Al Nass Wal Ijtihad

Al Nass Wal Ijtihad

The Islamic world today highly appreciates the personality of the late great mujtahid[1] Sayyid Abdul Husayn Sharafuddeen, who has made himself as an entail for the sake of the public Islamic benefit. This beloved personality, with its greatness and fame, has filled the sights and hearings when the life has been flourished with the useful […]

  • Abdul Husayn Sharafuddeen Al-Musaw
Rate this post
about this book
  • overview

    The Islamic world today highly appreciates the personality of the late great mujtahid[1] Sayyid Abdul Husayn Sharafuddeen, who has made himself as an entail for the sake of the public Islamic benefit. This beloved personality, with its greatness and fame, has filled the sights and hearings when the life has been flourished with the useful existence of this great man. The time has folded this bright page but its fragrance is still spreading with its abundant knowledge, great effects, benevolent works and august services for the sake of Allah, the religion and the nation. This great man strove and endeavored as possible as he could along his life inviting the Muslims to unite, to agree with each other and to avoid the bad sectarianism through his eloquent speeches, crowded meetings and valuable eternal books. The first work of him was before half a century. It was his book “Al-Fusool al-Muhimma fee Ta’leef al-Umma”, which he had written in 1327 A.H. He thought of the solidarity of the umma, in a time when no one thought of it except a very few learned persons of that age. He [1] Mujtahid is a person accepted in Shiism as an authority on the interpretation of Islamic law. discussed then in his “al-Fusool al-Muhimma” the obstacles that acted as stumbling blocks in the way of the unity of the umma. He uncovered those obstacles in a clear eloquence and decisive proofs, which did not let any way to suspicion and doubt. Al-Fusool al-Muhimma was a book of clear scientific facts, which the imam of the knowledge and eloquence had formed in his bright Alawite literary style in order to unite the umma under the banner of monotheism and solidarity. Those discussions were accurate in thinking and eloquent in expressing that they were as something new for the Islamic studies before that date. Those studies, in their noble Islamic aim, are to be in every house to guide the straying, to lead the confused and to direct people to the way of Ahlul Bayt,[1] whom Allah has purified from uncleanness and who have been the equivalents of the Book and the leaders of the umma to the truth and to the straight path. Two years after his book had been published, Sayyid Sharafuddeen traveled to Egypt to invite for the Islamic unity through his speeches and moving sayings. His hopes had been refreshed by the Egyptians discussions and the Azharite “muraja’at”,[2] which had happened between him and the allama of Egypt Sheikh Saleem al-Bishri, the head of al-Azhar University. Those friendly meetings had solved many problems and questions. They both had exchanged their passions to each other and each of them had found in his friend abundant knowledge, magnanimity and determination to invite for unity that had to be among the fair ulama. As a result of those discussions and reviews was the book of “al-Muraja’at” by Sayyid Sharafuddeen that had spread allover the Islamic world in several editions. A very fine saying was said by Sayyid Sharafuddeen in the beginning of his book al-Muraja’at about these meetings. He said: “How well it is when the ulama meet with pure spirits, pleasing sayings and [1] Ahlul Bayt: the Prophet’s progeny (s). [2] Al-Azhar is a centre of Islamic and Arabic learning centered on the mosque of that name in Cairo, Egypt. Muraja’at means reviews. prophetic morals! Whenever an aalim[1] is in this neat garment, he will be in goodness and blessing and people will be in safe and mercy. No one of people will refrain from telling such an aalim of his real opinion or what there is inside him. Such was the aalim and imam of Egypt and such were our meetings, which we thanked infinitely. I complained to him my passion and he complained to me the same thing. It was a lucky hour that inspired to us to think of something, by which Allah might reunite the umma. Among what we had agreed upon was that the two sects; the Shia and the Sunni were Muslims believing in pure Islam. They are equal in what the Prophet (s) has brought and there is no difference between them concerning a basic origin of the religion that may spoil their belief in pure Islam and there is no dispute between them except for the differences between the mujtahids concerning some verdicts due to their different points of views in interpreting those verdicts out of the Qur’an, the Sunna, the consensus and the fourth evidence (reason) and all these differences do not lead to separation (between the Muslims) nor to serious disputes. There is no any reason for this dispute, whose sparks have scattered since the existence of these two names; Sunni and Shia.” In such a high Islamic spirit our master Sayyid Sharafuddeen acted throughout his life, whose long years did not add to him save determination and insistence on this path. It was for this continuous Islamic jihad that we found the different Islamic sects had agreed on loving and appreciating him and on looking at him with admiration and respect. And now his name is gratified by every tongue and his eternal books are in every house and are read by all people, who compete to have them and to present them to anyone looking forward to the high Islamic culture. Libraries and presses here and there make reading these books easy and offer them to the readers in the best way that fits their [1] Aalim is the singular form of ulama. Aalim is a jurisprudent or a scholar. importance. May Allah make the all succeed in the way of goodness and righteousness. Here we show in summary the biography of this great man, whose life has been filled with glory, lessons and examples, so that to make this bright page as lessons teaching the umma jihad, unity, sincerity, cordiality and devoutness for the sake of the general Islamic welfare, to which Sayyid Sharafuddeen has devoted his long life. We pray Allah to help us in serving Him and achieving His rights. What we mention here is a drop from an ocean of what we have known about this man. May Allah benefit His people with this man’s knowledge and pen and make the umma walk in his guidance and act according to his sayings, maxims and instructions. His birth and upbringing Sayyid Sharafuddeen was born in Kadhimiyya[1] in 1290 A.H. from Alawite parents. His father was the great allama Sayyid Yousuf Sharafuddeen and his mother was Az-Zahra’ the daughter of ayatollah Sayyid Al-Hadi As-Sadr the father of the great religious authority Sayyid al-Hasan as-Sadr (may Allah have mercy upon them all). The lineage of Sayyid Sharafuddeen[2] from his two parents reaches to Imam Musa al-Kadhim[3] (s). Muhammad al-Awwal (the first) is the [1] In Iraq. [2] He is Sayyid Sharafuddeen bin (the son of) Sayyid Yousuf bin Sayyid Jawad bin Sayyid Issma’eel bin Muhammad the grandfather of the two families aal (the family of) as-Sadr and aal Sharafuddeen bin Sayyid Ibraheem (surnamed as Sharafuddeen) bin Sayyid Zaynul Aabideen bin Sayyid Ali Nooruddeen bin Sayyid Nooruddeen Ali bin Sayyid Izzuddeen al-Husayn bin Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid al-Husayn bin Sayyid Ali bin Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid Tajuddeen (known as Abul Hasan) bin Sayyid Muhammad (surnamed as Shamsuddeen) bin Sayyid Abdullah (surnamed as Jalaluddeen) bin Sayyid Ahmad bin Sayyid Hamza bin Sayyid Sa’dullah bin Sayyid Hamza bin Abul Sa’adat Muhammad bin Abu Abdullah (the chief of the chiefs of the Talibites in Baghdad) bin Abul Harth Muhammad bin Abul Hasan Ali (known as Ibnul Daylamiyya) bin Abu Tahir bin al-Husayn al-Qat’iy bin Musa Abu Sibha bin Ibraheem al-Murtadha bin Imam al-Kadhim bin Imam as-Sadiq bin Imam al-Baqir bin Imam Zaynul Aabideen (as-Sajjad) bin Imam Abu Abdullah al-Husayn bin Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (peace be upon them all). [3] He is the Seventh imam of the Shia. son of the great mujtahid Sayyid Ibraheem (surnamed as Sharafuddeen), who is the common grandfather of the two families; aal[1] as-Sadr and aal Sharafuddeen. These two families were together in Baghdad known at that time as aal al-Husayn al-Qat’iy, from which was the family of the two great scholars Sharif al-Murtadha and Sharif ar-Radhiy. In his honorable grandfather Sayyid al-Hadi’s house, Sayyid Sharafuddeen was born under the care of his grandfather. He was beloved and preferred by his grandfather and by the all. His uncle (my father) Sayyid Muhammad al-Husayn as-Sadr[2] was his mate and friend. They learned together because they were near in age, aim and thinking. Beside them (in the school of the house) was his (Sayyid Sharafuddeen’s) youngest aunt[3] participating them their learning, studying and discussing. Sayyid Sharafuddeen often mention that with too much pride. [1] Aal means “the family of”. [2] He was born in Kadhimiyya in 1288 A.H. and died in it in 1330 A.H. [3] She (may Allah have mercy upon her) was an example of virtue, intelligence, good memory, quick-witted, honesty and piety. She composed poetry in standard and colloquial Arabic. She was interested in holding meeting of consolation in Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram when Imam al-Husayn had been martyred) and the anniversaries of the deaths of the infallible imams in her