide, and that Umar said: “None of the companions used to throw the challenge “Ask me” except Ali.”

(14) Tabarani says in the Awsat that Ibn Abbas said: “Ali possessed 18 eminent qualities which belonged to no other of the people.”

( 15) The two Shaykhs (Bukhari and Muslim) relate on the authority of Sad bin Abi Waqqas that the Holy Prophet left Ali bin Abi Talib behind him as his vicegerent during the expedition to Tabuk, and Ali said: “O Prophet of Allah, do you leave me behind, among the women and children?” He replied: “Are you not content to be to me in the relation of Harun to Musa save that there shall be no prophet after me?”

Please refer to the commentary of al Ma-idah: 67 to know about the open and clear declaration of the imamah and wilayah of Ali ibn abu Talib by the Holy Prophet under the command of Allah, after which there remains no excuse to accept and follow any other guide after the Holy Prophet.

All men have to obey Allah alone, but Allah has not created all men as believers. Most of them are beguiled by Shaytan. Verse 2 of Ankabut clearly says that whosoever professes belief shall be tried and tested. Verse 2 of al Mulk says that Allah created life and death in order to try and test mankind to see who of them are best by way of deeds. So the divine plan is to make available guidance and guides to mankind in the life of this world and give them freedom of choice in order to test and try the true mettle of each and every individual. It is every person’s own responsibility to find out the true guidance and guides by making use of his or her knowledge, observation and intelligence, because there is no compulsion in religion (Baqarah: 256). Those who hold fast to the rope of Allah (the thoroughly purified Ahl ul Bayt) make a correct judgment and follow the right path (see commentary of Ali Imran: 103).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Allah invites man to accept His creative authority. As soon as man does so he has to follow and obey His legislative authority which implies obedience to His messenger, and in his absence, to the divinely appointed Imam (refer to the commentary of al Ma-idah: 55), and to the institution of “ijtihad and taqlid’ based upon the teachings of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. In her address to the then ruling authority, Bibi Fatimah had pointed out and established the necessity of prophethood and imamaton the basis of this verse (refer to the Biography of Bibi Fatimah, published by this Trust). The authority to administer the affairs of mankind should be vested in a person who is divinely endowed to guide people to the truth, and not in a person who cannot distinguish between right and wrong or between good and evil (see commentary of Ali Imran: 101 to 115-Aqa Puya’s note).

Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq had rejected the theory of Mutazilites (that khilafah should be elected by adult franchise) by quoting the Holy Prophet (who said):

“Whoever draws the sword and calls people to obey him while there is a more learned man among the Muslims than he, is a straying impostor.”

This verse and verse 24 of Zukhruf prove that one should always follow the guidance of the best and the most learned authority-the basis of the doctrine of “ijtihad and taqlid”.

وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ إِلَّا ظَنًّا ۚ إِنَّ الظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ {36}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:36]

This verse refers to those who, being unmindful of the preceding verse, rely upon their own conjecture and try to distort the truth and upset the divine plan of guidance.

وَمَا كَانَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ أَنْ يُفْتَرَىٰ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنْ تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ {37}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:37]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 2 and Aqa Mahdi Puya’s essay “The genuineness of the holy Quran.”

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ ۖ قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ {38}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:38]

Refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 23.

بَلْ كَذَّبُوا بِمَا لَمْ يُحِيطُوا بِعِلْمِهِ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِهِمْ تَأْوِيلُهُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الظَّالِمِينَ{39}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:39]

The materialist disbelievers cannot comprehend the meaningfulness of the divine revelations.

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ ۚ وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُفْسِدِينَ {40}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:40]

وَإِنْ كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُلْ لِي عَمَلِي وَلَكُمْ عَمَلُكُمْ ۖ أَنْتُمْ بَرِيئُونَ مِمَّا أَعْمَلُ وَأَنَا بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ {41}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:41]

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَسْتَمِعُونَ إِلَيْكَ ۚ أَفَأَنْتَ تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ وَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يَعْقِلُونَ {42}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:42]

وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْكَ ۚ أَفَأَنْتَ تَهْدِي الْعُمْيَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يُبْصِرُونَ {43}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:43]

Refer to the commentary of An-am: 25.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ النَّاسَ شَيْئًا وَلَٰكِنَّ النَّاسَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ {44}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:44]

وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ كَأَنْ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنَ النَّهَارِ يَتَعَارَفُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِلِقَاءِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ {45}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:45]

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Labth means stay or halt. It may refer to the life on the earth or to the period starting from death up to the day of resurrection. Verses 112 to 114 of Muminun also assert that men will readily call to mind what took place in the world and recognise their own comrades and associates as if they were separated a few hours before.

وَإِمَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِي نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ عَلَىٰ مَا يَفْعَلُونَ {46}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:46]

وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولٌ ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ رَسُولُهُمْ قُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ {47}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:47]

Refer to the commentary of al Ma-idah: 48.

وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَٰذَا الْوَعْدُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ {48}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:48]

Refer to the commentary of Araf: 187 and 188.

قُلْ لَا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۗ لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ أَجَلٌ ۚ إِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ فَلَا يَسْتَأْخِرُونَ سَاعَةً ۖ وَلَا يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ {49}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:49] (see commentary for verse 48)

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُهُ بَيَاتًا أَوْ نَهَارًا مَاذَا يَسْتَعْجِلُ مِنْهُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ {50}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:50]

أَثُمَّ إِذَا مَا وَقَعَ آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ ۚ آلْآنَ وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ {51}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:51]

ثُمَّ قِيلَ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا ذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْخُلْدِ هَلْ تُجْزَوْنَ إِلَّا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْسِبُونَ {52}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:52]

وَيَسْتَنْبِئُونَكَ أَحَقٌّ هُوَ ۖ قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ ۖ وَمَا أَنْتُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ {53}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:53]

When the Holy Prophet was in Makka, before hijrat, a Jew trader from Madina named Hayy bin Akhtab used to visit Makka. Once he heard the Holy Prophet reciting the verses of the Quran, and asked him: “Are you reciting the true words of God, or just jesting?” In reply this verse was revealed.

وَلَوْ أَنَّ لِكُلِّ نَفْسٍ ظَلَمَتْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لَافْتَدَتْ بِهِ ۗ وَأَسَرُّوا النَّدَامَةَ لَمَّا رَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ ۖ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ {54}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:54]

This verse implies that if all that is in the earth is offered by the unjust as a ransom, it shall not be accepted. They shall be punished.

Asarru may either mean (i) declare or reveal, or (ii) conceal or hide. In the former case the verse is: When they see punishment they will offer anything to escape it and may declare their repentance which will be a disgrace for them; and in the latter case: The most difficult thing for them will be to openly confess or repent, therefore they will conceal remorse and ignominy.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Ali ibn abi Talib said:

“By Allah, to pass a whole night, awake on the poisonous thorns of a desert and be drawn in chains round the neck, is more pleasant than to meet Allah if I have done injustice even to a single person or have usurped anything belonging to any one. If I am given all that is in the heavens and on the earth, in the seven continents, to do injustice to an ant by taking away from its mouth the husk of a grain or an oat, while it is going to its abode, l shall refuse it.” (Nahj al Balagha)

أَلَا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {55}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:55]

هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ {56}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:56]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُمْ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَشِفَاءٌ لِمَا فِي الصُّدُورِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ {57}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:57]

Allah has sent the reminder (Quran) as a mercy. Ali ibn abi Talib said:

“Seek remedy as well as answers to all questions and difficulties from the Quran. It cures the worst diseases like infidelity, hypocrisy and deviation.” (Nahj al Balagha).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Heart is the seat of all feelings and emotions. What is felt by the cognitive self has an immediate effect on the heart. In case of extreme grief, or envy, or hatred et cetera, the nervous system is effected so as to cause strain in the breast. The Quran refers to such feelings when it is said: “What is in the breast”, and invites man to get rid of them by following the guidance given in its verses.

Sharah sadr, to expand the breast, actually means expansion of the human vision.

قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ {58}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:58]

Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir said:

‘The Holy Prophet is “fazl” and Ali ibn abi Talib is “rahmah.”‘

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ مِنْ رِزْقٍ فَجَعَلْتُمْ مِنْهُ حَرَامًا وَحَلَالًا قُلْ آللَّهُ أَذِنَ لَكُمْ ۖ أَمْ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَفْتَرُونَ {59}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:59]

وَمَا ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ {60}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:60]

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِنْ قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْ رَبِّكَ مِنْ مِثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ {61}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:61]

In the sacred tablet (lawh mahfuz) the knowledge of every thing (the tiniest of objects) in the universe is preserved together with the will of the omnipresent and omniscient almighty Lord. The omnipresent’s constant watchfulness embraces all His creatures. It is a warning to those who forge lies and show hostility against Allah and His last messenger by making changes in the law of Allah (shari-ah) conveyed to mankind through the Holy Prophet. Whatever the Holy Prophet declared lawful or unlawful shall remain binding, unchangeable, till eternity. Refer to the commentary of An Nisa: 24 to know about those who changed the law of Allah and sunnah of the Holy Prophet.

أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَ اللَّهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ {62}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:62]

According to Ali ibn abi Talib the twelve holy Imams are the awliya-allah, and also those who sincerely follow them.

The Holy Prophet said:

The friends of Allah are those who reflect His attributes in their character. Their devotion to Allah and godliness inspire others to create in them the same spirit of submission to the Lord.

At all hours they remember Allah.

Their every action is a lesson.

Whatever they say is based upon wisdom.

Among men they are a blessing of Allah.

They are restless with the fear of Allah, lest any action of theirs may attract the wrath of Allah.

They eagerly await to receive the blessings of Allah in this life and in the hereafter; so they always do good to others and safeguard themselves against evil.

Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir found the following in the book of his father concerning awliya-allah:

No fear frightens them. nor any sorrow grieves them.

They carry out all the prescribed duties and avail themselves of only that which is made lawful by Allah.

They abstain from all unlawful things and deeds.

They follow the sunnah of the Holy Prophet.

By nature and habit they forsake the material pleasures.

They neither take pride in nor boast about their possessions.

What Allah has given them they spend in the way of Allah, as He wills, not as they will.

Once the Holy Prophet put his hand on the shoulder of Ali and said; “Behold! This is the wali-allah. Be his friend.”

If the description of a true friend of Allah is kept in mind, it will serve as guidance to every Muslim so that he may not go astray from the right path, and all the Muslims may live together in an ideal society and set an example for the whole world.

“For the friends of Allah there is no fear, nor shall they grieve” makes it clear that those who were frightened by the pursuing enemy or ran away from the battlefields (see commentary of al Baqarah: 207; Anfal: 16 and 30; Ali Imran: 121, 122, 128, 140 to 142, 144, 151 to 156, 159 and 166 to 168; al Bara-at: 25 to 27) can, under no circumstances, be the awliya-allah.

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ {63}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:63]

The Holy Prophet said:

“The glad tidings for the friends of Allah are the vision they see in their dreams in this world; and when a friend of Allah experiences the agony of death before he breathes his last breath, I and the holy Imams of my Ahl ul Bayt come to him and give him the good news that those whom he loved are ready to receive him and his prayers for a blissful life of the hereafter will be fulfilled.”

لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَىٰ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ ۚ لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ {64}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:64] (see commentary for verse 63)

وَلَا يَحْزُنْكَ قَوْلُهُمْ ۘ إِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا ۚ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ {65}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:65]

أَلَا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ ۚ إِنْ يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ {66}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:66]

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَالنَّهَارَ مُبْصِرًا ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَسْمَعُونَ {67}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:67]

قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا ۗ سُبْحَانَهُ ۖ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ ۖ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنْ عِنْدَكُمْ مِنْ سُلْطَانٍ بِهَٰذَا ۚ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ {68}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:68]

The reference here is to the various gods of the polytheistic peoples. The doctrine of the sonship of God is not peculiar to Christians. The Arab pagans not only worshipped the angels as daughters of God but also believed that their religious leaders were the sons of God. All such false beliefs in imaginary gods have been refuted because Allah is self-subsisting. His is whatsoever is in the heavens and in the earth and in between them.

قُلْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لَا يُفْلِحُونَ {69}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:69]

مَتَاعٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ ثُمَّ نُذِيقُهُمُ الْعَذَابَ الشَّدِيدَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ {70}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:70]

وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ نُوحٍ إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنْ كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيْكُمْ مَقَامِي وَتَذْكِيرِي بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ فَعَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ فَأَجْمِعُوا أَمْرَكُمْ وَشُرَكَاءَكُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُنْ أَمْرُكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ غُمَّةً ثُمَّ اقْضُوا إِلَيَّ وَلَا تُنْظِرُونِ {71}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:71]

Refer to the commentary of al Araf: 59 to 64. Reference to Nuh and his people is also made in Hud: 25 to 48; Muminun: 23 to 29; Shu-ara: 105 to 120; and Saffat: 75 to 82.

فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَمَا سَأَلْتُكُمْ مِنْ أَجْرٍ ۖ إِنْ أَجْرِيَ إِلَّا عَلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ {72}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:72] (see commentary for verse 71)

فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَمَنْ مَعَهُ فِي الْفُلْكِ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ خَلَائِفَ وَأَغْرَقْنَا الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُنْذَرِينَ {73}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:73] (see commentary for verse 71)

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ رُسُلًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِمْ فَجَاءُوهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا بِمَا كَذَّبُوا بِهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَطْبَعُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِ الْمُعْتَدِينَ {74}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:74]

For sealing of the hearts of the disbelievers see commentary of al Baqarah: 7, and Araf: 100. The sealing of hearts take place as a consequence of the disbelievers persistence in disobedience.

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ مُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِ بِآيَاتِنَا فَاسْتَكْبَرُوا وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا مُجْرِمِينَ {75}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:75]

Refer to the commentary of al Araf: 103 to 171 for Musa and his people and Firawn and his people.

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ عِنْدِنَا قَالُوا إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسِحْرٌ مُبِينٌ {76}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:76] (see commentary for verse 75)

قَالَ مُوسَىٰ أَتَقُولُونَ لِلْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَاءَكُمْ ۖ أَسِحْرٌ هَٰذَا وَلَا يُفْلِحُ السَّاحِرُونَ {77}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:77] (see commentary for verse 75)

قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا لِتَلْفِتَنَا عَمَّا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا وَتَكُونَ لَكُمَا الْكِبْرِيَاءُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا نَحْنُ لَكُمَا بِمُؤْمِنِينَ {78}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:78] (see commentary for verse 75)

وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ ائْتُونِي بِكُلِّ سَاحِرٍ عَلِيمٍ {79}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:79] (see commentary for verse 75)

فَلَمَّا جَاءَ السَّحَرَةُ قَالَ لَهُمْ مُوسَىٰ أَلْقُوا مَا أَنْتُمْ مُلْقُونَ {80}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:80] (see commentary for verse 75)

فَلَمَّا أَلْقَوْا قَالَ مُوسَىٰ مَا جِئْتُمْ بِهِ السِّحْرُ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَيُبْطِلُهُ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُصْلِحُ عَمَلَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ {81}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:81] (see commentary for verse 75)

وَيُحِقُّ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ {82}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:82] (see commentary for verse 75)

فَمَا آمَنَ لِمُوسَىٰ إِلَّا ذُرِّيَّةٌ مِنْ قَوْمِهِ عَلَىٰ خَوْفٍ مِنْ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ لَعَالٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَإِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الْمُسْرِفِينَ {83}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:83] (see commentary for verse 75)

Only a few among the Bani Israil were true believers. Among the people of Firawn only Asiyah, his wife, and Hizqil, known as mumin min ali Firawn, were the believers.

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَا قَوْمِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ فَعَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلُوا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُسْلِمِينَ {84}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:84] (see commentary for verse 75)

فَقَالُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ {85}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:85] (see commentary for verse 75)

وَنَجِّنَا بِرَحْمَتِكَ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ {86}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:86] (see commentary for verse 75)

وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ وَأَخِيهِ أَنْ تَبَوَّآ لِقَوْمِكُمَا بِمِصْرَ بُيُوتًا وَاجْعَلُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قِبْلَةً وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {87}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:87] (see commentary for verse 75)

The followers of Musa had built masjids and prayed therein. Firawn demolished them. Then Allah commanded them to pray in their houses.

Ibn Asakir reports that the Holy Prophet said:

“Allah had allowed no one to stay or sleep in masjid without ghusl, after sleeping with a woman, except Musa and Harun; and likewise only I and Ali are allowed to stay or sleep in the masjid without ghusl in the state of janabat. (Durr al Manthur by Jalal al Din al Suyuti).

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

“Your houses” refers to the houses of ali Harun, the family of Harun-refer to the commentary of al Baqarah: 248-the inmates of which were purified by Allah Himself. The same houses have been referred to in verses 35 to 37 of an Nur. The “house” in verse 73 of al Hud and verse 33 of al Ahzab is described as sacred and purified for the worship of Allah.

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ آتَيْتَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَأَهُ زِينَةً وَأَمْوَالًا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا رَبَّنَا لِيُضِلُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِكَ ۖ رَبَّنَا اطْمِسْ عَلَىٰ أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَاشْدُدْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُوا حَتَّىٰ يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ {88}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:88] (see commentary for verse 75)

Firawn and his chiefs had amassed abundant wealth which was the main cause of their refusal to believe in the message Musa brought for them, so Musa and Harun prayed to Allah to uproot the cause which made them persist in infidelity and hostility against Musa and Harun. Allah accepted their prayers.

