Islamic Economy Its Ideological and Legal Foundations

Islamic Economy Its Ideological and Legal Foundations

Every system, intending to achieve certain goals, must be designed in a realistic manner. Therefore, if the system is supposed to be implemented in order to serve human life, particularly in the long-run, it must serve man’s goals and be consistent with his fi>rah (primordial nature). This is not possible unless the designer of the […]

  • Muhammad Ali Taskhiri
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    Every system, intending to achieve certain goals, must be designed in a realistic manner. Therefore, if the system is supposed to be implemented in order to serve human life, particularly in the long-run, it must serve man's goals and be consistent with his fi>rah (primordial nature). This is not possible unless the designer of the system has a command over the knowledge necessary for understanding social and individual aspects of man. Besides, the designer should have a thorough understanding of actual relations between those two aspects of man and the primordial nature of man as well. In addition to those prerequisites, the designer should understand the historical trends of such a relationship, the needs for the development of such relationships and methods for pursuing those needs in order to realize an evolutionary, human approach toward actualizing the goals of the creation of man. Indeed, the way the aforesaid satisfaction of needs is to be carried out should not overlap other systems which are meant for satisfying other needs of man. In other words, such a system should observe a wise balance and study the role and interrelationship of other systems which together comprise the whole system of life. If we assume that the designer of the system possesses all those necessary prerequisites, we should assess subsequent stages in the process of achieving the desirable realism which is necessary for a system to be able to provide a proper context for itself. By this we mean the extent to which this system is compatible with the norms and values of the society (where the system is to be implemented), the extent of consistence between those norms and values and the emotional values presented by the system, and finally the extent to which this system assures the realization of a desirable education to create social obedience for those ideological views and emotional values. Although the system may be realistic, accurate, and rational in perceiving the reality and understanding its needs and their satisfaction, it will remain incapable if it is not preceded by an ideological impetus which supplies the society with bases for the stance that it should take toward the universe, the life, and the man itself. Consequently, the ideological impetus will guarantee the system the element of i'ma'n [faith] rescue it from the most important civilizational maladies including ila'd [atheism], which is the opposite of i'ma'n, and shirk [polytheism], which signifies the excessive belief in false gods, and shakk [doubt], which is a manner resembling other destructive attitudes. Unless these requirements are realized, we cannot assure the provision of the first contextual element for the system's implementation. Similarly, as long as the emotional motivations, which are the focus of education, are not perfectly compatible and harmonious with the ideological structure of the society, we cannot guarantee balance in man's personality when there is a wide gap between his beliefs and the internal and external values and motivations that the system provides in order to satisfy his needs. Moreover, these emotional motivations cannot form human behavior and action unless they are strong and clearly defined. So far, we have realized the necessity of two factors for every system intending to materialize its human goals: first, the planner's holistic approach towards human reality, including his relations and needs as well as their fulfillment concomitant with the rest of the system; second, facilitating its implementation through faith and compatible emotional motivations. Realism, in turn, requires the following two fundamental factors: first, the system should contain legal guarantees binding all those who oppose the harmonious human nature or those few who have not chosen the complete i'ma'n or the full commitment to the requirements of i'ma'n; second, it has a perfect flexibility to accommodate the temporal and spatial variations in human life and provides fixed solutions for fixed elements of human life and flexible ones for the accommodation of its alterable elements. We believe that Islam was correct in announcing its rule in the form of general rules. Thus, it did not ignore any one of those aspects, but observed them perfectly and completed the religion which provides appropriate answers to man's needs till the Day of Judgment. Accordingly, it announces that the whole Islamic system is based on reality and nature and that it is the fixed truth aiming at serving human beings and accomplishing the purpose of his creation. Thus, it enjoins whatever is desirable and forbids whatever is refused by the nature. God, the Exalted, says: "Then set your face upright for religion in the right state, the nature made by Allah in which He has made men. There is no alteration in Allah's creation. That is the right religion but most people do not know." (30:30) And He, the Exalted, says: "Say: O people! Indeed there has come to you the truth from your Lord ..." (10:108) And He, the Exalted, says: "O you who believe! Answer (the call of) Allah and the Apostle when he calls you to that which gives you life, and know that Allah intervenes between man and his heart, and that to Him you shall be gathered." (8:24) And He, the Exalted, says: "Those who follow the Apostle Prophet, who was taught neither to read nor to write, whom they find written down with them in the Tawra'h and the Inji'l [Old and New Testaments], (who) enjoins them to do good and forbids them from doing evil, and makes the pure and good things ala'l [lawful] for them and makes impure and harmful things ara'm [prohibited] for them, and remove from them their burden and the shackles which were upon them. So (as for) those who believe in him and support him and help him and follow the light which was sent down with him, they are indeed the saved." (7:157) The proof of this argument is the same one that proves its attribution to the Great Creator as it proves for this Creator all attributes of knowledge about all facts and full, absolute control over the formation of shari'`ah (the comprehensive body of Islamic rules), and perfect kindness to the servants and other attributes which are not imaginable for any body other than Him the Exalted. We are not to present any reasoning for this but only point to the Holy Qur'a'n's emphasis on this fact in all occasions when it points to Allah's kindness and knowledge: "Does He not know Who He created? He it is Who made the earth smooth for you, therefore go about in the spacious sides thereof, and eat of His sustenance, and to Him is the return after death." (67:14-15) "Say: Allah suffices as a witness between me and you. Surely He is Aware of His servants, Seeing. And whomsoever Allah guides, is the follower of the right way, and whomsoever He causes to err, you shall not find for him guardians besides Him. And We will gather them together on the day of resurrection on their faces, blind and dumb and deaf. Their abode is hell, whenever it becomes allayed We will add to their burning." (17:96-97) After this introduction, we try to discuss several points pertaining to the core of the discussion with emphasis on the following subjects: 1. Major attributes of the Islamic economy, their natural character, and Islam's emphasis on them. 2. The proper grounds Islam prepares for its economic system. 3. Relationship between this system and other systems. 4. Flexibility of the Islamic economic system. Source:alhassanain.com

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