house. The reciters (women) used to recite her poetry, which she composed for those occasions, in those meetings. Women often referred to her about the legal questions. On every event, she quoted for the women the fatwa of her brother Imam al-Hasan as-Sadr, whom she followed in her taqlid. She was buried in the private graveyard of aal as-Sadr beside her father and relatives’ tombs. Her death caused wide sorrow in Baghdad and Kadhimiyya and for Sayyid Sharafuddeen, who was in Aamila in Lebanon. He held a meeting of consolation there and many famous personalities of the country had attended the meeting, at the head of whom was the great mujtahid Sheikh Abdul Husayn aal Sadiq, who had recited his wonderful poem, in which he had mentioned the dead woman’s brother Imam al-Hasan as-Sadr. He recited: An imam but if no “No” was there We could say he was a prophet getting wisdom from the Best of the wise His study In the eighth year of his old his father Yousuf returned to Aamila[1] after he had finished his studies and got a certificate of absolute ijtihad[2] from the ulama of Iraq. His mother wished to stay near her family (in Iraq) to educate her only son (Sayyid Sharafuddeen) and to prepare for him the suitable sphere beside his grandfather and his uncle but his father did not agree to this wish because of his great love to him (to his son). He promised her that he himself would educate him and then he would send him back to Iraq in the proper time. She accepted this condition. Sayyid Sharafuddeen kept to his father and learned from him what he needed of sciences of the Arabic language, logic, eloquence, Fiqh and Usool.[3] His name shone among his fellow boys and his superiority was known while he was too young yet. When Sayyid Sharafuddeen became seventeen years old, his father married him to his uncle’s daughter (the mother of allama Sayyid Muhammad Ali[4]) and then sent him to Iraq to complete his studies. In a few years Sayyid Sharafuddeen became very well-known in ijtihad and in accuracy and firmness of evidencing in arguments and deliberations. He became famous in deciding lessons of Fiqh and Usool profoundly, quick-wittedly and quick-derivationally. He solved difficult questions in a shortest way leading to the intended aim. [1] In Lebanon. [2] In Islamic law, the independent or original interpretation of problems not precisely covered by the Qur’an, Hadith (traditions concerning the Prophet's life and utterances), and scholarly consensus; therefore the mujtahids (qualified jurists) had the right to give their personal judgments on the problems, after trying their best in researching, depending on firm evidences and proofs derived from the legal sources of the Shariah. [3] Fiqh: jurisprudence, Usool: basic principles of religion. [4] He was one of the prominent scholars. He was born in Najaf (in Iraq) in 1318 A.H. and died in Mountain Aamil (in Lebanon) after a long disease. He wrote an important book called Sheikhul Abtah about the biography of Abu Talib (Imam Ali’s father) and the evidences that proved his faith and high position in Islam. It was one of the profoundest Islamic studies showing the great intelligence of its author and his high culture and wide knowledge. The book was published in Baghdad when the author was still in Iraq He wrote many researches on fiqh while he was in holy Najaf in a style like the style of the book Madarikul Ahkam fee Sharh Shara’i’ul Islam, which had been written by his uncle Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali bin al-Husayn,[1] who was known of his great knowledge, his high ability in deriving verdicts and discussing the problems of fiqh in a scientific way showing his accuracy and discernment in dealing with difficult problems and vague matters. Sayyid Sharafuddeen had learned from other than the ulama of Iraq such as Aakhund Mulla Muhammad Kadhim al-Khurasani, Sheikh ash-Sharee’a al-Isfahani, Sayyid Kadhim al-Yazdi and the two great authorities Sayyid Issma’eel as-Sadr[2] and his uncle Sayyid Hasan as-Sadr and their likes of the ulama and leaders of the umma. He asked his grandfather ayatollah Sayyid al-Hadi[3] too much questions about everything. Sayyid Sharafuddeen said in his book Bughyatur Raghibeen about his grandfather: “…as for the sciences of Arabic language, he was unequalled especially in meanings and rhetoric. I always made use of his knowledge about what I could not understand from the problems of (al-Mutawwal) by at-Taftazani. He guided me to them with the light of his eloquence and the brightness of his evidences and then those problems became to me as bright as the sun. How often I referred to him about the difficult matters in logic and sciences of the Arabic language and he pleased me and droved my doubts away. He, though lofty and old, came to