قَالَ قَدْ أُجِيبَتْ دَعْوَتُكُمَا فَاسْتَقِيمَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعَانِّ سَبِيلَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {89}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:89] (see commentary for verse 75)(see commentary for verse 88)

وَجَاوَزْنَا بِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ وَجُنُودُهُ بَغْيًا وَعَدْوًا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَدْرَكَهُ الْغَرَقُ قَالَ آمَنْتُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا الَّذِي آمَنَتْ بِهِ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ {90}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:90] (see commentary for verse 75)

Musa began to worry with fear when he came to know that Firawn with his hosts was tracking him and his people in order to wipe them out. They were in a hopeless situation. There was a desert on one side of them, the Red Sea on the other, and the impassable mountain chain of the Jabal Attakah in front. Allah commanded Musa to strike the waves of the Red Sea with his staff. Musa did as was ordered. A broad causeway was formed in the sea upon which Musa and his followers advanced and crossed the sea. When Firawn and his hosts reached the spot, his soldiers at once entered the causeway; though Firawn tried very much to stop his horse but it moved on and they all were in the middle of the sea. Then under the command of Allah the parted sea again became one as it was before; and Firawn and his army were drowned. In the last moment Firawn said: “I believe that verily there is no god save Allah in whom the followers of Musa believe, and I am of those who submit to the will of Allah”, but it was too late.

آلْآنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنْتَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ {91}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:91] (see commentary for verse 75)

فَالْيَوْمَ نُنَجِّيكَ بِبَدَنِكَ لِتَكُونَ لِمَنْ خَلْفَكَ آيَةً ۚ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا لَغَافِلُونَ {92}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:92] (see commentary for verse 75)

The mummy of Ramesus II, the last Firawn of the eighteenth dynasty, has been found at Thebes, and is now in a glass case in the museum of Cairo, for every man to look upon (Encyclopaedia Britannica). This discovery confirms the Quran. The Bible does not mention this event. It also confirms the fact that the Quran is a revealed book of Allah otherwise the Holy Prophet would not have known this fact.

Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqir said:

“Firawn and his army was drowned in the sea, but the dead body of Firawn was thrown on the shore so that the people who worshipped him as a god might know that their (false) god was a lifeless decomposed corpse, and men in every age may draw a lesson.”

 

وَلَقَدْ بَوَّأْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مُبَوَّأَ صِدْقٍ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ فَمَا اخْتَلَفُوا حَتَّىٰ جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقْضِي بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ {93}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:93] (see commentary for verse 75)

فَإِنْ كُنْتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِمَّا أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ {94}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:94]

وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ {95}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:95]

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {96}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:96]

وَلَوْ جَاءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ آيَةٍ حَتَّىٰ يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ {97}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:97]

فَلَوْلَا كَانَتْ قَرْيَةٌ آمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَا إِيمَانُهَا إِلَّا قَوْمَ يُونُسَ لَمَّا آمَنُوا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمْ عَذَابَ الْخِزْيِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَمَتَّعْنَاهُمْ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ {98}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:98]

وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَآمَنَ مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا ۚ أَفَأَنْتَ تُكْرِهُ النَّاسَ حَتَّىٰ يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ {99}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:99]

وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَيَجْعَلُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ {100}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:100]

قُلِ انْظُرُوا مَاذَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَمَا تُغْنِي الْآيَاتُ وَالنُّذُرُ عَنْ قَوْمٍ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ {101}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:101]

فَهَلْ يَنْتَظِرُونَ إِلَّا مِثْلَ أَيَّامِ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَانْتَظِرُوا إِنِّي مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الْمُنْتَظِرِينَ {102}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:102]

ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ حَقًّا عَلَيْنَا نُنْجِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {103}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:103]

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِنْ دِينِي فَلَا أَعْبُدُ الَّذِينَ تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنْ أَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُمْ ۖ وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {104}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:104]

وَأَنْ أَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ {105}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:105]

وَلَا تَدْعُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُكَ وَلَا يَضُرُّكَ ۖ فَإِنْ فَعَلْتَ فَإِنَّكَ إِذًا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ {106}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:106]

وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلَا كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ وَإِنْ يُرِدْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَلَا رَادَّ لِفَضْلِهِ ۚ يُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ {107}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:107]

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُمْ بِوَكِيلٍ {108}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:108]

وَاتَّبِعْ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَاصْبِرْ حَتَّىٰ يَحْكُمَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْحَاكِمِينَ {109}

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 10:109]

 

Source:quran.al-islam.org


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