argue with [1] Sayyid Muhammad, the author of Madarikul Ahkam, died in 1206 A.H. when he was eighty-eight years old. He was the brother of our grandfather Sayyid Nooruddeen Ali from his father and our grandfather was the brother of Sheikh Hasan, the author of al-Ma’alim, from his mother. [2] Sayyid Issma’eel as-Sadr died in 1338 A.H. Sayyid Hasan as-Sadr was born in Kadhimiyya in 1272 A.H. and died in 1354 A.H. Each of them was a general imam and authority for the Shia allover the Islamic world. [3] He was born in 1235 A.H. and died in 1316. He was buried in his private graveyard in the yard of the holy shrine of Imam Kadhim (s) in Kadhimiyya-Baghdad. His biography had been mentioned in al-Bughya in details and also had been mentioned in Takmilatul Amal written by his son Imam al-Hasan as-Sadr. A’lam ash-Shia and Takmilatul Amal is a book including biographies of thousands of the Shia ulama of the different ages. This book shows the greatness of the Shia and their high position in knowledge and the eternity of their ulama in history. It is one of the best books of biographies me pleasantly, went on debating with me delightfully and forced me to argue with him. I swear by his high morals and his sacredness that I have never asked him about a problem or a question, unless I found the answer ready with him without needing to refer to any book as if he has prepared before and got ready to the answer.” Sayyid Sharafuddeen studied and researched too much and asked too much about the difficult problems whenever he met a great jurisprudent. It showed his care, accuracy and his love to debate and to get use. When arguing about a subject, he did not like to dispute, to refute or to criticize uselessly but he offered a matter in order to get benefit and to make other get benefit without priding before the others or trying to hurt the feelings of the others when a dispute flared-up. He was known as abundant in knowledge and firm in evidence. He seldom participated in an argument, unless he was the winner. This had made a prestige for him among all people and a sanctum inside the hearts whenever scientific arguments flared-up. Whenever he participated in arguments, he respected the others and listened to them carefully and he never made anyone feel that he was proud before him due to his knowledge or position but he treated him as an opponent to a rival even there was a great difference between them in all criteria. When he became twenty-three years old, he became one of the notable mujtahids. He became well-known in the scientific milieu in a way that seldom a jurisprudent got such a position in these few years of old. His infinite ijtihad was one of the agreed-upon facts among all of his fellows and those, who had been acquainted with him. At his age there was no one in holy Najaf from the personalities of Aamila that had equaled him in his virtue, fame and being loved and respected by all people. His learning was not limited in Najaf, but he often moved between Najaf, Kadhimiyya, Samarra’ and Kerbala’[1] and met with the ulama, [1] Najaf, Kadhimiyya, Samarra’ and Kerbala’ are religious centers in Iraq. mujtahids and brilliant students of those centers. This made his name be mentioned in every scientific forum or any meeting of literature. Before he left Najaf, he had sent for his brother the great allama Sayyid Shareef in order to take care of him and to instruct him before going back to Aamila. He loved him very much besides that he set great hopes on him because he had found that he was brilliant and too eager to learn more and more. Sayyid Shareef did not disappoint his brother. He got ready seriously to study and learn. Only a few years passed when the Sayyid began to feel his favors and high position in his emigrant abode. He went back to Aamila and his absolute ijtihad was confessed by the great mujtahids. Besides his abundant knowledge, he was a poet from the first class. His poetry was delicate, clear, firm, accurate in meaning, eloquent in wording and wonderful in style. Sayyid Shareef went back to his father and brother and the all gathered together. The scientific debates were held again between the father and his two sons as if they were between brothers and friends. They reactivated with their debates their old times when once they were in their scientific place of emigration. Dispute and disagreement about scientific matters might arise between them but their faces always appeared smiling and their hearts were full of indulgence. Some tears might fall down from the father’s eyes out of happiness and the two sons wiped them and bowed to kiss the father’s hands. The father seemed happy and contented. He began invoking Allah to benefit the umma with them and with their knowledge. But alas! This happiness did not last long. Sayyid Sharafuddeen lost his father and soon after a short time he was afflicted by the loss of his brother Sayyid Shareef. This great loss took away his patience and endurance though he was a mountain that could not be shaken by violent storms. He often recited his brother’s emotional poetry and tears fell down. He became distressed with pains and greifs but he turned to Allah thanking Him in any case and resorting to His power. Glory Be to Him. His return to Mountain Aamil Sayyid Yousuf Sharafuddeen contacted with the ulama of Iraq, in whom he had trusted, asking them about his son to know their opinion about his knowledge and piety. They replied certifying his son’s abundant knowledge, high morals, wide information and unequalled piety that pleased the father’s heart, delighted his eyes and comforted his conscience. The clear answers of the ulama which certified the absolute ijtihad of the son made the father ask the son to come back to his country because of the urgent need for his ijtihad, knowledge, teaching and reforming. The son had not save to obey his father’s order although he was eager to stay longer or in fact forever in Iraq, the country of his uncles and cousins and the place of his birth, growing up and studying. He returned to the country and the day of his return was a witnessed day in the history of Aamila. He was received by the ulama, the leaders and the public until the boundaries of the Mountain from the highway of Sham.[1] The people of the villages of Aamila came from everywhere until the city of Soor became overcrowded with the welcomers and the groups that had come to receive Sayyid Sharafuddeen acclaiming with la ilaha illallah and allahu akbar[2] as if they were like the first Muslims when they had received the Prophet (s) when he arrived at Mecca. The moon shone to us from Thaniyyatul Wada’ Thanking (Allah) became due as long as a caller would invite for Allah [1] Nowadays Damascus. But then, Sham encompassed the present Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine. [2] There is no God but Allah and Allah is great. The coming of Sayyid Sharafuddeen to Soor was a cause for people to hold meetings and an incentive for Sayyid Sharafuddeen to visit his brothers of the great ulama, who recalled-by the return of the Sayyid- their previous days of learning and studying, and so they got ready again to debate and discuss the accurate useful matters. Those debates showed his great scientific ability, which appeared via his correct opinions through the discussions and exchange of views. People took a clear and live impression about the scientific personality of Sayyid Sharafuddeen and so his name was mentioned by every tongue. Sayyid Sharafuddeen found some freedom near his father. The father sometimes went to Shahh00r and sometimes he was seen in Soor. The atmosphere of the meeting was a scientific atmosphere. They discussed the necessary matters together because people were in need to know how to deal with such matters. At the first when returning to his country Sayyid Sharafuddeen stopped establishing legal verdicts (fatwa) and he just tried to end the disputes of people peacefully regarding the position of his father, who was so cautious in establishing verdicts although he was one of the great mujtahids. People were obliged to go to Shaqra’ to ask about their affairs the great religious authority at that time Sayyid Ali al-Ameen,[1] who wrote to Sayyid Yousuf telling him that his son was just and absolute mujtahid and that he had not found his equal among the ulama of Aamila. Then people began to go to Sayyid Sharafuddeen for their affairs regarding his high position. His father himself asked disputers to go to his son whenever it was necessary. In a few years his name spread everywhere and his fame filled the country and he became a great authority in issuing fatwas and [1] Sayyid Ali al-Ameen had gone to great mujtahid and highest authority at that time Sayyid Muhammad Hasan ash-Shirazi to get permission (in ijtihad) but Sayyid ash-Shirazi referred him to his disciple, who was entrusted with such tasks, ayatollah Sayyid Hasan as-Sadr. After some deliberations he was permitted to be as absolute mujtahid. The permission was offered to al-Mirza, who signed it. Sayyid al-Ameen was the only one among the ulama of Aamila, who had got certificate, which paved the way to him to have the absolute scientific and public leadership in Aamila after his return to it from Iraq. answering different problems. His travel to Egypt Sayyid Sharafuddeen had traveled to Egypt twice. The first time was in 1329 A.H. and the second was in 1920 AD. after issuing his fatwa of jihad against the French and being sentenced to death by them. In the first time he went to visit Egypt with his uncle (my father) Sayyid Muhammad Husayn as-Sadr. My uncle had told us about this visit when mentioning the biography of his uncle in his book Bughyatul Raghibeen. He said: “In 1329 A.H. he liked to tour. He began his tours with visiting the Kaaba to offer the hajj and to be honored by visiting good Medina. He was too eager to offer hajj and to visit the sacred places. Then he refreshed the old times and humored his loving fellows, who celebrated his being among them in an unequalled way. This made my mother so happy and glad that she found in him the delight of her eyes and the joy of her heart. Then after sometime he sailed from Beirut to Egypt. I was with him to prepare all his affairs. Our travel got great results that served the religion and the belief of the Shia. It might be the best travel with best results and benefits.” Sayyid Sharafuddeen had mentioned what had happened between him and the great professor Sheikh Saleem al-Bishri, the jurisprudent of Egypt and the sheikh of al-Azhar at that time. As a result of those deliberations the book al-Muraja’at was written by Sayyid Sharafuddeen. It spread in seven editions throughout the Islamic world. It was one of the best works known in the present age in the field of the Islamic studies through its abundant knowledge, profundity of research, clarity of intention, firmness of style and eloquence of thinking and expressing. The second time he resorted to Egypt after he had been sentenced to death by French authorities, that found his existence in Lebanon dangerous to their benefits and as an obstacle in the way of their imperial efforts and aims. The ulama, the men of letters and the Islamic learned groups, who had known about him since before, welcomed him so warmly in (25) Egypt. He invited for Islamic unity and mutual understanding between all the sects. It was he, who had said his eternal word about the two sects; the Shia and the Sunni: “Politics has separated them, so let politics gather them.” Allama Sayyid Rasheed Redha had recorded this word in his magazine (al-Manar) at that time regarding highly this Islamic spirit of Sayyid Sharafuddeen. His national jihad The jihad of Sayyid Sharafuddeen at the time of the Ottomans was limited to religious jihad because the government in Lebanon was a Muslim government offering religious rituals as they had been established by Islam. But when the French came, they occupied the country, spread corruption, annulled the Islamic laws and controlled people against their own will where no one could be remain silent before such a status. Sayyid Sharafuddeen began warning people of that oppression and injustice and began holding meeting with those, whom he had trusted and felt their support and national magnanimity inciting to what honorable situations the nation was in need of. No doubt that the spiritual class was the first to volunteer to undertake this duty where it had the public and absolute religious leadership. Sayyid Sharafuddeen thought to begin with the ulama first, deliberating about a consolidated plan that should be regarded by the all. He invited them to a congress held in Wadi al-Hajeer. The ulama and leaders of the country had attended the congress. Sayyid Sharafuddeen issued a fatwa of announcing jihad. The all supported his fatwa and then they went back to their towns preparing their firm plans against the French as possible as the circumstances allowed to. People began to come to Sayyid Sharafuddeen’s house signing protest notes confirming their objection to the French rule and requesting full independence. The French knew about the matter. They sent Ibnul Hallaj, who was a Christian from Soor, to break into Sayyid Sharafuddeen’s house, to assassinate him and to take whatever documents asking for independence he would find. Sayyid Sharafuddeen knew that, so he gave all the documents he had to his mother. Ibnul Hallaj did not find anything he looked for. When he tried to attack Sayyid Sharafuddeen, Sayyid Sharafuddeen knocked him down to the ground so he went back disappointed and shameful. People heard of breaking into Sayyid Sharafuddeen’s house. They gathered from all the villages of Aamila until the city of Soor became overcrowded with them. Sayyid Sharafuddeen thanked them for their high sentiment and national spirit. He asked them to go back to where they had come from. They came back waiting for his obeyed order. When the crowd separated and the French knew the intents of Sayyid Sharafuddeen, they sent a great army toward the village of Shahhor, where Sayyid Sharafuddeen had gone to. They burned his house there. Before that, they had occupied his house in Soor and plundered his big library, which had the most valuable printed and manuscript books especially his own manuscripts that had been written by himself, which we referred to previously. When the army entered Shahhor, Sayyid Sharafuddeen was there but he hastened to leave putting his aba over his turban and Allah blinded the army not to see him. He reached a cave[1] near the river and hid in it all the day and when he knew that the army had left he returned to Shahhor under the darkness. He spent the night there and then he left towards Sham disguisedly and he reached there peacefully. King Faysal the First welcomed his guest warmly and honored him in a good way. [1] It is said that this is the same cave, in which one of Sayyid Sharafuddeen’s grandfathers has hidden when fleeing from al-Haza’ir, the famous tyrant, and Allah has saved him from the injustice of the arrogant when he has set out towards Iraq resorting to his infallible grandfathers. In Damascus When Sayyid Sharafuddeen settled down in Damascus, he sent for his family and relatives, who joined him soon. The name of Sayyid Sharafuddeen became so famous and known until he became one of the leaders of intellect and thinking. He made speeches in many occasions that raised his position among all classes of people. These speeches showed his great knowledge and apposite thinking. His house in as-Salihiyya quarter in his country was always open for people. People of different classes always went to him. People of Salihiyya found in this man benevolence and kindness as if he was their kind father, who carried out their affairs. He found them in need for money and knowledge so he aided the poor and taught the children in a school established in a simple house to educate the rising generation. What drew the attentions was the visits of the high officials to him in his hose where no one of them had ever visited any of the ulama before him. Yousuf al-Adhma (the martyr of Maysaloon) often visited Sayyid Sharafuddeen and admired him and admired his situations too much. After the French had occupied Sham, Sayyid Sharafuddeen was obliged to leave to Palestine and then to Egypt after he had sent his family and relatives to Mountain Aamil spreading here and there. In Egypt Sayyid Sharafuddeen arrived at Egypt disguising in ordinary Arabic uniform with a kaffieh and a headband like the usual uniform of the people in Iraq. He attended one of the celebrations that was crowded with people. He was still in his formal Arabic uniform when he ascended the minbar and said: “If I do not stop where the army of death crowds, then let my feet not take me to the way of highness!” People began clapofping so loudly. He felt that they thought it was him, who had said this verse. He followed up saying: “May Allah have mercy upon the poet of Ahlul Bayt, Sayyid Haydar al-Hilli when saying: If I do not stop where the army of death crowds, then let my feet not take me to the way of highness!” Then clapping rose again louder than before. Admiration increased from everywhere. He began his speech with his orotund voice and his prophetic manners and Alawite utterance. He pleased the crowds with his high eloquence and bright evidences. He controlled words and meanings however he liked. This led people to ask and to insist on asking about the great personality of this man, whom they felt his great virtue even though he had disguised behind a kaffieh and a headband. Whispers and inquiries increased until one of them announced that he (Sayyid Sharafuddeen) was the man of knowledge, patriotism and devotion. He was the brave hero. He was the fighter, who had fought against the imperialists. He was the son of Haydar al-Karrar.[1] He was Sayyid Abdul Husayn Sharafuddeen. Among the attendants of the celebration there was the famous writer Mey Ziyada. Sayyid Sharafuddeen’s playing with his ring on his finger during making his speech drew her attention. She said: “I do not know whether the ring is more obedient to his finger or eloquence is more obedient to his tongue!” In Palestine Sayyid Sharafuddeen thought to be nearer to his country, so he left Egypt at the end of 1338 A.H. to a village in Palestine called Alma lying near the boundaries of Mountain Aamil and it was under the rule of the British. His house there was as his house in Soor. It was always visited by people. It was the abode of guests and the destination of needy [1] It was one of Imam Ali's surnames. people. Meetings were held in it besides deliberations on knowledge, literature, politics and different affairs. It was a strange chance that Sayyid Sharafuddeen was in Alma fleeing from the rule of the French while Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr was in Lebanon fleeing from the rule of the British and both of these two leaders had fought against the imperialists and had been sentenced to death. Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr found that the nearness of Alma to Mountain Aamil would give him a good opportunity to meet with Sayyid Sharafuddeen at the boundaries of Palestine. He sent his messenger and companion in jihad Mawlood Mukhlis[1] to Sayyid Sharafuddeen informing him of Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr’s wish to visit him but Sayyid Sharafuddeen did not prefer this meeting for fear of the British and he put off this visit until a suitable time when the circumstances would permit that. You will see the details of this event later on inshallah. His return to his country (Mountain Aamil) Sayyid as-Sadr chose to live in Lebanon when he had been sentenced to death. The French knew his high position among the leaders and the public and knew the high position of his father Sayyid al-Hasan as-Sadr and his great religious authority, to which the Shia allover the Islamic world referred to. All that made them respect and regard Sayyid (Muhammad) as-Sadr so highly. Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr seized the opportunity and asked them (the French) to pardon Sayyid Sharafuddeen and to let him come back to his country, which was awaiting for him impatiently. Sayyid as-Sadr succeeded in his task. Here we quote the saying of Sayyid Sharafuddeen in his book Bughyatur Raghibeen when talking about the history of that period. He said under the title of (as-Sadr in Damascus): “When he found [1] Mawlood Basha came to Alma wearing ordinary Arabic cloths pretending as if he was a merchant of sheep. He went to Sayyid Sharafuddeen’s house as a guest. No one of the people of the village felt anything about this guest because they had accustomed to see guests from different classes in the house of Sayyid Sharafuddeen. that he could not stand longer against the power of the British, Sayyid as-Sadr retreated from his lair with some ulama and leaders of intellect in Iraq and began roving in the deserts with no provisions save the provision of a faithful soul and a firm determination. Days and nights passed with these men following after the guides of sons of deserts. When he reached Sham, he had in Damascus a house, which became as a house of a generous leader, who came and went high respectedly. Between the celebration of the patriots and the welcome of the French, he kept on his peaceful jihad and his leadership turned into an intellectual front, via which he wrote bills and sent telegrams to the League of Nations and to everyone having anything to do with the Iraqi case, which had to be settled in the bets way. During that time he had visited Mountain Aamil, which had been still looking forward to meet him and so eager to see him. The people crowded around him getting from his guidance and celebrating to welcome and glorify him. Wonderful celebrations were held in Sayda (Sidon), Soor, Nabatiyya, Bint Jubayl and Shahhor. Speechers and poets did well in praising him and showing his virtues and aspects of his rising. We then were like him. He had fled from Iraq and we had fled from Lebanon for the sake of Allah. He wished to meet with us when we were in Palestine but the caution for my self from the French and for him from the British prevented me from meeting him. He met the French leaders, who respected him, and interceded for me with them and so I could return to my country. The High Commissioner General Gorou regarded him too much. We returned to Lebanon after he had returned to Iraq.” Thus Sayyid Sharafuddeen had recorded that period, which had preceded his return to his country with faithfulness and fidelity. It was not strange to the high morals of that great man. The returns of the two Sayyids to their countries were celebrated by their peoples splendidly as if they were unequalled events. Poets competed to show their feelings in live poetry, which was of the best poetry of the present age. A group of great men of literature, who had not participated in any celebration of literature before, participated in those celebrations, which were full of eternal Arabic literature, just because of their sentiments agitated with sincerity and allegiance that made them announce their sentiments before the public. That was because of the great patriotic sacrifices of these two men that had glorified the fame of their countries in the world of history. Poetry in the two countries was the same in the aim and feelings towards these two leaders. Poets often congratulated with their poems the great religious authority Sayyid Hasan as-Sadr, who was the father of Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr and the uncle of Sayyid Sharafuddeen. When Sayyid Sharafuddeen returned to his country after his jihad, he became the absolute leader for people in their affairs of life and religion as one of the poets had said:

  • details
    • Abdul Husayn Sharafuddeen Al-Musaw
  • reviews